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SubjectHelp Resource Counters Scale Better (v2)
Enhancement: For scalability move the resource counter to a percpu counter

Changelog v2->v1

From: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

1. Updated Documentation (cgroups.txt and resource_counters.txt)
2. Added the notion of tolerance to resource counter initialization

I posted an early RFI of the patches and got several responses stating
that this would be a nice to have patch and we should work on this
right away.

This patch changes the usage field of a resource counter to a percpu
counter. The counter is incremented with local irq disabled. The other
fields are still protected by the spin lock for write.

This patch adds a fuzziness factor to hard limit, since the value we read
could be off the original value (by batch value), this can be fixed
by adding a strict/non-strict functionality check. The intention is
to turn of strict checking for root (since we can't set limits on
it anyway).

I tested this patch on my x86_64 box with a regular test for hard
limits and a page fault program. I also enabled lockdep and lock_stat
clearly shows that the contention on counter->lock is down quite
significantly. I tested these patches against an older mmotm, but
this should apply cleanly to the 6th August mmotm as well.

Please test/review the patches.

Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
---
Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt | 3 ++
Documentation/cgroups/resource_counter.txt | 11 +++++-
include/linux/res_counter.h | 48 ++++++++++++++++-----------
kernel/res_counter.c | 50 +++++++++++++++++-----------
mm/memcontrol.c | 31 +++++++++++++----
5 files changed, 96 insertions(+), 47 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
index b871f25..8f86537 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,9 @@ c. Provides *zero overhead* for non memory controller users
d. Provides a double LRU: global memory pressure causes reclaim from the
global LRU; a cgroup on hitting a limit, reclaims from the per
cgroup LRU
+ NOTE: One can no longer rely on the exact limit. Since we've moved
+ to using percpu_counters for resource counters, there is always going
+ to be a fuzziness factor depending on the batch value.

Benefits and Purpose of the memory controller

diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/resource_counter.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/resource_counter.txt
index 95b24d7..d3b276b 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/resource_counter.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/resource_counter.txt
@@ -12,12 +12,15 @@ to work with it.

1. Crucial parts of the res_counter structure

- a. unsigned long long usage
+ a. percpu_counter usage

The usage value shows the amount of a resource that is consumed
by a group at a given time. The units of measurement should be
determined by the controller that uses this counter. E.g. it can
be bytes, items or any other unit the controller operates on.
+ NOTE: being a percpu_counter, the way to read the correct value
+ at all times makes it unscalable and reading it scalably makes
+ the value a little unreliable :)

b. unsigned long long max_usage

@@ -48,7 +51,8 @@ to work with it.
2. Basic accounting routines

a. void res_counter_init(struct res_counter *rc,
- struct res_counter *rc_parent)
+ struct res_counter *rc_parent,
+ unsigned long tolerance)

Initializes the resource counter. As usual, should be the first
routine called for a new counter.
@@ -57,6 +61,9 @@ to work with it.
child -> parent relationship directly in the res_counter structure,
NULL can be used to define no relationship.

+ The tolerance is used to control the batching behaviour of percpu
+ counters
+
c. int res_counter_charge(struct res_counter *rc, unsigned long val,
struct res_counter **limit_fail_at)

diff --git a/include/linux/res_counter.h b/include/linux/res_counter.h
index 731af71..2d412d7 100644
--- a/include/linux/res_counter.h
+++ b/include/linux/res_counter.h
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
*/

#include <linux/cgroup.h>
+#include <linux/percpu_counter.h>

/*
* The core object. the cgroup that wishes to account for some
@@ -23,10 +24,6 @@

struct res_counter {
/*
- * the current resource consumption level
- */
- unsigned long long usage;
- /*
* the maximal value of the usage from the counter creation
*/
unsigned long long max_usage;
@@ -48,6 +45,14 @@ struct res_counter {
*/
spinlock_t lock;
/*
+ * the current resource consumption level
+ */
+ struct percpu_counter usage;
+ /*
+ * Tolerance for the percpu_counter (usage) above
+ */
+ unsigned long usage_tolerance;
+ /*
* Parent counter, used for hierarchial resource accounting
*/
struct res_counter *parent;
@@ -98,7 +103,8 @@ enum {
* helpers for accounting
*/

-void res_counter_init(struct res_counter *counter, struct res_counter *parent);
+void res_counter_init(struct res_counter *counter, struct res_counter *parent,
+ unsigned long usage_tolerance);

