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SubjectRe: [PATCH v5 2/6] mm: swap: free_swap_and_cache_nr() as batched free_swap_and_cache()
Date
Ryan Roberts <ryan.roberts@arm.com> writes:

> On 01/04/2024 06:52, Huang, Ying wrote:
>> Ryan Roberts <ryan.roberts@arm.com> writes:
>>
>>> Now that we no longer have a convenient flag in the cluster to determine
>>> if a folio is large, free_swap_and_cache() will take a reference and
>>> lock a large folio much more often, which could lead to contention and
>>> (e.g.) failure to split large folios, etc.
>>>
>>> Let's solve that problem by batch freeing swap and cache with a new
>>> function, free_swap_and_cache_nr(), to free a contiguous range of swap
>>> entries together. This allows us to first drop a reference to each swap
>>> slot before we try to release the cache folio. This means we only try to
>>> release the folio once, only taking the reference and lock once - much
>>> better than the previous 512 times for the 2M THP case.
>>>
>>> Contiguous swap entries are gathered in zap_pte_range() and
>>> madvise_free_pte_range() in a similar way to how present ptes are
>>> already gathered in zap_pte_range().
>>>
>>> While we are at it, let's simplify by converting the return type of both
>>> functions to void. The return value was used only by zap_pte_range() to
>>> print a bad pte, and was ignored by everyone else, so the extra
>>> reporting wasn't exactly guaranteed. We will still get the warning with
>>> most of the information from get_swap_device(). With the batch version,
>>> we wouldn't know which pte was bad anyway so could print the wrong one.
>>>
>>> Signed-off-by: Ryan Roberts <ryan.roberts@arm.com>
>>> ---
>>> include/linux/pgtable.h | 28 +++++++++++++++
>>> include/linux/swap.h | 12 +++++--
>>> mm/internal.h | 48 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>> mm/madvise.c | 12 ++++---
>>> mm/memory.c | 13 +++----
>>> mm/swapfile.c | 78 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----------
>>> 6 files changed, 157 insertions(+), 34 deletions(-)
>>>
>>> diff --git a/include/linux/pgtable.h b/include/linux/pgtable.h
>>> index 09c85c7bf9c2..8185939df1e8 100644
>>> --- a/include/linux/pgtable.h
>>> +++ b/include/linux/pgtable.h
>>> @@ -708,6 +708,34 @@ static inline void pte_clear_not_present_full(struct mm_struct *mm,
>>> }
>>> #endif
>>>
>>> +#ifndef clear_not_present_full_ptes
>>> +/**
>>> + * clear_not_present_full_ptes - Clear consecutive not present PTEs.
>>> + * @mm: Address space the ptes represent.
>>> + * @addr: Address of the first pte.
>>> + * @ptep: Page table pointer for the first entry.
>>> + * @nr: Number of entries to clear.
>>> + * @full: Whether we are clearing a full mm.
>>> + *
>>> + * May be overridden by the architecture; otherwise, implemented as a simple
>>> + * loop over pte_clear_not_present_full().
>>> + *
>>> + * Context: The caller holds the page table lock. The PTEs are all not present.
>>> + * The PTEs are all in the same PMD.
