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Subject[RFC v6 0/7] Implement Data Access Monitoring-based Memory Operation Schemes
Date
From: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>

DAMON[1] can be used as a primitive for data access awared memory management
optimizations. That said, users who want such optimizations should run DAMON,
read the monitoring results, analyze it, plan a new memory management scheme,
and apply the new scheme by themselves. Such efforts will be inevitable for
some complicated optimizations.

However, in many other cases, the users would simply want the system to apply a
memory management action to a memory region of a specific size having a
specific access frequency for a specific time. For example, "page out a memory
region larger than 100 MiB keeping only rare accesses more than 2 minutes", or
"Do not use THP for a memory region larger than 2 MiB rarely accessed for more
than 1 seconds".

This RFC patchset makes DAMON to handle such data access monitoring-based
operation schemes. With this change, users can do the data access awared
optimizations by simply specifying their schemes to DAMON.


Evaluations
===========

Setup
-----

On my personal QEMU/KVM based virtual machine on an Intel i7 host machine
running Ubuntu 18.04, I measure runtime and consumed system memory while
running various realistic workloads with several configurations. I use 13 and
12 workloads in PARSEC3[3] and SPLASH-2X[4] benchmark suites, respectively. I
personally use another wrapper scripts[5] for setup and run of the workloads.
On top of this patchset, we also applied the DAMON-based operation schemes
patchset[6] for this evaluation.

Measurement
~~~~~~~~~~~

For the measurement of the amount of consumed memory in system global scope, I
drop caches before starting each of the workloads and monitor 'MemFree' in the
'/proc/meminfo' file. To make results more stable, I repeat the runs 5 times
and average results. You can get stdev, min, and max of the numbers among the
repeated runs in appendix below.

Configurations
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The configurations I use are as below.

orig: Linux v5.5 with 'madvise' THP policy
rec: 'orig' plus DAMON running with record feature
thp: same with 'orig', but use 'always' THP policy
ethp: 'orig' plus a DAMON operation scheme[6], 'efficient THP'
prcl: 'orig' plus a DAMON operation scheme, 'proactive reclaim[7]'

I use 'rec' for measurement of DAMON overheads to target workloads and system
memory. The remaining configs including 'thp', 'ethp', and 'prcl' are for
measurement of DAMON monitoring accuracy.

'ethp' and 'prcl' is simple DAMON-based operation schemes developed for
proof of concepts of DAMON. 'ethp' reduces memory space waste of THP by using
DAMON for decision of promotions and demotion for huge pages, while 'prcl' is
as similar as the original work. Those are implemented as below:

# format: <min/max size> <min/max frequency (0-100)> <min/max age> <action>
# ethp: Use huge pages if a region >2MB shows >5% access rate, use regular
# pages if a region >2MB shows <5% access rate for >1 second
2M null 5 null null null hugepage
2M null null 5 1s null nohugepage

# prcl: If a region >4KB shows <5% access rate for >5 seconds, page out.
4K null null 5 500ms null pageout

Note that both 'ethp' and 'prcl' are designed with my only straightforward
intuition, because those are for only proof of concepts and monitoring accuracy
of DAMON. In other words, those are not for production. For production use,
those should be tuned more.


[1] "Redis latency problems troubleshooting", https://redis.io/topics/latency
[2] "Disable Transparent Huge Pages (THP)",
https://docs.mongodb.com/manual/tutorial/transparent-huge-pages/
[3] "The PARSEC Becnhmark Suite", https://parsec.cs.princeton.edu/index.htm
[4] "SPLASH-2x", https://parsec.cs.princeton.edu/parsec3-doc.htm#splash2x
[5] "parsec3_on_ubuntu", https://github.com/sjp38/parsec3_on_ubuntu
[6] "[RFC v4 0/7] Implement Data Access Monitoring-based Memory Operation
Schemes",
https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200303121406.20954-1-sjpark@amazon.com/
[7] "Proactively reclaiming idle memory", https://lwn.net/Articles/787611/


Results
-------

Below two tables show the measurement results. The runtimes are in seconds
while the memory usages are in KiB. Each configurations except 'orig' shows
its overhead relative to 'orig' in percent within parenthesises.

