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SubjectRe: [ANNOUNCE] "Fast Kernel Headers" Tree -v2

* Arnd Bergmann <> wrote:

> On Sat, Jan 8, 2022 at 5:26 PM Ingo Molnar <> wrote:
> >
> >
> > I'm pleased to announce -v2 of the "Fast Kernel Headers" tree, which is a
> > comprehensive rework of the Linux kernel's header hierarchy & header
> > dependencies, with the dual goals of:
> >
> > - speeding up the kernel build (both absolute and incremental build times)
> >
> > - decoupling subsystem type & API definitions from each other
> >
> > The fast-headers tree consists of over 25 sub-trees internally, spanning
> > over 2,300 commits, which can be found at:
> >
> > git:// master
> >
> > # HEAD: 391ce485ced0 headers/deps: Introduce the CONFIG_FAST_HEADERS=y config option
> I've started reading through it at last. I can't say that I'm reviewing
> every patch, [...]

Yeah, not expected at all with 2,300+ commits - but even cursory review or
review of specific areas is appreciated.

> but at least (almost all) the things I've looked at so far all seem
> really nice to me, mostly this is the same that I was planning to do as


> well, some things I would have done differently but I'm not complaining
> as you did the work, and some things seem unnecessary but might not be.
> I've started building randconfig kernels for arm64 and x86, and fixing
> up things that come up,
> a few things I have noticed out so far:
> * 2e98ec93d465 ("headers/prep: Rename constants: SOCK_DESTROY =>
> This one looks wrong, as you are changing a uapi header, possibly
> breaking applications at compile time. I think the other one should be
> renamed instead.

This is hard: SOCK_DESTROY is one of the main constants for sockets, is
well named, fits into an existing in-kernel nomenclature and both me and
networking folks would hate to rename it ...

So I'd keep this one and wait for any reported breakage. I don't think we
*guarantee* the specific naming of symbols - we guarantee an ABI, and make
a best-effort for the rest. The constant is netdiag specific and doesn't
seem to be included by any major user-space header in /usr/include.

> * 04293522a8cb ("headers/deps: ipc/shm: Move the 'struct shmid_ds'
> definition to ipc/shm.c")
> and related patches
> Similarly, the IPC structures are uapi headers that I would not
> change here for the same reasons.
> Even if nothing uses those any more with modern libc
> implementations, the structures belong into
> uapi, unless we can prove that the old-style sysvipc interface is
> completely unused and we
> remove the implementation from the kernel as well (I don't think we
> want that, but I have not
> looked in depth at when it was last used by a libc)

Ok, we can certainly undo this one - but how does it work in practice, as
the structure is already defined by libc:

/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/bits/types/struct_shmid_ds.h:struct shmid_ds

/* Data structure describing a shared memory segment. */
struct shmid_ds
struct ipc_perm shm_perm; /* operation permission struct */
size_t shm_segsz; /* size of segment in bytes */
#if __TIMESIZE == 32
__time_t shm_atime; /* time of last shmat() */
unsigned long int __shm_atime_high;
__time_t shm_dtime; /* time of last shmdt() */
unsigned long int __shm_dtime_high;
__time_t shm_ctime; /* time of last change by shmctl() */
unsigned long int __shm_ctime_high;
__time_t shm_atime; /* time of last shmat() */
__time_t shm_dtime; /* time of last shmdt() */
__time_t shm_ctime; /* time of last change by shmctl() */
__pid_t shm_cpid; /* pid of creator */
__pid_t shm_lpid; /* pid of last shmop */
shmatt_t shm_nattch; /* number of current attaches */
__syscall_ulong_t __glibc_reserved5;
__syscall_ulong_t __glibc_reserved6;

Wouldn't this definition conflict with any header use of linux/shm.h?

> * changing any include/uapi headers to use "#include <uapi/linux/*.h>"
> is broken because
> that makes the headers unusable from userspace, including any of
> tools/*/. I think we
> can work around this in the postprocessing step
> though, where we already
> do unifdef etc.

Yeah, so the problem here is on the kernel side, the following innocent
looking include in a UAPI header:

#include <linux/foo.h>

Will turn into a very large header - and unintentionally so - if there
happens to be an include/foo.h header.

I.e. normally there's only the UAPI header, which is then included, but in
some significant cases that's not so.

IMO it seems so much cleaner to express the intent to only include the UAPI
header - so solving this at header-install time would be preferable.