>>> + */
>>> +static inline void clear_not_present_full_ptes(struct mm_struct *mm,
>>> + unsigned long addr, pte_t *ptep, unsigned int nr, int full)
>>> +{
>>> + for (;;) {
>>> + pte_clear_not_present_full(mm, addr, ptep, full);
>>> + if (--nr == 0)
>>> + break;
>>> + ptep++;
>>> + addr += PAGE_SIZE;
>>> + }
>>> +}
>>> +#endif
>>> +
>>> #ifndef __HAVE_ARCH_PTEP_CLEAR_FLUSH
>>> extern pte_t ptep_clear_flush(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
>>> unsigned long address,
>>> diff --git a/include/linux/swap.h b/include/linux/swap.h
>>> index f6f78198f000..5737236dc3ce 100644
>>> --- a/include/linux/swap.h
>>> +++ b/include/linux/swap.h
>>> @@ -471,7 +471,7 @@ extern int swap_duplicate(swp_entry_t);
>>> extern int swapcache_prepare(swp_entry_t);
>>> extern void swap_free(swp_entry_t);
>>> extern void swapcache_free_entries(swp_entry_t *entries, int n);
>>> -extern int free_swap_and_cache(swp_entry_t);
>>> +extern void free_swap_and_cache_nr(swp_entry_t entry, int nr);
>>> int swap_type_of(dev_t device, sector_t offset);
>>> int find_first_swap(dev_t *device);
>>> extern unsigned int count_swap_pages(int, int);
>>> @@ -520,8 +520,9 @@ static inline void put_swap_device(struct swap_info_struct *si)
>>> #define free_pages_and_swap_cache(pages, nr) \
>>> release_pages((pages), (nr));
>>>
>>> -/* used to sanity check ptes in zap_pte_range when CONFIG_SWAP=0 */
>>> -#define free_swap_and_cache(e) is_pfn_swap_entry(e)
>>> +static inline void free_swap_and_cache_nr(swp_entry_t entry, int nr)
>>> +{
>>> +}
>>>
>>> static inline void free_swap_cache(struct folio *folio)
>>> {
>>> @@ -589,6 +590,11 @@ static inline int add_swap_extent(struct swap_info_struct *sis,
>>> }
>>> #endif /* CONFIG_SWAP */
>>>
>>> +static inline void free_swap_and_cache(swp_entry_t entry)
>>> +{
>>> + free_swap_and_cache_nr(entry, 1);
>>> +}
>>> +
>>> #ifdef CONFIG_MEMCG
>>> static inline int mem_cgroup_swappiness(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
>>> {
>>> diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
>>> index 8e11f7b2da21..eadb79c3a357 100644
>>> --- a/mm/internal.h
>>> +++ b/mm/internal.h
>>> @@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
>>> #include <linux/mm.h>
>>> #include <linux/pagemap.h>
>>> #include <linux/rmap.h>
>>> +#include <linux/swap.h>
>>> +#include <linux/swapops.h>
>>> #include <linux/tracepoint-defs.h>
>>>
>>> struct folio_batch;
>>> @@ -189,6 +191,52 @@ static inline int folio_pte_batch(struct folio *folio, unsigned long addr,
>>>
>>> return min(ptep - start_ptep, max_nr);
>>> }
>>> +
>>> +/**
>>> + * swap_pte_batch - detect a PTE batch for a set of contiguous swap entries
>>> + * @start_ptep: Page table pointer for the first entry.
>>> + * @max_nr: The maximum number of table entries to consider.
>>> + * @entry: Swap entry recovered from the first table entry.
>>> + *
>>> + * Detect a batch of contiguous swap entries: consecutive (non-present) PTEs
>>> + * containing swap entries all with consecutive offsets and targeting the same
>>> + * swap type.
>>> + *
>>> + * max_nr must be at least one and must be limited by the caller so scanning
>>> + * cannot exceed a single page table.
>>> + *
>>> + * Return: the number of table entries in the batch.