runtime orig rec (overhead) thp (overhead) ethp (overhead) prcl (overhead)
parsec3/blackscholes 107.097 106.955 (-0.13) 106.352 (-0.70) 107.357 (0.24) 108.284 (1.11)
parsec3/bodytrack 79.135 79.062 (-0.09) 78.996 (-0.18) 79.261 (0.16) 79.824 (0.87)
parsec3/canneal 139.036 139.694 (0.47) 125.947 (-9.41) 131.071 (-5.73) 148.648 (6.91)
parsec3/dedup 11.914 11.905 (-0.07) 11.729 (-1.55) 11.916 (0.02) 12.613 (5.87)
parsec3/facesim 208.761 209.476 (0.34) 204.778 (-1.91) 206.157 (-1.25) 214.016 (2.52)
parsec3/ferret 190.854 191.309 (0.24) 190.223 (-0.33) 190.821 (-0.02) 191.847 (0.52)
parsec3/fluidanimate 211.317 213.798 (1.17) 208.883 (-1.15) 211.319 (0.00) 214.566 (1.54)
parsec3/freqmine 288.672 290.547 (0.65) 288.310 (-0.13) 288.727 (0.02) 292.294 (1.25)
parsec3/raytrace 118.692 119.443 (0.63) 118.625 (-0.06) 118.986 (0.25) 129.942 (9.48)
parsec3/streamcluster 323.387 327.244 (1.19) 284.931 (-11.89) 290.604 (-10.14) 330.111 (2.08)
parsec3/swaptions 154.304 154.891 (0.38) 154.373 (0.04) 155.226 (0.60) 155.338 (0.67)
parsec3/vips 58.879 59.254 (0.64) 58.459 (-0.71) 59.029 (0.25) 59.761 (1.50)
parsec3/x264 71.805 68.718 (-4.30) 67.262 (-6.33) 69.494 (-3.22) 71.291 (-0.72)
splash2x/barnes 80.624 80.680 (0.07) 74.538 (-7.55) 78.363 (-2.80) 86.373 (7.13)
splash2x/fft 33.462 33.285 (-0.53) 23.146 (-30.83) 33.306 (-0.47) 35.311 (5.53)
splash2x/lu_cb 85.474 85.681 (0.24) 84.516 (-1.12) 85.525 (0.06) 87.267 (2.10)
splash2x/lu_ncb 93.227 93.211 (-0.02) 90.939 (-2.45) 93.526 (0.32) 94.409 (1.27)
splash2x/ocean_cp 44.348 44.668 (0.72) 42.920 (-3.22) 44.128 (-0.50) 45.785 (3.24)
splash2x/ocean_ncp 81.234 81.275 (0.05) 51.441 (-36.67) 64.974 (-20.02) 94.207 (15.97)
splash2x/radiosity 90.976 91.131 (0.17) 90.325 (-0.72) 91.395 (0.46) 97.867 (7.57)
splash2x/radix 31.269 31.185 (-0.27) 25.103 (-19.72) 29.289 (-6.33) 37.713 (20.61)
splash2x/raytrace 83.945 84.242 (0.35) 82.314 (-1.94) 83.334 (-0.73) 84.655 (0.85)
splash2x/volrend 86.703 87.545 (0.97) 86.324 (-0.44) 86.717 (0.02) 87.925 (1.41)
splash2x/water_nsquared 230.426 232.979 (1.11) 219.950 (-4.55) 224.474 (-2.58) 235.770 (2.32)
splash2x/water_spatial 88.982 89.748 (0.86) 89.086 (0.12) 89.431 (0.50) 95.849 (7.72)
total 2994.520 3007.910 (0.45) 2859.470 (-4.51) 2924.420 (-2.34) 3091.670 (3.24)


memused.avg orig rec (overhead) thp (overhead) ethp (overhead) prcl (overhead)
parsec3/blackscholes 1821479.200 1836018.600 (0.80) 1822020.600 (0.03) 1834214.200 (0.70) 1721607.800 (-5.48)
parsec3/bodytrack 1418698.400 1434689.800 (1.13) 1419134.400 (0.03) 1430609.800 (0.84) 1433137.600 (1.02)
parsec3/canneal 1045065.400 1052992.400 (0.76) 1042607.400 (-0.24) 1048730.400 (0.35) 1049446.000 (0.42)
parsec3/dedup 2387073.200 2425093.600 (1.59) 2398469.600 (0.48) 2416738.400 (1.24) 2433976.800 (1.96)
parsec3/facesim 540075.800 554130.000 (2.60) 544759.400 (0.87) 553325.800 (2.45) 489255.600 (-9.41)
parsec3/ferret 316932.800 331383.600 (4.56) 320355.800 (1.08) 331042.000 (4.45) 328275.600 (3.58)
parsec3/fluidanimate 576466.400 587466.600 (1.91) 582737.000 (1.09) 582560.600 (1.06) 499228.800 (-13.40)
parsec3/freqmine 985864.000 996351.800 (1.06) 990195.000 (0.44) 997435.400 (1.17) 809333.800 (-17.91)
parsec3/raytrace 1749485.600 1753601.400 (0.24) 1744385.000 (-0.29) 1755230.400 (0.33) 1597574.400 (-8.68)
parsec3/streamcluster 120976.200 133270.000 (10.16) 118688.200 (-1.89) 132846.800 (9.81) 133412.400 (10.28)
parsec3/swaptions 14953.600 28689.400 (91.86) 15826.000 (5.83) 26803.000 (79.24) 27754.400 (85.60)
