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Subject[tip:locking/core] locking/qspinlock: Introduce a simple generic 4-byte queued spinlock
Commit-ID:  a33fda35e3a7655fb7df756ed67822afb5ed5e8d
Gitweb: http://git.kernel.org/tip/a33fda35e3a7655fb7df756ed67822afb5ed5e8d
Author: Waiman Long <Waiman.Long@hp.com>
AuthorDate: Fri, 24 Apr 2015 14:56:30 -0400
Committer: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
CommitDate: Fri, 8 May 2015 12:36:25 +0200

locking/qspinlock: Introduce a simple generic 4-byte queued spinlock

This patch introduces a new generic queued spinlock implementation that
can serve as an alternative to the default ticket spinlock. Compared
with the ticket spinlock, this queued spinlock should be almost as fair
as the ticket spinlock. It has about the same speed in single-thread
and it can be much faster in high contention situations especially when
the spinlock is embedded within the data structure to be protected.

Only in light to moderate contention where the average queue depth
is around 1-3 will this queued spinlock be potentially a bit slower
due to the higher slowpath overhead.

This queued spinlock is especially suit to NUMA machines with a large
number of cores as the chance of spinlock contention is much higher
in those machines. The cost of contention is also higher because of
slower inter-node memory traffic.

Due to the fact that spinlocks are acquired with preemption disabled,
the process will not be migrated to another CPU while it is trying
to get a spinlock. Ignoring interrupt handling, a CPU can only be
contending in one spinlock at any one time. Counting soft IRQ, hard
IRQ and NMI, a CPU can only have a maximum of 4 concurrent lock waiting
activities. By allocating a set of per-cpu queue nodes and used them
to form a waiting queue, we can encode the queue node address into a
much smaller 24-bit size (including CPU number and queue node index)
leaving one byte for the lock.

Please note that the queue node is only needed when waiting for the
lock. Once the lock is acquired, the queue node can be released to
be used later.

Signed-off-by: Waiman Long <Waiman.Long@hp.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Boris Ostrovsky <boris.ostrovsky@oracle.com>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Daniel J Blueman <daniel@numascale.com>
Cc: David Vrabel <david.vrabel@citrix.com>
Cc: Douglas Hatch <doug.hatch@hp.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Paolo Bonzini <paolo.bonzini@gmail.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Scott J Norton <scott.norton@hp.com>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: virtualization@lists.linux-foundation.org
Cc: xen-devel@lists.xenproject.org
Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1429901803-29771-2-git-send-email-Waiman.Long@hp.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
---
include/asm-generic/qspinlock.h | 132 +++++++++++++++++++++
include/asm-generic/qspinlock_types.h | 58 ++++++++++
kernel/Kconfig.locks | 7 ++
kernel/locking/Makefile | 1 +
kernel/locking/mcs_spinlock.h | 1 +
kernel/locking/qspinlock.c | 209 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
6 files changed, 408 insertions(+)