>>> + */
>>> +static inline int swap_pte_batch(pte_t *start_ptep, int max_nr,
>>> + swp_entry_t entry)
>>> +{
>>> + const pte_t *end_ptep = start_ptep + max_nr;
>>> + unsigned long expected_offset = swp_offset(entry) + 1;
>>> + unsigned int expected_type = swp_type(entry);
>>> + pte_t *ptep = start_ptep + 1;
>>> +
>>> + VM_WARN_ON(max_nr < 1);
>>> + VM_WARN_ON(non_swap_entry(entry));
>>> +
>>> + while (ptep < end_ptep) {
>>> + pte_t pte = ptep_get(ptep);
>>> +
>>> + if (pte_none(pte) || pte_present(pte))
>>> + break;
>>> +
>>> + entry = pte_to_swp_entry(pte);
>>> +
>>> + if (non_swap_entry(entry) ||
>>> + swp_type(entry) != expected_type ||
>>> + swp_offset(entry) != expected_offset)
>>> + break;
>>> +
>>> + expected_offset++;
>>> + ptep++;
>>> + }
>>> +
>>> + return ptep - start_ptep;
>>> +}
>>> #endif /* CONFIG_MMU */
>>>
>>> void __acct_reclaim_writeback(pg_data_t *pgdat, struct folio *folio,
>>> diff --git a/mm/madvise.c b/mm/madvise.c
>>> index 1f77a51baaac..070bedb4996e 100644
>>> --- a/mm/madvise.c
>>> +++ b/mm/madvise.c
>>> @@ -628,6 +628,7 @@ static int madvise_free_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
>>> struct folio *folio;
>>> int nr_swap = 0;
>>> unsigned long next;
>>> + int nr, max_nr;
>>>
>>> next = pmd_addr_end(addr, end);
>>> if (pmd_trans_huge(*pmd))
>>> @@ -640,7 +641,8 @@ static int madvise_free_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
>>> return 0;
>>> flush_tlb_batched_pending(mm);
>>> arch_enter_lazy_mmu_mode();
>>> - for (; addr != end; pte++, addr += PAGE_SIZE) {
>>> + for (; addr != end; pte += nr, addr += PAGE_SIZE * nr) {
>>> + nr = 1;
>>> ptent = ptep_get(pte);
>>>
>>> if (pte_none(ptent))
>>> @@ -655,9 +657,11 @@ static int madvise_free_pte_range(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
>>>
>>> entry = pte_to_swp_entry(ptent);
>>> if (!non_swap_entry(entry)) {
>>> - nr_swap--;
>>> - free_swap_and_cache(entry);
>>> - pte_clear_not_present_full(mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm);
>>> + max_nr = (end - addr) / PAGE_SIZE;
>>> + nr = swap_pte_batch(pte, max_nr, entry);
>>> + nr_swap -= nr;
>>> + free_swap_and_cache_nr(entry, nr);
>>> + clear_not_present_full_ptes(mm, addr, pte, nr, tlb->fullmm);
>>> } else if (is_hwpoison_entry(entry) ||
>>> is_poisoned_swp_entry(entry)) {
>>> pte_clear_not_present_full(mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm);
>>> diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
>>> index 36191a9c799c..9d844582ba38 100644
>>> --- a/mm/memory.c
>>> +++ b/mm/memory.c
>>> @@ -1631,12 +1631,13 @@ static unsigned long zap_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
>>> folio_remove_rmap_pte(folio, page, vma);
>>> folio_put(folio);
>>> } else if (!non_swap_entry(entry)) {
>>> - /* Genuine swap entry, hence a private anon page */
>>> + max_nr = (end - addr) / PAGE_SIZE;
>>> + nr = swap_pte_batch(pte, max_nr, entry);
>>> + /* Genuine swap entries, hence a private anon pages */
>>> if (!should_zap_cows(details))
>>> continue;
>>> - rss[MM_SWAPENTS]--;
>>> - if (unlikely(!free_swap_and_cache(entry)))
>>> - print_bad_pte(vma, addr, ptent, NULL);
>>> + rss[MM_SWAPENTS] -= nr;
>>> + free_swap_and_cache_nr(entry, nr);
>>> } else if (is_migration_entry(entry)) {
>>> folio = pfn_swap_entry_folio(entry);
>>> if (!should_zap_folio(details, folio))
>>> @@ -1659,8 +1660,8 @@ static unsigned long zap_pte_range(struct mmu_gather *tlb,
>>> pr_alert("unrecognized swap entry 0x%lx\n", entry.val);
>>> WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
>>> }
>>> - pte_clear_not_present_full(mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm);
>>> - zap_install_uffd_wp_if_needed(vma, addr, pte, 1, details, ptent);
>>> + clear_not_present_full_ptes(mm, addr, pte, nr, tlb->fullmm);
>>> + zap_install_uffd_wp_if_needed(vma, addr, pte, nr, details, ptent);
>>> } while (pte += nr, addr += PAGE_SIZE * nr, addr != end);
>>>
>>> add_mm_rss_vec(mm, rss);
>>> diff --git a/mm/swapfile.c b/mm/swapfile.c
>>> index 0d44ee2b4f9c..cedfc82d37e5 100644
>>> --- a/mm/swapfile.c
>>> +++ b/mm/swapfile.c
>>> @@ -130,7 +130,11 @@ static inline unsigned char swap_count(unsigned char ent)
>>> /* Reclaim the swap entry if swap is getting full*/
>>> #define TTRS_FULL 0x4
>>>
>>> -/* returns 1 if swap entry is freed */
>>> +/*
>>> + * returns number of pages in the folio that backs the swap entry. If positive,
>>> + * the folio was reclaimed. If negative, the folio was not reclaimed. If 0, no
>>> + * folio was associated with the swap entry.