parsec3/vips 2940086.400 2965866.800 (0.88) 2943217.200 (0.11) 2960823.600 (0.71) 2968121.000 (0.95)
parsec3/x264 3179843.200 3186839.600 (0.22) 3175893.600 (-0.12) 3182023.400 (0.07) 3202598.000 (0.72)
splash2x/barnes 1210899.200 1211648.600 (0.06) 1219328.800 (0.70) 1217686.000 (0.56) 1126669.000 (-6.96)
splash2x/fft 9322834.800 9142039.200 (-1.94) 9183937.800 (-1.49) 9159042.800 (-1.76) 9321729.200 (-0.01)
splash2x/lu_cb 515411.200 523698.400 (1.61) 521019.800 (1.09) 523047.400 (1.48) 461828.400 (-10.40)
splash2x/lu_ncb 514869.000 525223.000 (2.01) 521820.600 (1.35) 522588.800 (1.50) 480118.400 (-6.75)
splash2x/ocean_cp 3345433.400 3298946.800 (-1.39) 3377377.000 (0.95) 3289771.600 (-1.66) 3273329.800 (-2.16)
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3902999.600 3873302.600 (-0.76) 7069853.000 (81.14) 4962220.800 (27.14) 3772835.600 (-3.33)
splash2x/radiosity 1471551.000 1470698.600 (-0.06) 1481433.200 (0.67) 1466283.400 (-0.36) 838138.400 (-43.04)
splash2x/radix 1700185.000 1674226.400 (-1.53) 1386397.600 (-18.46) 1544387.800 (-9.16) 1957567.600 (15.14)
splash2x/raytrace 45493.800 57050.800 (25.40) 50134.000 (10.20) 60166.400 (32.25) 57634.000 (26.69)
splash2x/volrend 150549.200 165190.600 (9.73) 151509.600 (0.64) 162845.000 (8.17) 161346.000 (7.17)
splash2x/water_nsquared 46275.200 58483.600 (26.38) 71529.200 (54.57) 56770.200 (22.68) 59995.800 (29.65)
splash2x/water_spatial 666577.200 672511.800 (0.89) 667422.200 (0.13) 674555.000 (1.20) 608374.000 (-8.73)
total 39990000.000 39959400.000 (-0.08) 42819900.000 (7.08) 40891655.000 (2.25) 38813174.000 (-2.94)


DAMON Overheads
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In total, DAMON recording feature incurs 0.41% runtime overhead (up to 1.19% in
worst case with 'parsec3/streamcluster') and -0.08% memory space overhead.

For convenience test run of 'rec', I use a Python wrapper. The wrapper
constantly consumes about 10-15MB of memory. This becomes high memory overhead
if the target workload has small memory footprint. In detail, 10%, 91%, 25%,
9%, and 26% overheads shown for parsec3/streamcluster (125 MiB),
parsec3/swaptions (15 MiB), splash2x/raytrace (45 MiB), splash2x/volrend (151
MiB), and splash2x/water_nsquared (46 MiB)). Nonetheless, the overheads are
not from DAMON, but from the wrapper, and thus should be ignored. This fake
memory overhead continues in 'ethp' and 'prcl', as those configurations are
also using the Python wrapper.


Efficient THP
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

THP 'always' enabled policy achieves 4.51% speedup but incurs 7.08% memory
overhead. It achieves 36.67% speedup in best case, but 81.14% memory overhead
in worst case. Interestingly, both the best and worst case are with
'splash2x/ocean_ncp').

The 2-lines implementation of data access monitoring based THP version ('ethp')
shows 2.34% speedup and 2.25% memory overhead. In other words, 'ethp' removes
68.22% of THP memory waste while preserving 51.88% of THP speedup in total. In
case of the 'splash2x/ocean_ncp', 'ethp' removes 66.55% of THP memory waste
while preserving 74% of THP speedup.


Proactive Reclamation
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

As same to the original work, I use 'zram' swap device for this configuration.

In total, our 1 line implementation of Proactive Reclamation, 'prcl', incurred
3.24% runtime overhead in total while achieving 2.94% system memory usage
reduction.

