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Subject[patch 00/61] ANNOUNCE: lock validator -V1
We are pleased to announce the first release of the "lock dependency 
correctness validator" kernel debugging feature, which can be downloaded
from:

http://redhat.com/~mingo/lockdep-patches/

The easiest way to try lockdep on a testbox is to apply the combo patch
to 2.6.17-rc4-mm3. The patch order is:

http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/testing/linux-2.6.17-rc4.tar.bz2
http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/akpm/patches/2.6/2.6.17-rc4/2.6.17-rc4-mm3/2.6.17-rc4-mm3.bz2
http://redhat.com/~mingo/lockdep-patches/lockdep-combo.patch

do 'make oldconfig' and accept all the defaults for new config options -
reboot into the kernel and if everything goes well it should boot up
fine and you should have /proc/lockdep and /proc/lockdep_stats files.

Typically if the lock validator finds some problem it will print out
voluminous debug output that begins with "BUG: ..." and which syslog
output can be used by kernel developers to figure out the precise
locking scenario.

What does the lock validator do? It "observes" and maps all locking
rules as they occur dynamically (as triggered by the kernel's natural
use of spinlocks, rwlocks, mutexes and rwsems). Whenever the lock
validator subsystem detects a new locking scenario, it validates this
new rule against the existing set of rules. If this new rule is
consistent with the existing set of rules then the new rule is added
transparently and the kernel continues as normal. If the new rule could
create a deadlock scenario then this condition is printed out.

When determining validity of locking, all possible "deadlock scenarios"
are considered: assuming arbitrary number of CPUs, arbitrary irq context
and task context constellations, running arbitrary combinations of all
the existing locking scenarios. In a typical system this means millions
of separate scenarios. This is why we call it a "locking correctness"
validator - for all rules that are observed the lock validator proves it
with mathematical certainty that a deadlock could not occur (assuming
that the lock validator implementation itself is correct and its
internal data structures are not corrupted by some other kernel
subsystem). [see more details and conditionals of this statement in
include/linux/lockdep.h and Documentation/lockdep-design.txt]

Furthermore, this "all possible scenarios" property of the validator
also enables the finding of complex, highly unlikely multi-CPU
multi-context races via single single-context rules, increasing the
likelyhood of finding bugs drastically. In practical terms: the lock
validator already found a bug in the upstream kernel that could only
occur on systems with 3 or more CPUs, and which needed 3 very unlikely
code sequences to occur at once on the 3 CPUs. That bug was found and
reported on a single-CPU system (!). So in essence a race will be found
"piecemail-wise", triggering all the necessary components for the race,
without having to reproduce the race scenario itself! In its short
existence the lock validator found and reported many bugs before they
actually caused a real deadlock.

To further increase the efficiency of the validator, the mapping is not
per "lock instance", but per "lock-type". For example, all struct inode
objects in the kernel have inode->inotify_mutex. If there are 10,000
inodes cached, then there are 10,000 lock objects. But ->inotify_mutex
is a single "lock type", and all locking activities that occur against
->inotify_mutex are "unified" into this single lock-type. The advantage
of the lock-type approach is that all historical ->inotify_mutex uses
are mapped into a single (and as narrow as possible) set of locking
rules - regardless of how many different tasks or inode structures it
took to build this set of rules. The set of rules persist during the
lifetime of the kernel.

To see the rough magnitude of checking that the lock validator does,
here's a portion of /proc/lockdep_stats, fresh after bootup:

lock-types: 694 [max: 2048]
direct dependencies: 1598 [max: 8192]
indirect dependencies: 17896
all direct dependencies: 16206
dependency chains: 1910 [max: 8192]
in-hardirq chains: 17
in-softirq chains: 105
in-process chains: 1065
stack-trace entries: 38761 [max: 131072]
combined max dependencies: 2033928
hardirq-safe locks: 24
hardirq-unsafe locks: 176
softirq-safe locks: 53
softirq-unsafe locks: 137
irq-safe locks: 59
irq-unsafe locks: 176

The lock validator has observed 1598 actual single-thread locking
patterns, and has validated all possible 2033928 distinct locking
scenarios.

More details about the design of the lock validator can be found in
Documentation/lockdep-design.txt, which can also found at:

http://redhat.com/~mingo/lockdep-patches/lockdep-design.txt

The patchqueue consists of 61 patches, and the changes are quite
extensive:

215 files changed, 7693 insertions(+), 1247 deletions(-)

So be careful when testing.

We only plan to post the queue to lkml this time, we'll try to not flood
lkml with future releases. The finegrained patch-queue can be also seen
at:

http://redhat.com/~mingo/lockdep-patches/patches/

(the series file, with explanations about splitup categories of the
patches can be found attached below.)

The lock validator has been build-tested with allyesconfig, and booted
on x86 and x86_64. (Other architectures probably dont build/work yet.)

Comments, test-results, bug fixes, and improvements are welcome!

Ingo


# locking fixes (for bugs found by lockdep), not yet in mainline or -mm:

floppy-release-fix.patch
forcedeth-deadlock-fix.patch

# fixes for upstream that only triggers on lockdep:

sound_oss_emu10k1_midi-fix.patch
mutex-section-bug.patch

# locking subsystem debugging improvements:

warn-once.patch
add-module-address.patch

generic-lock-debugging.patch
locking-selftests.patch

spinlock-init-cleanups.patch
lock-init-improvement.patch
xfs-improve-mrinit-macro.patch

# stacktrace:

x86_64-beautify-stack-backtrace.patch
x86_64-document-stack-backtrace.patch
stacktrace.patch

x86_64-use-stacktrace-for-backtrace.patch

# irq-flags state tracing:

lockdep-fown-fixes.patch
lockdep-sk-callback-lock-fixes.patch
trace-irqflags.patch
trace-irqflags-cleanups-x86.patch
trace-irqflags-cleanups-x86_64.patch
local-irq-enable-in-hardirq.patch

# percpu subsystem feature needed for lockdep:

add-per-cpu-offset.patch

# lockdep subsystem core bits:

lockdep-core.patch
lockdep-proc.patch
lockdep-docs.patch

# make use of lockdep in locking subsystems:

lockdep-prove-rwsems.patch
lockdep-prove-spin_rwlocks.patch
lockdep-prove-mutexes.patch

# lockdep utility patches:

lockdep-print-types-in-sysrq.patch
lockdep-x86_64-early-init.patch
lockdep-i386-alternatives-off.patch
lockdep-printk-recursion.patch
lockdep-disable-nmi-watchdog.patch

# map all the locking details and quirks to lockdep:

lockdep-blockdev.patch
lockdep-direct-io.patch
lockdep-serial.patch
lockdep-dcache.patch
lockdep-namei.patch
lockdep-super.patch
lockdep-futex.patch
lockdep-genirq.patch
lockdep-kgdb.patch
lockdep-completions.patch
lockdep-waitqueue.patch
lockdep-mm.patch
lockdep-slab.patch

lockdep-skb_queue_head_init.patch
lockdep-timer.patch
lockdep-sched.patch
lockdep-hrtimer.patch
lockdep-sock.patch
lockdep-af_unix.patch
lockdep-lock_sock.patch
lockdep-mmap_sem.patch

lockdep-prune_dcache-workaround.patch
lockdep-jbd.patch
lockdep-posix-timers.patch
lockdep-sch_generic.patch
lockdep-xfrm.patch
lockdep-sound-seq-ports.patch

lockdep-enable-Kconfig.patch
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