diff --git a/include/asm-generic/qspinlock.h b/include/asm-generic/qspinlock.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..569abcd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/asm-generic/qspinlock.h
@@ -0,0 +1,132 @@
+/*
+ * Queued spinlock
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * (C) Copyright 2013-2015 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
+ *
+ * Authors: Waiman Long <waiman.long@hp.com>
+ */
+#ifndef __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_H
+#define __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_H
+
+#include <asm-generic/qspinlock_types.h>
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_is_locked - is the spinlock locked?
+ * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ * Return: 1 if it is locked, 0 otherwise
+ */
+static __always_inline int queued_spin_is_locked(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ return atomic_read(&lock->val);
+}
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_value_unlocked - is the spinlock structure unlocked?
+ * @lock: queued spinlock structure
+ * Return: 1 if it is unlocked, 0 otherwise
+ *
+ * N.B. Whenever there are tasks waiting for the lock, it is considered
+ * locked wrt the lockref code to avoid lock stealing by the lockref
+ * code and change things underneath the lock. This also allows some
+ * optimizations to be applied without conflict with lockref.
+ */
+static __always_inline int queued_spin_value_unlocked(struct qspinlock lock)
+{
+ return !atomic_read(&lock.val);
+}
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_is_contended - check if the lock is contended
+ * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ * Return: 1 if lock contended, 0 otherwise
+ */
+static __always_inline int queued_spin_is_contended(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ return atomic_read(&lock->val) & ~_Q_LOCKED_MASK;
+}
+/**
+ * queued_spin_trylock - try to acquire the queued spinlock
+ * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ * Return: 1 if lock acquired, 0 if failed
+ */
+static __always_inline int queued_spin_trylock(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ if (!atomic_read(&lock->val) &&
+ (atomic_cmpxchg(&lock->val, 0, _Q_LOCKED_VAL) == 0))
+ return 1;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+extern void queued_spin_lock_slowpath(struct qspinlock *lock, u32 val);
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_lock - acquire a queued spinlock
+ * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ */
+static __always_inline void queued_spin_lock(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ u32 val;
+
+ val = atomic_cmpxchg(&lock->val, 0, _Q_LOCKED_VAL);
+ if (likely(val == 0))
+ return;
+ queued_spin_lock_slowpath(lock, val);
+}
+
+#ifndef queued_spin_unlock
+/**
+ * queued_spin_unlock - release a queued spinlock
+ * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ */
+static __always_inline void queued_spin_unlock(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ /*
+ * smp_mb__before_atomic() in order to guarantee release semantics
+ */
+ smp_mb__before_atomic_dec();
+ atomic_sub(_Q_LOCKED_VAL, &lock->val);
+}
+#endif
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_unlock_wait - wait until current lock holder releases the lock
+ * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ *
+ * There is a very slight possibility of live-lock if the lockers keep coming
+ * and the waiter is just unfortunate enough to not see any unlock state.
+ */
+static inline void queued_spin_unlock_wait(struct qspinlock *lock)
+{
+ while (atomic_read(&lock->val) & _Q_LOCKED_MASK)
+ cpu_relax();
+}
+
+/*
+ * Initializier
+ */
+#define __ARCH_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED { ATOMIC_INIT(0) }
+
+/*
+ * Remapping spinlock architecture specific functions to the corresponding
+ * queued spinlock functions.
+ */
+#define arch_spin_is_locked(l) queued_spin_is_locked(l)
+#define arch_spin_is_contended(l) queued_spin_is_contended(l)
+#define arch_spin_value_unlocked(l) queued_spin_value_unlocked(l)
+#define arch_spin_lock(l) queued_spin_lock(l)
+#define arch_spin_trylock(l) queued_spin_trylock(l)
+#define arch_spin_unlock(l) queued_spin_unlock(l)
+#define arch_spin_lock_flags(l, f) queued_spin_lock(l)
+#define arch_spin_unlock_wait(l) queued_spin_unlock_wait(l)
+
+#endif /* __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_H */
diff --git a/include/asm-generic/qspinlock_types.h b/include/asm-generic/qspinlock_types.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aec05c7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/asm-generic/qspinlock_types.h
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+/*
+ * Queued spinlock
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * (C) Copyright 2013-2015 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
+ *
+ * Authors: Waiman Long <waiman.long@hp.com>
+ */
+#ifndef __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_TYPES_H
+#define __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_TYPES_H
+
+/*
+ * Including atomic.h with PARAVIRT on will cause compilation errors because
+ * of recursive header file incluson via paravirt_types.h. So don't include
+ * it if PARAVIRT is on.
+ */
+#ifndef CONFIG_PARAVIRT
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/atomic.h>
+#endif
+
+typedef struct qspinlock {
+ atomic_t val;
+} arch_spinlock_t;
+
+/*
+ * Bitfields in the atomic value:
+ *
+ * 0- 7: locked byte
+ * 8- 9: tail index
+ * 10-31: tail cpu (+1)
+ */
+#define _Q_SET_MASK(type) (((1U << _Q_ ## type ## _BITS) - 1)\
+ << _Q_ ## type ## _OFFSET)
+#define _Q_LOCKED_OFFSET 0
+#define _Q_LOCKED_BITS 8
+#define _Q_LOCKED_MASK _Q_SET_MASK(LOCKED)
+
+#define _Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET (_Q_LOCKED_OFFSET + _Q_LOCKED_BITS)
+#define _Q_TAIL_IDX_BITS 2
+#define _Q_TAIL_IDX_MASK _Q_SET_MASK(TAIL_IDX)
+
+#define _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET (_Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET + _Q_TAIL_IDX_BITS)
+#define _Q_TAIL_CPU_BITS (32 - _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET)
+#define _Q_TAIL_CPU_MASK _Q_SET_MASK(TAIL_CPU)
+
+#define _Q_LOCKED_VAL (1U << _Q_LOCKED_OFFSET)
+
+#endif /* __ASM_GENERIC_QSPINLOCK_TYPES_H */
diff --git a/kernel/Kconfig.locks b/kernel/Kconfig.locks
index 08561f1..95fdad8 100644
--- a/kernel/Kconfig.locks
+++ b/kernel/Kconfig.locks
@@ -235,6 +235,13 @@ config LOCK_SPIN_ON_OWNER
def_bool y
depends on MUTEX_SPIN_ON_OWNER || RWSEM_SPIN_ON_OWNER