Nonetheless, as the memory usage is calculated with 'MemFree' in
'/proc/meminfo', it contains the SwapCached pages. As the swapcached pages can
be easily evicted, I also measured the residential set size of the workloads:

rss.avg orig rec (overhead) thp (overhead) ethp (overhead) prcl (overhead)
parsec3/blackscholes 589877.400 591587.600 (0.29) 593797.000 (0.66) 591090.800 (0.21) 424841.800 (-27.98)
parsec3/bodytrack 32326.600 32289.800 (-0.11) 32284.000 (-0.13) 32249.600 (-0.24) 28931.800 (-10.50)
parsec3/canneal 839469.400 840116.600 (0.08) 838083.800 (-0.17) 837870.400 (-0.19) 833193.800 (-0.75)
parsec3/dedup 1194881.800 1207486.800 (1.05) 1217461.000 (1.89) 1225107.000 (2.53) 995459.400 (-16.69)
parsec3/facesim 311416.600 311812.800 (0.13) 314923.000 (1.13) 312525.200 (0.36) 195057.600 (-37.36)
parsec3/ferret 99787.800 99655.400 (-0.13) 101332.800 (1.55) 99820.400 (0.03) 93295.000 (-6.51)
parsec3/fluidanimate 531801.600 531784.800 (-0.00) 531775.400 (-0.00) 531928.600 (0.02) 432113.400 (-18.75)
parsec3/freqmine 552404.600 553054.400 (0.12) 555716.400 (0.60) 554045.600 (0.30) 157776.200 (-71.44)
parsec3/raytrace 894502.400 892753.600 (-0.20) 888306.200 (-0.69) 892790.600 (-0.19) 374962.600 (-58.08)
parsec3/streamcluster 110877.200 110846.400 (-0.03) 111255.400 (0.34) 111467.600 (0.53) 110063.400 (-0.73)
parsec3/swaptions 5637.600 5611.600 (-0.46) 5621.400 (-0.29) 5630.200 (-0.13) 4594.800 (-18.50)
parsec3/vips 31897.600 31803.800 (-0.29) 32336.400 (1.38) 32168.000 (0.85) 30496.800 (-4.39)
parsec3/x264 82068.400 81975.600 (-0.11) 83066.400 (1.22) 82656.400 (0.72) 80752.400 (-1.60)
splash2x/barnes 1210976.600 1215669.400 (0.39) 1224071.200 (1.08) 1219203.200 (0.68) 1047794.600 (-13.48)
splash2x/fft 9714139.000 9623503.600 (-0.93) 9523996.200 (-1.96) 9555242.400 (-1.64) 9050047.000 (-6.84)
splash2x/lu_cb 510368.800 510468.800 (0.02) 514496.800 (0.81) 510299.200 (-0.01) 445912.000 (-12.63)
splash2x/lu_ncb 510149.600 510325.600 (0.03) 513899.000 (0.73) 510331.200 (0.04) 465811.200 (-8.69)
splash2x/ocean_cp 3407224.400 3405827.200 (-0.04) 3437758.400 (0.90) 3394473.000 (-0.37) 3334869.600 (-2.12)
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3919511.200 3934023.000 (0.37) 7181317.200 (83.22) 5074390.600 (29.46) 3560788.200 (-9.15)
splash2x/radiosity 1474982.000 1476292.400 (0.09) 1485884.000 (0.74) 1474162.800 (-0.06) 695592.400 (-52.84)
splash2x/radix 1765313.200 1752605.000 (-0.72) 1440052.200 (-18.43) 1662186.600 (-5.84) 1888954.800 (7.00)
splash2x/raytrace 23277.600 23289.600 (0.05) 29185.600 (25.38) 26960.600 (15.82) 21139.400 (-9.19)
splash2x/volrend 44110.600 44069.200 (-0.09) 44321.600 (0.48) 44436.000 (0.74) 28610.400 (-35.14)
splash2x/water_nsquared 29412.800 29443.200 (0.10) 29470.000 (0.19) 29894.600 (1.64) 27927.800 (-5.05)
splash2x/water_spatial 655785.200 656694.400 (0.14) 655665.200 (-0.02) 656572.000 (0.12) 558691.000 (-14.81)
total 28542100.000 28472900.000 (-0.24) 31386000.000 (9.96) 29467572.000 (3.24) 24887691.000 (-12.80)

In total, 12.80% of residential sets were reduced.

With parsec3/freqmine, 'prcl' reduced 17.91% of system memory usage and 71.44%
of residential sets while incurring only 1.25% runtime overhead.


Sequence Of Patches
===================

The patches are based on the v5.6 plus v8 DAMON patchset[1] and Minchan's
``do_madvise()`` patch[2]. Minchan's patch was necessary for reuse of
``madvise()`` code in DAMON. You can also clone the complete git tree:

$ git clone git://github.com/sjp38/linux -b damos/rfc/v6

The web is also available:
https://github.com/sjp38/linux/releases/tag/damos/rfc/v6


[1] https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200406130938.14066-1-sjpark@amazon.com/
[2] https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200302193630.68771-2-minchan@kernel.org/

The first patch allows DAMON to reuse ``madvise()`` code for the actions. The
second patch accounts age of each region. The third patch implements the
handling of the schemes in DAMON and exports a kernel space programming
interface for it. The fourth patch implements a debugfs interface for the
privileged people and programs. The fifth and sixth patches each adds kunit
tests and selftests for these changes, and finally the seventhe patch adds
human friendly schemes support to the user space tool for DAMON.


