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SubjectRe: zram corruption due to uninitialized do_swap_page fault
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On 15.03.22 07:57, Minchan Kim wrote:
> On Mon, Mar 14, 2022 at 09:18:43PM -0700, Ivan Babrou wrote:
>> On Fri, Mar 11, 2022 at 11:51 AM Ivan Babrou <ivan@cloudflare.com> wrote:
>>>
>>> Hello,
>>>
>>> We're looking into using zram, but unfortunately we ran into some
>>> corruption issues. We've seen rocksdb complaining about "Corruption:
>>> bad entry in block", and we've also seen some coredumps that point at
>>> memory being zeroed out. One of our Rust processes coredumps contains
>>> a non-null pointer pointing at zero, among other things:
>>>
>>> * core::ptr::non_null::NonNull<u8> {pointer: 0x0}
>>>
>>> In fact, a whole bunch of memory around this pointer was all zeros.
>>>
>>> Disabling zram resolves all issues, and we can't reproduce any of
>>> these issues with other swap setups. I've tried adding crc32
>>> checksumming for pages that are compressed, but it didn't catch the
>>> issue either, even though userspace facing symptoms were present. My
>>> crc32 code doesn't touch ZRAM_SAME pages, though.
>>>
>>> Unfortunately, this isn't trivial to replicate, and I believe that it
>>> depends on zram used for swap specifically, not for zram as a block
>>> device. Specifically, swap_slot_free_notify looks suspicious.
>>>
>>> Here's a patch that I have to catch the issue in the act:
>>>
>>> diff --git a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
>>> index 438ce34ee760..fea46a70a3c9 100644
>>> --- a/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
>>> +++ b/drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c
>>> @@ -1265,6 +1265,9 @@ static int __zram_bvec_read(struct zram *zram,
>>> struct page *page, u32 index,
>>> unsigned long value;
>>> void *mem;
>>>
>>> + if (WARN_ON(!handle && !zram_test_flag(zram, index, ZRAM_SAME)))
>>> + pr_warn("Page %u read from zram without previous write\n", index);
>>> +
>>> value = handle ? zram_get_element(zram, index) : 0;
>>> mem = kmap_atomic(page);
>>> zram_fill_page(mem, PAGE_SIZE, value);
>>>
>>> In essence, it warns whenever a page is read from zram that was not
>>> previously written to. To make this work, one needs to zero out zram
>>> prior to running mkswap on it.
>>>
>>> I have prepared a GitHub repo with my observations and a reproduction:
>>>
>>> * https://github.com/bobrik/zram-corruptor
>>>
>>> I'm able to trigger the following in an aarch64 VM with two threads
>>> reading the same memory out of swap:
>>>
>>> [ 512.651752][ T7285] ------------[ cut here ]------------
>>> [ 512.652279][ T7285] WARNING: CPU: 0 PID: 7285 at
>>> drivers/block/zram/zram_drv.c:1285 __zram_bvec_read+0x28c/0x2e8 [zram]
>>> [ 512.653923][ T7285] Modules linked in: zram zsmalloc kheaders nfsv3
>>> nfs lockd grace sunrpc xt_conntrack nft_chain_nat xt_MASQUERADE nf_nat
>>> nf_conntrack_netlink nf_conntrack nf_defrag_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv4
>>> nft_counter xt_addrtype nft_compat nf_tables nfnetlink bridge stp llc
>>> overlay xfs libcrc32c zstd zstd_compress af_packet aes_ce_blk
>>> aes_ce_cipher ghash_ce gf128mul virtio_net sha3_ce net_failover
>>> sha3_generic failover sha512_ce sha512_arm64 sha2_ce sha256_arm64