+config ARCH_USE_QUEUED_SPINLOCK
+ bool
+
+config QUEUED_SPINLOCK
+ def_bool y if ARCH_USE_QUEUED_SPINLOCK
+ depends on SMP && !PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS
+
config ARCH_USE_QUEUE_RWLOCK
bool

diff --git a/kernel/locking/Makefile b/kernel/locking/Makefile
index de7a416..abfcef3 100644
--- a/kernel/locking/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/locking/Makefile
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += spinlock.o
obj-$(CONFIG_LOCK_SPIN_ON_OWNER) += osq_lock.o
obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += lglock.o
obj-$(CONFIG_PROVE_LOCKING) += spinlock.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_QUEUED_SPINLOCK) += qspinlock.o
obj-$(CONFIG_RT_MUTEXES) += rtmutex.o
obj-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_RT_MUTEXES) += rtmutex-debug.o
obj-$(CONFIG_RT_MUTEX_TESTER) += rtmutex-tester.o
diff --git a/kernel/locking/mcs_spinlock.h b/kernel/locking/mcs_spinlock.h
index 75e114b..fd91aaa 100644
--- a/kernel/locking/mcs_spinlock.h
+++ b/kernel/locking/mcs_spinlock.h
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
struct mcs_spinlock {
struct mcs_spinlock *next;
int locked; /* 1 if lock acquired */
+ int count; /* nesting count, see qspinlock.c */
};