Patch History
=============

Changes from RFC v5
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200330115042.17431-1-sjpark@amazon.com/)
- Rebase on DAMON v8 patchset
- Update test results
- Fix DAMON userspace tool crash on signal handling
- Fix checkpatch warnings

Changes from RFC v4
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200303121406.20954-1-sjpark@amazon.com/)
- Handle CONFIG_ADVISE_SYSCALL
- Clean up code (Jonathan Cameron)
- Update test results
- Rebase on v5.6 + DAMON v7

Changes from RFC v3
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200225102300.23895-1-sjpark@amazon.com/)
- Add Reviewed-by from Brendan Higgins
- Code cleanup: Modularize madvise() call
- Fix a trivial bug in the wrapper python script
- Add more stable and detailed evaluation results with updated ETHP scheme

Changes from RFC v2
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200218085309.18346-1-sjpark@amazon.com/)
- Fix aging mechanism for more better 'old region' selection
- Add more kunittests and kselftests for this patchset
- Support more human friedly description and application of 'schemes'

Changes from RFC v1
(https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20200210150921.32482-1-sjpark@amazon.com/)
- Properly adjust age accounting related properties after splitting, merging,
and action applying

SeongJae Park (7):
mm/madvise: Export do_madvise() to external GPL modules
mm/damon: Account age of target regions
mm/damon: Implement data access monitoring-based operation schemes
mm/damon/schemes: Implement a debugfs interface
mm/damon-test: Add kunit test case for regions age accounting
mm/damon/selftests: Add 'schemes' debugfs tests
damon/tools: Support more human friendly 'schemes' control

include/linux/damon.h | 29 ++
mm/damon-test.h | 5 +
mm/damon.c | 428 +++++++++++++++++-
mm/madvise.c | 1 +
tools/damon/_convert_damos.py | 126 ++++++
tools/damon/_damon.py | 143 ++++++
tools/damon/damo | 7 +
tools/damon/record.py | 135 +-----
tools/damon/schemes.py | 105 +++++
.../testing/selftests/damon/debugfs_attrs.sh | 29 ++
10 files changed, 879 insertions(+), 129 deletions(-)
create mode 100755 tools/damon/_convert_damos.py
create mode 100644 tools/damon/_damon.py
create mode 100644 tools/damon/schemes.py

--
2.17.1

==================================== >8 =======================================

Appendix: Stdev / min / max numbers among the repeated runs
===========================================================

Below are stdev/min/max of each number in the 5 repeated runs.

runtime_stdev orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 0.968 0.344 0.942 0.686 0.998
parsec3/bodytrack 0.774 0.480 0.703 0.554 0.811
parsec3/canneal 4.788 2.858 5.790 5.472 2.740
parsec3/dedup 0.039 0.081 0.069 0.034 0.805
parsec3/facesim 2.443 1.540 1.440 1.104 1.456
parsec3/ferret 1.290 1.120 1.215 0.740 0.425
parsec3/fluidanimate 1.684 2.888 1.106 1.372 0.927
parsec3/freqmine 1.871 1.858 1.625 1.287 2.066
parsec3/raytrace 0.858 0.906 0.294 0.994 1.362
parsec3/streamcluster 3.142 1.918 1.667 2.388 2.288
parsec3/swaptions 1.168 1.097 1.340 0.678 0.820
parsec3/vips 0.243 0.689 0.306 0.372 0.799
parsec3/x264 4.312 4.370 5.466 4.908 6.697
splash2x/barnes 0.653 0.831 0.527 0.643 6.632
splash2x/fft 0.162 0.349 0.545 0.130 2.109
splash2x/lu_cb 0.868 0.632 0.342 0.544 1.081
splash2x/lu_ncb 1.267 0.853 1.939 1.020 1.031
splash2x/ocean_cp 0.191 0.264 0.361 0.330 1.497
splash2x/ocean_ncp 0.700 0.778 0.625 10.773 8.483
splash2x/radiosity 0.735 0.168 0.522 0.542 1.524
splash2x/radix 0.087 0.170 0.071 2.221 6.093
splash2x/raytrace 0.670 0.435 0.490 0.641 0.789
splash2x/volrend 0.510 0.917 0.941 0.467 1.265
splash2x/water_nsquared 1.030 1.523 3.348 2.123 3.088
splash2x/water_spatial 0.608 0.918 0.906 0.445 3.970


memused.avg_stdev orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 7177.041 457.804 4383.605 4348.211 90410.681
parsec3/bodytrack 5242.897 6320.575 5683.372 6394.144 5840.731
parsec3/canneal 3184.229 1720.154 2376.988 5711.706 2700.059
parsec3/dedup 75174.152 60494.403 53569.224 68923.064 47926.768
parsec3/facesim 1541.295 540.054 975.971 2177.974 6268.291
parsec3/ferret 2548.279 3327.212 3115.638 2743.695 2488.756
parsec3/fluidanimate 2285.138 454.034 11107.196 4070.637 32511.547
parsec3/freqmine 1755.124 3088.623 778.824 1678.288 16653.887
parsec3/raytrace 6131.038 4045.303 4256.371 1799.231 24729.930