>>> + */
>>> static int __try_to_reclaim_swap(struct swap_info_struct *si,
>>> unsigned long offset, unsigned long flags)
>>> {
>>> @@ -155,6 +159,7 @@ static int __try_to_reclaim_swap(struct swap_info_struct *si,
>>> ret = folio_free_swap(folio);
>>> folio_unlock(folio);
>>> }
>>> + ret = ret ? folio_nr_pages(folio) : -folio_nr_pages(folio);
>>> folio_put(folio);
>>> return ret;
>>> }
>>> @@ -895,7 +900,7 @@ static int scan_swap_map_slots(struct swap_info_struct *si,
>>> swap_was_freed = __try_to_reclaim_swap(si, offset, TTRS_ANYWAY);
>>> spin_lock(&si->lock);
>>> /* entry was freed successfully, try to use this again */
>>> - if (swap_was_freed)
>>> + if (swap_was_freed > 0)
>>> goto checks;
>>> goto scan; /* check next one */
>>> }
>>> @@ -1572,32 +1577,63 @@ bool folio_free_swap(struct folio *folio)
>>> return true;
>>> }
>>>
>>> -/*
>>> - * Free the swap entry like above, but also try to
>>> - * free the page cache entry if it is the last user.
>>> - */
>>> -int free_swap_and_cache(swp_entry_t entry)
>>> +void free_swap_and_cache_nr(swp_entry_t entry, int nr)
>>> {
>>> - struct swap_info_struct *p;
>>> - unsigned char count;
>>> + unsigned long end = swp_offset(entry) + nr;
>>> + unsigned int type = swp_type(entry);
>>> + struct swap_info_struct *si;
>>> + unsigned long offset;
>>>
>>> if (non_swap_entry(entry))
>>> - return 1;
>>> + return;
>>>
>>> - p = get_swap_device(entry);
>>> - if (p) {
>>> - if (WARN_ON(data_race(!p->swap_map[swp_offset(entry)]))) {
>>> - put_swap_device(p);
>>> - return 0;
>>> - }
>>> + si = get_swap_device(entry);
>>> + if (!si)
>>> + return;
>>>
>>> - count = __swap_entry_free(p, entry);
>>> - if (count == SWAP_HAS_CACHE)
>>> - __try_to_reclaim_swap(p, swp_offset(entry),
>>> + if (WARN_ON(end > si->max))
>>> + goto out;
>>> +
>>> + /*
>>> + * First free all entries in the range.
>>> + */
>>> + for (offset = swp_offset(entry); offset < end; offset++) {
>>> + if (!WARN_ON(data_race(!si->swap_map[offset])))
>>> + __swap_entry_free(si, swp_entry(type, offset));
>>
>> I think that it's better to check the return value of
>> __swap_entry_free() here. When the return value != SWAP_HAS_CACHE, we
>> can try to reclaim all swap entries we have checked before, then restart
>> the check with the new start.
>
> What's the benefit of your proposed aproach? I only see a drawback: if there are
> large swap entries for which some pages have higher ref counts than others, we
> will end up trying to reclaim (and fail) multiple times per folio. Whereas with
> my current approach we only attempt reclaim once per folio.
>
> Do you see a specific bug with what I'm currently doing?

No. Just want to find some opportunity to optimize. With my proposal,
we can skip reclaim if "return value != SWAP_HAS_CACHE", for example, if
the folio has been removed from the swap cache (fully reclaimed). But
this has some drawbacks too, as you pointed out above.

At least, we can check whether any return value of __swap_entry_free()
== SWAP_HAS_CACHE, and only try to reclaim if so. This can optimize the
most common cases.

[snip]

--
Best Regards,
Huang, Ying

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