/*
* charge - try to consume more resource.
@@ -133,7 +139,8 @@ void res_counter_uncharge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,

static inline bool res_counter_limit_check_locked(struct res_counter *cnt)
{
- if (cnt->usage < cnt->limit)
+ unsigned long long usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&cnt->usage);
+ if (usage < cnt->limit)
return true;

return false;
@@ -141,7 +148,8 @@ static inline bool res_counter_limit_check_locked(struct res_counter *cnt)

static inline bool res_counter_soft_limit_check_locked(struct res_counter *cnt)
{
- if (cnt->usage < cnt->soft_limit)
+ unsigned long long usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&cnt->usage);
+ if (usage < cnt->soft_limit)
return true;

return false;
@@ -157,15 +165,15 @@ static inline bool res_counter_soft_limit_check_locked(struct res_counter *cnt)
static inline unsigned long long
res_counter_soft_limit_excess(struct res_counter *cnt)
{
- unsigned long long excess;
- unsigned long flags;
+ unsigned long long excess, usage;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&cnt->lock, flags);
- if (cnt->usage <= cnt->soft_limit)
+ usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&cnt->usage);
+ preempt_disable();
+ if (usage <= cnt->soft_limit)
excess = 0;
else
- excess = cnt->usage - cnt->soft_limit;
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cnt->lock, flags);
+ excess = usage - cnt->soft_limit;
+ preempt_enable();
return excess;
}

@@ -178,9 +186,9 @@ static inline bool res_counter_check_under_limit(struct res_counter *cnt)
bool ret;
unsigned long flags;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&cnt->lock, flags);
+ local_irq_save(flags);
ret = res_counter_limit_check_locked(cnt);
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cnt->lock, flags);
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
return ret;
}

@@ -189,18 +197,19 @@ static inline bool res_counter_check_under_soft_limit(struct res_counter *cnt)
bool ret;
unsigned long flags;

- spin_lock_irqsave(&cnt->lock, flags);
+ local_irq_save(flags);
ret = res_counter_soft_limit_check_locked(cnt);
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cnt->lock, flags);
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
return ret;
}

static inline void res_counter_reset_max(struct res_counter *cnt)
{
unsigned long flags;
+ unsigned long long usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&cnt->usage);

spin_lock_irqsave(&cnt->lock, flags);
- cnt->max_usage = cnt->usage;
+ cnt->max_usage = usage;
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cnt->lock, flags);
}

@@ -217,10 +226,11 @@ static inline int res_counter_set_limit(struct res_counter *cnt,
unsigned long long limit)
{
unsigned long flags;
+ unsigned long long usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&cnt->usage);
int ret = -EBUSY;

spin_lock_irqsave(&cnt->lock, flags);
- if (cnt->usage <= limit) {
+ if (usage <= limit) {
cnt->limit = limit;
ret = 0;
}
diff --git a/kernel/res_counter.c b/kernel/res_counter.c
index 88faec2..ae83168 100644
--- a/kernel/res_counter.c
+++ b/kernel/res_counter.c
@@ -15,24 +15,34 @@
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>

-void res_counter_init(struct res_counter *counter, struct res_counter *parent)
+void res_counter_init(struct res_counter *counter, struct res_counter *parent,
+ unsigned long usage_tolerance)
{
spin_lock_init(&counter->lock);
+ percpu_counter_init(&counter->usage, 0);
counter->limit = RESOURCE_MAX;
counter->soft_limit = RESOURCE_MAX;
counter->parent = parent;
+ counter->usage_tolerance = usage_tolerance;
}

int res_counter_charge_locked(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val)
{
- if (counter->usage + val > counter->limit) {
+ unsigned long long usage;
+
+ usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&counter->usage);
+ if (usage + val > counter->limit) {
counter->failcnt++;
return -ENOMEM;
}

- counter->usage += val;
- if (counter->usage > counter->max_usage)
- counter->max_usage = counter->usage;
+ __percpu_counter_add(&counter->usage, val, nr_cpu_ids *
+ counter->usage_tolerance);
+ if (usage + val > counter->max_usage) {
+ spin_lock(&counter->lock);
+ counter->max_usage = (usage + val);
+ spin_unlock(&counter->lock);
+ }
return 0;
}

@@ -49,7 +59,6 @@ int res_counter_charge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,
*soft_limit_fail_at = NULL;
local_irq_save(flags);
for (c = counter; c != NULL; c = c->parent) {
- spin_lock(&c->lock);
ret = res_counter_charge_locked(c, val);
/*
* With soft limits, we return the highest ancestor
@@ -58,7 +67,6 @@ int res_counter_charge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,
if (soft_limit_fail_at &&
!res_counter_soft_limit_check_locked(c))
*soft_limit_fail_at = c;
- spin_unlock(&c->lock);
if (ret < 0) {
*limit_fail_at = c;
goto undo;
@@ -68,9 +76,7 @@ int res_counter_charge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,
goto done;
undo:
for (u = counter; u != c; u = u->parent) {
- spin_lock(&u->lock);
res_counter_uncharge_locked(u, val);
- spin_unlock(&u->lock);
}
done:
local_irq_restore(flags);
@@ -79,10 +85,13 @@ done:

void res_counter_uncharge_locked(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val)
{
- if (WARN_ON(counter->usage < val))
- val = counter->usage;
+ unsigned long long usage;
+
+ usage = percpu_counter_read_positive(&counter->usage);
+ if (WARN_ON((usage + counter->usage_tolerance * nr_cpu_ids) < val))
+ val = usage;