parsec3/streamcluster 1343.654 4528.505 3951.744 1858.964 1130.358
parsec3/swaptions 1068.925 904.881 1160.615 1238.473 1084.037
parsec3/vips 23036.966 25271.459 25392.252 23114.475 23138.259
parsec3/x264 25651.583 20632.548 38064.938 35408.944 16795.800
splash2x/barnes 4225.837 3197.037 3310.488 6113.420 105424.423
splash2x/fft 128834.428 75798.685 183232.230 43288.238 224031.825
splash2x/lu_cb 1938.978 454.602 2015.104 3397.805 31045.866
splash2x/lu_ncb 3060.666 869.136 1879.629 2685.733 35044.952
splash2x/ocean_cp 4597.261 32439.088 7665.899 8222.192 33961.730
splash2x/ocean_ncp 4847.339 3113.802 5683.014 778490.022 90581.566
splash2x/radiosity 3893.081 1810.792 2043.399 2626.202 177520.049
splash2x/radix 19154.048 7288.461 9847.327 124484.757 258540.188
splash2x/raytrace 2169.427 2412.817 1787.911 1361.230 1678.738
splash2x/volrend 2564.985 2683.642 1635.776 1848.565 1977.785
splash2x/water_nsquared 3428.873 4165.502 50631.216 3947.463 1756.141
splash2x/water_spatial 2112.921 2028.010 1121.394 1016.742 53388.242


rss.avg_stdev orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 1948.347 2433.569 2378.384 2546.064 141780.371
parsec3/bodytrack 100.009 108.831 202.572 54.224 1675.922
parsec3/canneal 2843.308 870.076 1212.655 1663.087 3129.842
parsec3/dedup 38480.204 37967.975 15786.446 23358.440 284791.123
parsec3/facesim 424.304 261.595 1150.830 662.450 9413.968
parsec3/ferret 42.593 242.034 793.083 192.745 994.699
parsec3/fluidanimate 21.257 28.778 310.882 303.923 19284.083
parsec3/freqmine 529.478 774.065 968.572 1323.927 29768.495
parsec3/raytrace 1482.470 1229.837 2779.796 1418.954 50787.532
parsec3/streamcluster 22.319 38.014 491.406 576.730 63.361
parsec3/swaptions 25.843 40.859 55.464 33.796 304.075
parsec3/vips 290.065 108.796 325.525 250.876 694.694
parsec3/x264 335.630 239.158 689.243 404.686 833.712
splash2x/barnes 8046.904 1798.924 2887.496 2314.673 209795.080
splash2x/fft 30165.250 150262.589 166604.977 162264.945 719396.468
splash2x/lu_cb 527.638 604.646 41.388 381.418 32601.509
splash2x/lu_ncb 346.281 475.799 44.815 372.379 35382.669
splash2x/ocean_cp 5392.266 6318.058 5840.898 31620.831 143325.540
splash2x/ocean_ncp 19098.959 4778.973 4479.653 810126.522 301918.519
splash2x/radiosity 2843.715 2147.503 201.863 1735.611 224067.639
splash2x/radix 18088.585 61704.051 8055.302 125733.584 144404.870
splash2x/raytrace 35.831 44.585 383.980 508.757 1280.050
splash2x/volrend 94.167 53.868 276.262 293.683 4758.048
splash2x/water_nsquared 25.849 31.638 212.514 405.700 845.312
splash2x/water_spatial 1029.682 932.309 761.867 740.982 72889.161


runtime_min orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 106.213 106.719 105.610 106.572 106.305
parsec3/bodytrack 78.427 78.711 78.362 78.724 79.217
parsec3/canneal 129.649 134.706 119.055 122.529 144.037
parsec3/dedup 11.851 11.784 11.615 11.879 11.902
parsec3/facesim 206.797 207.940 203.154 205.152 211.611
parsec3/ferret 189.671 190.004 189.038 190.212 191.398
parsec3/fluidanimate 210.159 211.238 208.214 209.906 213.499
parsec3/freqmine 286.665 287.817 285.679 287.323 289.858
parsec3/raytrace 117.768 118.418 118.218 118.024 127.414
parsec3/streamcluster 318.597 324.726 282.782 287.918 327.838
parsec3/swaptions 152.893 153.795 153.263 154.382 154.420
parsec3/vips 58.626 58.587 57.937 58.605 58.739
parsec3/x264 63.521 62.478 61.051 62.186 63.234
splash2x/barnes 79.714 79.898 73.805 77.650 80.935
splash2x/fft 33.244 32.718 22.796 33.156 33.335
splash2x/lu_cb 84.805 85.147 84.230 85.163 86.571
splash2x/lu_ncb 91.566 92.375 89.347 92.681 93.086
splash2x/ocean_cp 44.232 44.353 42.633 43.694 44.871
splash2x/ocean_ncp 80.368 80.533 50.574 52.553 82.318
splash2x/radiosity 90.339 90.913 89.892 90.920 96.185
splash2x/radix 31.162 30.934 25.018 25.910 31.431
splash2x/raytrace 83.350 83.738 81.611 82.822 83.847
splash2x/volrend 86.300 86.856 85.510 86.249 86.766
splash2x/water_nsquared 229.303 231.021 215.812 220.298 232.670
splash2x/water_spatial 88.469 88.853 88.331 88.929 90.077


memused.avg_min orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 1809364.000 1835314.000 1813451.000 1826121.000 1630498.000
parsec3/bodytrack 1408819.000 1422249.000 1408973.000 1419504.000 1421510.000
parsec3/canneal 1039707.000 1049621.000 1039820.000 1037775.000 1046253.000
parsec3/dedup 2272302.000 2305775.000 2324269.000 2284678.000 2340384.000