#ifndef arch_mcs_spin_lock_contended
diff --git a/kernel/locking/qspinlock.c b/kernel/locking/qspinlock.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..029b51c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/locking/qspinlock.c
@@ -0,0 +1,209 @@
+/*
+ * Queued spinlock
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * (C) Copyright 2013-2015 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
+ * (C) Copyright 2013-2014 Red Hat, Inc.
+ * (C) Copyright 2015 Intel Corp.
+ *
+ * Authors: Waiman Long <waiman.long@hp.com>
+ * Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
+ */
+#include <linux/smp.h>
+#include <linux/bug.h>
+#include <linux/cpumask.h>
+#include <linux/percpu.h>
+#include <linux/hardirq.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include <asm/qspinlock.h>
+
+/*
+ * The basic principle of a queue-based spinlock can best be understood
+ * by studying a classic queue-based spinlock implementation called the
+ * MCS lock. The paper below provides a good description for this kind
+ * of lock.
+ *
+ * http://www.cise.ufl.edu/tr/DOC/REP-1992-71.pdf
+ *
+ * This queued spinlock implementation is based on the MCS lock, however to make
+ * it fit the 4 bytes we assume spinlock_t to be, and preserve its existing
+ * API, we must modify it somehow.
+ *
+ * In particular; where the traditional MCS lock consists of a tail pointer
+ * (8 bytes) and needs the next pointer (another 8 bytes) of its own node to
+ * unlock the next pending (next->locked), we compress both these: {tail,
+ * next->locked} into a single u32 value.
+ *
+ * Since a spinlock disables recursion of its own context and there is a limit
+ * to the contexts that can nest; namely: task, softirq, hardirq, nmi. As there
+ * are at most 4 nesting levels, it can be encoded by a 2-bit number. Now
+ * we can encode the tail by combining the 2-bit nesting level with the cpu
+ * number. With one byte for the lock value and 3 bytes for the tail, only a
+ * 32-bit word is now needed. Even though we only need 1 bit for the lock,
+ * we extend it to a full byte to achieve better performance for architectures
+ * that support atomic byte write.
+ *
+ * We also change the first spinner to spin on the lock bit instead of its
+ * node; whereby avoiding the need to carry a node from lock to unlock, and
+ * preserving existing lock API. This also makes the unlock code simpler and
+ * faster.
+ */
+
+#include "mcs_spinlock.h"
+
+/*
+ * Per-CPU queue node structures; we can never have more than 4 nested
+ * contexts: task, softirq, hardirq, nmi.
+ *
+ * Exactly fits one 64-byte cacheline on a 64-bit architecture.
+ */
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU_ALIGNED(struct mcs_spinlock, mcs_nodes[4]);
+
+/*
+ * We must be able to distinguish between no-tail and the tail at 0:0,
+ * therefore increment the cpu number by one.
+ */
+
+static inline u32 encode_tail(int cpu, int idx)
+{
+ u32 tail;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK
+ BUG_ON(idx > 3);
+#endif
+ tail = (cpu + 1) << _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET;
+ tail |= idx << _Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET; /* assume < 4 */
+
+ return tail;
+}
+
+static inline struct mcs_spinlock *decode_tail(u32 tail)
+{
+ int cpu = (tail >> _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET) - 1;
+ int idx = (tail & _Q_TAIL_IDX_MASK) >> _Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET;
+
+ return per_cpu_ptr(&mcs_nodes[idx], cpu);
+}
+
+/**
+ * queued_spin_lock_slowpath - acquire the queued spinlock
+ * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
+ * @val: Current value of the queued spinlock 32-bit word
+ *
+ * (queue tail, lock value)
+ *
+ * fast : slow : unlock
+ * : :
+ * uncontended (0,0) --:--> (0,1) --------------------------------:--> (*,0)
+ * : | ^--------. / :
+ * : v \ | :
+ * uncontended : (n,x) --+--> (n,0) | :
+ * queue : | ^--' | :
+ * : v | :
+ * contended : (*,x) --+--> (*,0) -----> (*,1) ---' :
+ * queue : ^--' :
+ *
+ */
+void queued_spin_lock_slowpath(struct qspinlock *lock, u32 val)
+{
+ struct mcs_spinlock *prev, *next, *node;
+ u32 new, old, tail;
+ int idx;
+
+ BUILD_BUG_ON(CONFIG_NR_CPUS >= (1U << _Q_TAIL_CPU_BITS));
+
+ node = this_cpu_ptr(&mcs_nodes[0]);
+ idx = node->count++;
+ tail = encode_tail(smp_processor_id(), idx);
+
+ node += idx;
+ node->locked = 0;
+ node->next = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * trylock || xchg(lock, node)
+ *
+ * 0,0 -> 0,1 ; no tail, not locked -> no tail, locked.
+ * p,x -> n,x ; tail was p -> tail is n; preserving locked.
+ */
+ for (;;) {
+ new = _Q_LOCKED_VAL;
+ if (val)
+ new = tail | (val & _Q_LOCKED_MASK);
+
+ old = atomic_cmpxchg(&lock->val, val, new);
+ if (old == val)
+ break;
+
+ val = old;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * we won the trylock; forget about queueing.
+ */
+ if (new == _Q_LOCKED_VAL)
+ goto release;
+
+ /*
+ * if there was a previous node; link it and wait until reaching the
+ * head of the waitqueue.
+ */
+ if (old & ~_Q_LOCKED_MASK) {
+ prev = decode_tail(old);
+ WRITE_ONCE(prev->next, node);
+
+ arch_mcs_spin_lock_contended(&node->locked);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * we're at the head of the waitqueue, wait for the owner to go away.
+ *
+ * *,x -> *,0
+ */
+ while ((val = atomic_read(&lock->val)) & _Q_LOCKED_MASK)
+ cpu_relax();
+
+ /*
+ * claim the lock:
+ *
+ * n,0 -> 0,1 : lock, uncontended
+ * *,0 -> *,1 : lock, contended
+ */
+ for (;;) {
+ new = _Q_LOCKED_VAL;
+ if (val != tail)
+ new |= val;
+
+ old = atomic_cmpxchg(&lock->val, val, new);
+ if (old == val)
+ break;
+
+ val = old;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * contended path; wait for next, release.
+ */
+ if (new != _Q_LOCKED_VAL) {
+ while (!(next = READ_ONCE(node->next)))
+ cpu_relax();
+
+ arch_mcs_spin_unlock_contended(&next->locked);
+ }
+
+release:
+ /*
+ * release the node
+ */
+ this_cpu_dec(mcs_nodes[0].count);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(queued_spin_lock_slowpath);

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