>>> virtio_mmio virtio_ring qemu_fw_cfg rtc_pl031 virtio fuse ip_tables
>>> x_tables ext4 mbcache crc16 jbd2 nvme nvme_core pci_host_generic
>>> pci_host_common unix [last unloaded: zsmalloc]
>>> [ 512.659238][ T7285] CPU: 0 PID: 7285 Comm: zram-corruptor Tainted: G
>>> W 5.16.0-ivan #1 0877d306c6dc0716835d43cafe4399473d09e406
>>> [ 512.660413][ T7285] Hardware name: linux,dummy-virt (DT)
>>> [ 512.661077][ T7285] pstate: 80400005 (Nzcv daif +PAN -UAO -TCO -DIT
>>> -SSBS BTYPE=--)
>>> [ 512.661788][ T7285] pc : __zram_bvec_read+0x28c/0x2e8 [zram]
>>> [ 512.662099][ T7285] lr : zram_bvec_rw+0x70/0x204 [zram]
>>> [ 512.662422][ T7285] sp : ffffffc01018bac0
>>> [ 512.662720][ T7285] x29: ffffffc01018bae0 x28: ffffff9e4e725280 x27:
>>> ffffff9e4e725280
>>> [ 512.663122][ T7285] x26: ffffff9e4e725280 x25: 00000000000001f6 x24:
>>> 0000000100033e6c
>>> [ 512.663601][ T7285] x23: 00000000000001f6 x22: 0000000000000000 x21:
>>> fffffffe7a36d840
>>> [ 512.664252][ T7285] x20: 00000000000001f6 x19: ffffff9e69423c00 x18:
>>> ffffffc010711068
>>> [ 512.664812][ T7285] x17: 0000000000000008 x16: ffffffd34aed51bc x15:
>>> 0000000000000000
>>> [ 512.665507][ T7285] x14: 0000000000000a88 x13: 0000000000000000 x12:
>>> 0000000000000000
>>> [ 512.666183][ T7285] x11: 0000000100033e6c x10: ffffffc01091d000 x9 :
>>> 0000000001000000
>>> [ 512.666627][ T7285] x8 : 0000000000002f10 x7 : 80b75f8fb90b52c4 x6 :
>>> 051609fe50833de3
>>> [ 512.667276][ T7285] x5 : 0000000000000000 x4 : 0000000000000000 x3 :
>>> 0000000000000000
>>> [ 512.667875][ T7285] x2 : 00000000000001f6 x1 : 00000000000001f6 x0 :
>>> ffffffd305b746af
>>> [ 512.668483][ T7285] Call trace:
>>> [ 512.668682][ T7285] __zram_bvec_read+0x28c/0x2e8 [zram
>>> 745969ed35ea0fb382bfd518d6f70e13966e9b52]
>>> [ 512.669405][ T7285] zram_bvec_rw+0x70/0x204 [zram
>>> 745969ed35ea0fb382bfd518d6f70e13966e9b52]
>>> [ 512.670066][ T7285] zram_rw_page+0xb4/0x16c [zram
>>> 745969ed35ea0fb382bfd518d6f70e13966e9b52]
>>> [ 512.670584][ T7285] bdev_read_page+0x74/0xac
>>> [ 512.670843][ T7285] swap_readpage+0x5c/0x2e4
>>> [ 512.671243][ T7285] do_swap_page+0x2f4/0x988
>>> [ 512.671560][ T7285] handle_pte_fault+0xcc/0x1fc
>>> [ 512.671935][ T7285] handle_mm_fault+0x284/0x4a8
>>> [ 512.672412][ T7285] do_page_fault+0x274/0x428
>>> [ 512.672704][ T7285] do_translation_fault+0x5c/0xf8
>>> [ 512.673083][ T7285] do_mem_abort+0x50/0xc8
>>> [ 512.673293][ T7285] el0_da+0x3c/0x74
>>> [ 512.673549][ T7285] el0t_64_sync_handler+0xc4/0xec
>>> [ 512.673972][ T7285] el0t_64_sync+0x1a4/0x1a8
>>> [ 512.674495][ T7285] ---[ end trace cf983b7507c20343 ]---
>>> [ 512.675359][ T7285] zram: Page 502 read from zram without previous write
>>>
>>> I can also trace accesses to zram to catch the unfortunate sequence:
>>>
>>> zram_bvec_write index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>> zram_free_page index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>> zram_bvec_read index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>> zram_free_page index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286] <-- problematic free
>>> zram_bvec_read index = 502 [cpu = 0, tid = 7285] <-- problematic read
>>>
>>> With stacks for zram_free_page:
>>>
>>> zram_bvec_write index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>> zram_free_page index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>>
>>> zram_free_page+0