- counter->usage -= val;
+ percpu_counter_sub(&counter->usage, val);
}

void res_counter_uncharge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,
@@ -93,12 +102,10 @@ void res_counter_uncharge(struct res_counter *counter, unsigned long val,

local_irq_save(flags);
for (c = counter; c != NULL; c = c->parent) {
- spin_lock(&c->lock);
if (was_soft_limit_excess)
*was_soft_limit_excess =
!res_counter_soft_limit_check_locked(c);
res_counter_uncharge_locked(c, val);
- spin_unlock(&c->lock);
}
local_irq_restore(flags);
}
@@ -108,8 +115,6 @@ static inline unsigned long long *
res_counter_member(struct res_counter *counter, int member)
{
switch (member) {
- case RES_USAGE:
- return &counter->usage;
case RES_MAX_USAGE:
return &counter->max_usage;
case RES_LIMIT:
@@ -128,11 +133,15 @@ ssize_t res_counter_read(struct res_counter *counter, int member,
const char __user *userbuf, size_t nbytes, loff_t *pos,
int (*read_strategy)(unsigned long long val, char *st_buf))
{
- unsigned long long *val;
+ unsigned long long *val, usage_val;
char buf[64], *s;

s = buf;
- val = res_counter_member(counter, member);
+ if (member == RES_USAGE) {
+ usage_val = percpu_counter_read_positive(&counter->usage);
+ val = &usage_val;
+ } else
+ val = res_counter_member(counter, member);
if (read_strategy)
s += read_strategy(*val, s);
else
@@ -143,7 +152,10 @@ ssize_t res_counter_read(struct res_counter *counter, int member,

u64 res_counter_read_u64(struct res_counter *counter, int member)
{
- return *res_counter_member(counter, member);
+ if (member == RES_USAGE)
+ return percpu_counter_read_positive(&counter->usage);
+ else
+ return *res_counter_member(counter, member);
}

int res_counter_memparse_write_strategy(const char *buf,
diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
index 48a38e1..17d305d 100644
--- a/mm/memcontrol.c
+++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
@@ -58,6 +58,19 @@ static DEFINE_MUTEX(memcg_tasklist); /* can be hold under cgroup_mutex */
#define SOFTLIMIT_EVENTS_THRESH (1000)

/*
+ * To help resource counters scale, we take a step back
+ * and allow the counters to be scalable and set a
+ * batch value such that every addition does not cause
+ * global synchronization. The side-effect will be visible
+ * on limit enforcement, where due to this fuzziness,
+ * we will lose out on inforcing a limit when the usage
+ * exceeds the limit. The plan however in the long run
+ * is to allow this value to be controlled. We will
+ * probably add a new control file for it.
+ */
+#define MEM_CGROUP_RES_ERR_TOLERANCE (4 * PAGE_SIZE)
+
+/*
* Statistics for memory cgroup.
*/
enum mem_cgroup_stat_index {
@@ -2340,7 +2353,7 @@ static int mem_cgroup_force_empty(struct mem_cgroup *mem, bool free_all)
if (free_all)
goto try_to_free;
move_account:
- while (mem->res.usage > 0) {
+ while (res_counter_read_u64(&mem->res, RES_USAGE) > 0) {
ret = -EBUSY;
if (cgroup_task_count(cgrp) || !list_empty(&cgrp->children))
goto out;
@@ -2383,7 +2396,7 @@ try_to_free:
lru_add_drain_all();
/* try to free all pages in this cgroup */
shrink = 1;
- while (nr_retries && mem->res.usage > 0) {
+ while (nr_retries && res_counter_read_u64(&mem->res, RES_USAGE) > 0) {
int progress;

if (signal_pending(current)) {
@@ -2401,7 +2414,7 @@ try_to_free:
}
lru_add_drain();
/* try move_account...there may be some *locked* pages. */
- if (mem->res.usage)
+ if (res_counter_read_u64(&mem->res, RES_USAGE))
goto move_account;
ret = 0;
goto out;
@@ -3019,8 +3032,10 @@ mem_cgroup_create(struct cgroup_subsys *ss, struct cgroup *cont)
}

if (parent && parent->use_hierarchy) {
- res_counter_init(&mem->res, &parent->res);
- res_counter_init(&mem->memsw, &parent->memsw);
+ res_counter_init(&mem->res, &parent->res,
+ MEM_CGROUP_RES_ERR_TOLERANCE);
+ res_counter_init(&mem->memsw, &parent->memsw,
+ MEM_CGROUP_RES_ERR_TOLERANCE);
/*
* We increment refcnt of the parent to ensure that we can
* safely access it on res_counter_charge/uncharge.
@@ -3029,8 +3044,10 @@ mem_cgroup_create(struct cgroup_subsys *ss, struct cgroup *cont)
*/
mem_cgroup_get(parent);
} else {
- res_counter_init(&mem->res, NULL);
- res_counter_init(&mem->memsw, NULL);
+ res_counter_init(&mem->res, NULL,
+ MEM_CGROUP_RES_ERR_TOLERANCE);
+ res_counter_init(&mem->memsw, NULL,
+ MEM_CGROUP_RES_ERR_TOLERANCE);
}
mem->last_scanned_child = 0;
spin_lock_init(&mem->reclaim_param_lock);

--
Balbir


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