parsec3/facesim 538642.000 553479.000 543879.000 549316.000 482729.000
parsec3/ferret 314537.000 326866.000 316134.000 326033.000 324641.000
parsec3/fluidanimate 573472.000 587097.000 576695.000 577384.000 472345.000
parsec3/freqmine 983999.000 990841.000 988803.000 994674.000 790472.000
parsec3/raytrace 1740317.000 1745978.000 1736373.000 1751865.000 1571822.000
parsec3/streamcluster 119245.000 129308.000 111429.000 130599.000 131169.000
parsec3/swaptions 13520.000 27454.000 14709.000 24348.000 26375.000
parsec3/vips 2895249.000 2916070.000 2892703.000 2915398.000 2922162.000
parsec3/x264 3148004.000 3158819.000 3108839.000 3132153.000 3184442.000
splash2x/barnes 1204329.000 1207582.000 1213471.000 1209854.000 972893.000
splash2x/fft 9103855.000 9030923.000 8821853.000 9076768.000 9093310.000
splash2x/lu_cb 512799.000 523165.000 518433.000 517195.000 434908.000
splash2x/lu_ncb 511022.000 524206.000 518261.000 518286.000 429588.000
splash2x/ocean_cp 3339946.000 3275718.000 3364925.000 3273474.000 3205815.000
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3897002.000 3867698.000 7062400.000 3896748.000 3656014.000
splash2x/radiosity 1466117.000 1468188.000 1478459.000 1463064.000 501738.000
splash2x/radix 1662706.000 1660223.000 1373499.000 1343854.000 1676546.000
splash2x/raytrace 42092.000 53347.000 47940.000 58506.000 54551.000
splash2x/volrend 147965.000 160264.000 149453.000 159835.000 158427.000
splash2x/water_nsquared 41183.000 52633.000 38589.000 51521.000 56762.000
splash2x/water_spatial 663324.000 669966.000 665693.000 673253.000 524625.000


rss.avg_min orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 588193.000 588546.000 590578.000 588837.000 281664.000
parsec3/bodytrack 32217.000 32174.000 31990.000 32145.000 26986.000
parsec3/canneal 834005.000 839363.000 836407.000 836148.000 829406.000
parsec3/dedup 1139762.000 1139860.000 1203145.000 1178413.000 576406.000
parsec3/facesim 310806.000 311600.000 313230.000 311588.000 180985.000
parsec3/ferret 99717.000 99183.000 99762.000 99614.000 91774.000
parsec3/fluidanimate 531788.000 531756.000 531612.000 531756.000 412085.000
parsec3/freqmine 551729.000 551528.000 554331.000 552060.000 129924.000
parsec3/raytrace 893291.000 890536.000 883761.000 890842.000 313465.000
parsec3/streamcluster 110834.000 110805.000 110841.000 110949.000 109970.000
parsec3/swaptions 5592.000 5571.000 5552.000 5592.000 4250.000
parsec3/vips 31440.000 31691.000 31986.000 31859.000 29553.000
parsec3/x264 81417.000 81643.000 82326.000 82033.000 79253.000
splash2x/barnes 1195609.000 1212619.000 1220852.000 1215687.000 729684.000
splash2x/fft 9669070.000 9337348.000 9256159.000 9346205.000 8074101.000
splash2x/lu_cb 509681.000 509389.000 514458.000 509917.000 422503.000
splash2x/lu_ncb 509519.000 509445.000 513827.000 509706.000 414464.000
splash2x/ocean_cp 3400068.000 3395874.000 3427799.000 3332119.000 3048358.000
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3882042.000 3924954.000 7174037.000 3958785.000 3185248.000
splash2x/radiosity 1469611.000 1472058.000 1485612.000 1472430.000 273727.000
splash2x/radix 1729868.000 1629239.000 1429951.000 1433396.000 1782016.000
splash2x/raytrace 23236.000 23240.000 28648.000 26000.000 19658.000
splash2x/volrend 43949.000 43989.000 43993.000 44031.000 21790.000
splash2x/water_nsquared 29380.000 29392.000 29228.000 29376.000 26512.000
splash2x/water_spatial 654377.000 655129.000 654335.000 655277.000 468940.000


runtime_max orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 108.604 107.629 108.206 108.454 108.968
parsec3/bodytrack 80.519 80.010 80.260 80.198 81.417
parsec3/canneal 142.951 142.540 132.566 138.925 152.082
parsec3/dedup 11.959 12.039 11.800 11.965 13.637
parsec3/facesim 213.169 211.975 206.659 208.279 215.987
parsec3/ferret 192.947 193.345 192.037 192.256 192.563
parsec3/fluidanimate 214.657 219.035 211.089 213.763 215.946
parsec3/freqmine 290.961 292.748 290.256 290.867 294.994
parsec3/raytrace 120.291 120.611 119.136 120.754 131.076
parsec3/streamcluster 328.033 330.483 286.858 294.857 334.514
parsec3/swaptions 156.425 156.669 156.413 156.223 156.838
parsec3/vips 59.286 60.539 58.863 59.658 60.912
parsec3/x264 75.251 73.295 73.890 74.545 79.278
splash2x/barnes 81.656 82.246 75.137 79.126 98.318
splash2x/fft 33.703 33.682 24.230 33.540 38.137