>>> $x.97+32
>>> zram_rw_page+180
>>> bdev_write_page+124
>>> __swap_writepage+116
>>> swap_writepage+160
>>> pageout+284
>>> shrink_page_list+2892
>>> shrink_inactive_list+688
>>> shrink_lruvec+360
>>> shrink_node_memcgs+148
>>> shrink_node+860
>>> shrink_zones+368
>>> do_try_to_free_pages+232
>>> try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pages+292
>>> try_charge_memcg+608
>>>
>>> zram_bvec_read index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286]
>>> zram_free_page index = 502 [cpu = 3, tid = 7286] <-- problematic free
>>>
>>> zram_free_page+0
>>> swap_range_free+220
>>> swap_entry_free+244
>>> swapcache_free_entries+152
>>> free_swap_slot+288
>>> __swap_entry_free+216
>>> swap_free+108
>>> do_swap_page+1776
>>> handle_pte_fault+204
>>> handle_mm_fault+644
>>> do_page_fault+628
>>> do_translation_fault+92
>>> do_mem_abort+80
>>> el0_da+60
>>> el0t_64_sync_handler+196
>>> el0t_64_sync+420
>>>
>>> zram_bvec_read index = 502 [cpu = 0, tid = 7285] <-- problematic read
>>>
>>> The very last read is the same one that triggered the warning from my
>>> patch in dmesg. You can see that the slot is freed before reading by
>>> swapcache_free_entries. As far as I can see, only zram implements
>>> swap_slot_free_notify. Swapping in an uninitialized zram page results
>>> in all zeroes copied, which matches the symptoms.
>>>
>>> The issue doesn't reproduce if I pin both threads to the same CPU. It
>>> also doesn't reproduce with a single thread. All of this seems to
>>> point at some sort of race condition.
>>>
>>> I was able to reproduce this on x86_64 bare metal server as well.
>>>
>>> I'm happy to try out mitigation approaches for this. If my
>>> understanding here is incorrect, I'm also happy to try out patches
>>> that could help me catch the issue in the wild.
>>
>> I poked around the swapping code a bit. In the failing read stack:
>>
>> [ 1298.167823][ T7004] swap_readpage+0x60/0x328
>> [ 1298.168317][ T7004] do_swap_page+0x438/0x904
>>
>> You can see that swap_readpage is only called from do_swap_page for
>> synchronous IO:
>>
>> if (data_race(si->flags & SWP_SYNCHRONOUS_IO) &&
>> __swap_count(entry) == 1) {
>> // ...
>> if (page) {
>> // ...
>> swap_readpage(page, true);
>>
>> See: https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.15.28/source/mm/memory.c#L3548
>>
>> I looked around some more and found 0bcac06f27d7:
>>
>> * mm, swap: skip swapcache for swapin of synchronous device
>>
>> Zram is considered fast synchronous storage. Reverting that notion
>> makes my reproduction not complain anymore:
>
>
> Yeah, that was the part I was chasing since we had problem there
>
> 5df373e95689b, mm/page_io.c: do not free shared swap slots
>
> Initially, I suspected __swap_count race(I still believe it has
> swap_slot_free_notify and do_swap_page) and fixed the race
> with workaround but the problem still happened.
>
> Looks like your test program clone the child with CLONE_VM
> which never call swap_duplicate to increase swap_map count.
> It means the 0bcac06f27d7 and 5df373e95689b couldn't work
> with CLONE_VM.
>
> I think reverting them is best at this moment unless someone
> has an idea.
>

Is it just zram, that's broken? Can we special-case that to not bypass
the swapcache?

--
Thanks,

David / dhildenb

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