> * For all the header additions to .c files, I assume you are using a set
> of script, so these could
> probably be changed without much trouble. I would suggest applying
> them in sequence so
> the headers remain sorted alphabetically in the end. It would
> probably make sense to
> squash those all together to avoid patching certain files many
> times over, for the sake
> of keeping a slightly saner git history.

Are you suggesting to change the current reverse-alphabetical order of

--- a/drivers/auxdisplay/ht16k33.c
+++ b/drivers/auxdisplay/ht16k33.c
@@ -8,6 +8,15 @@
* Copyright (C) 2021 Glider bv

+#include <linux/workqueue_api.h>
+#include <linux/wait_api.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/pgtable_api.h>
+#include <linux/of_api.h>
+#include <linux/mm_api.h>
+#include <linux/jiffies.h>
+#include <linux/gfp_api.h>
+#include <linux/device_api_lock.h>

... to alphabetical?

Can certainly do that - but this will flip around the commit order: it's
much easier to add at the head of the include files section.

> * The per-task stuff sounded a bit scary from your descriptions but
> looking at the actual
> implementation I now get it, this looks like a really nice way of doing it.
Thank you!

> * I think it would be good to keep the include/linux/syscalls_api.h declarations
> in the same header as the SYSCALL_DEFINE*() macros, to ensure that the
> prototypes remain synchronized. Splitting them out will likely also
> cause sparse
> warnings for missing prototypes (or maybe it should but doesn't at
> the moment).

Yeah, I suppose we could undo the split:

# -fast-headers-v2:

| stripped lines of code
| _____________________________
| | headers included recursively
| | _______________________________
| | | usage in a distro kernel build
____________ | | | _________________________________________
| header name | | | | million lines of comment-stripped C code
| | | | |
#include <linux/syscalls_types.h> | LOC: 2,397 | headers: 128 | 353 | MLOC: 0.8 |
#include <linux/syscalls_api.h> | LOC: 12,842 | headers: 361 | 167 | MLOC: 2.1 |
The full header used to be a lot bigger:

# v5.16-rc8

#include <linux/syscalls.h> | LOC: 40,217 | headers: 604 | 321 | MLOC: 12.9 | ###

> * include/linux/time64_types.h is not a good name, as these are now
> the default types
> after we removed the time32 versions. I'd either rename it to
> linux/time_types.h
> or split it up between linux/types.h and linux/ktime_types.h

I was doing this in the context of v5.16.

> * arm64 needs a couple of minor fixups, see
> for what
> I have so far, feel free to integrate any things that directly make sense.

Thanks! Mind sending the dependency removals in a series, so I can keep
attribution? These bits are usually in separate commits, unless they fix
some bug in an existing commit:

arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h | 1 -
arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable-hwdef.h | 1 -
arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable-prot.h | 1 -
This bit looks suboptimal - but as you mentioned it fixes tooling build

--- a/include/uapi/linux/netdevice.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/netdevice.h
@@ -26,11 +26,17 @@

+#ifdef __KERNEL__
#include <uapi/linux/if.h>
#include <uapi/linux/if_ether.h>
#include <uapi/linux/if_packet.h>
#include <uapi/linux/if_link.h>
+#include <linux/if.h>
+#include <linux/if_ether.h>
+#include <linux/if_packet.h>
+#include <linux/if_link.h>

I'll apply & backmerge the per_task() fixlets for the bugs you found:

- per_task(&init_task, kcsan_ctx) = LIST_POISON1;
+ per_task(&init_task, kcsan_ctx) = LIST_POISON1;
- return ptr == &current->flags;
+ return ptr == &task_flags(current);

This KASAN bit:

--- a/include/linux/mm_api_kasan.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm_api_kasan.h
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ static inline u8 page_kasan_tag(const struct page *page)
u8 tag = 0xff;

- if (kasan_enabled()) {
tag = (page->flags >> KASAN_TAG_PGSHIFT) & KASAN_TAG_MASK;
tag ^= 0xff;
Is this a fix for some build failure? Upstream it's using kasan_enabled():

static inline u8 page_kasan_tag(const struct page *page)
u8 tag = 0xff;
if (kasan_enabled()) {
tag = (page->flags >> KASAN_TAG_PGSHIFT) & KASAN_TAG_MASK;
tag ^= 0xff;
return tag;

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