splash2x/lu_cb 87.183 86.863 85.175 86.592 89.392
splash2x/lu_ncb 94.827 94.785 94.728 95.244 95.473
splash2x/ocean_cp 44.728 45.108 43.582 44.699 48.746
splash2x/ocean_ncp 81.929 82.763 52.385 80.177 104.032
splash2x/radiosity 92.328 91.331 91.345 92.441 100.571
splash2x/radix 31.367 31.428 25.230 31.416 46.456
splash2x/raytrace 85.100 84.986 83.149 84.551 86.136
splash2x/volrend 87.706 89.353 88.107 87.616 90.051
splash2x/water_nsquared 232.325 235.516 225.639 226.242 240.900
splash2x/water_spatial 90.178 91.288 90.820 90.247 99.400


memused.avg_max orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 1830880.000 1836638.000 1825073.000 1838413.000 1834983.000
parsec3/bodytrack 1424251.000 1439700.000 1424370.000 1437457.000 1436895.000
parsec3/canneal 1048704.000 1054234.000 1046373.000 1054487.000 1054289.000
parsec3/dedup 2454882.000 2468178.000 2446912.000 2475403.000 2467548.000
parsec3/facesim 542743.000 555087.000 546519.000 555677.000 498430.000
parsec3/ferret 320770.000 334671.000 323424.000 333681.000 331047.000
parsec3/fluidanimate 579432.000 588311.000 604938.000 587856.000 562852.000
parsec3/freqmine 988347.000 999098.000 991131.000 999570.000 840085.000
parsec3/raytrace 1759165.000 1757903.000 1748236.000 1756988.000 1643533.000
parsec3/streamcluster 122665.000 142103.000 122903.000 135396.000 134189.000
parsec3/swaptions 16468.000 29888.000 18057.000 27659.000 29626.000
parsec3/vips 2961506.000 2985347.000 2959342.000 2978053.000 2983825.000
parsec3/x264 3213579.000 3213069.000 3213048.000 3226493.000 3226443.000
splash2x/barnes 1216327.000 1216342.000 1222147.000 1228269.000 1213209.000
splash2x/fft 9447877.000 9242495.000 9320845.000 9202797.000 9618066.000
splash2x/lu_cb 517854.000 524223.000 523710.000 527836.000 522041.000
splash2x/lu_ncb 518300.000 526492.000 523630.000 526485.000 518812.000
splash2x/ocean_cp 3352591.000 3363253.000 3388442.000 3295938.000 3297358.000
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3911762.000 3876720.000 7075796.000 5910359.000 3874687.000
splash2x/radiosity 1475186.000 1473229.000 1484861.000 1471090.000 985970.000
splash2x/radix 1715992.000 1681228.000 1397396.000 1663675.000 2334163.000
splash2x/raytrace 47569.000 59269.000 52479.000 61762.000 59195.000
splash2x/volrend 155099.000 168450.000 153224.000 165443.000 163687.000
splash2x/water_nsquared 49437.000 63025.000 172478.000 62050.000 61817.000
splash2x/water_spatial 669174.000 675915.000 668663.000 676081.000 675431.000


rss.avg_max orig rec thp ethp prcl
parsec3/blackscholes 593417.000 593646.000 596394.000 594292.000 593634.000
parsec3/bodytrack 32477.000 32478.000 32515.000 32303.000 31140.000
parsec3/canneal 842209.000 841734.000 839817.000 841008.000 836965.000
parsec3/dedup 1237156.000 1236922.000 1242695.000 1237438.000 1235870.000
parsec3/facesim 311877.000 312295.000 316325.000 313520.000 208345.000
parsec3/ferret 99830.000 99829.000 101852.000 100168.000 94664.000
parsec3/fluidanimate 531844.000 531828.000 532397.000 532536.000 468698.000
parsec3/freqmine 553285.000 553677.000 556678.000 556215.000 214825.000
parsec3/raytrace 897336.000 894063.000 891228.000 894188.000 437099.000
parsec3/streamcluster 110896.000 110898.000 112198.000 112186.000 110167.000
parsec3/swaptions 5662.000 5680.000 5689.000 5679.000 4975.000
parsec3/vips 32174.000 31965.000 32901.000 32450.000 31694.000
parsec3/x264 82322.000 82258.000 84176.000 83236.000 81624.000
splash2x/barnes 1218530.000 1218027.000 1228857.000 1222907.000 1216512.000
splash2x/fft 9739818.000 9754926.000 9671148.000 9719001.000 9749458.000
splash2x/lu_cb 511047.000 511136.000 514576.000 511007.000 510434.000
splash2x/lu_ncb 510527.000 510766.000 513958.000 510825.000 505870.000
splash2x/ocean_cp 3416062.000 3412547.000 3445290.000 3416314.000 3413927.000
splash2x/ocean_ncp 3934963.000 3938964.000 7186934.000 6003152.000 3934187.000
splash2x/radiosity 1477524.000 1477620.000 1486136.000 1476725.000 899792.000
splash2x/radix 1780157.000 1786530.000 1448784.000 1775975.000 2161045.000
splash2x/raytrace 23336.000 23348.000 29600.000 27407.000 22914.000
splash2x/volrend 44244.000 44155.000 44711.000 44789.000 34089.000
splash2x/water_nsquared 29444.000 29492.000 29825.000 30323.000 28810.000
splash2x/water_spatial 657265.000 657890.000 656649.000 657176.000 656735.000

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