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SubjectRE: [PATCH v10 3/7] arm64: hyperv: Add Hyper-V clocksource/clockevent support
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From: Marc Zyngier <maz@kernel.org> Sent: Wednesday, June 23, 2021 1:56 AM
>
> On Tue, 22 Jun 2021 10:54:12 +0100,
> Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Michael,
> >
> > Thanks for all this; comments inline below. I've added Marc Zyngier, who
> > co-maintains the architected timer code.
> >
> > On Mon, Jun 14, 2021 at 02:42:23AM +0000, Michael Kelley wrote:
> > > From: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> Sent: Thursday, June 10, 2021 9:45 AM
> > > > On Tue, Jun 08, 2021 at 03:36:06PM +0000, Michael Kelley wrote:
> > > > > I've had a couple rounds of discussions with the Hyper-V team. For
> > > > > the clocksource we've agreed to table the live migration discussion, and
> > > > > I'll resubmit the code so that arm_arch_timer.c provides the
> > > > > standard arch_sys_counter clocksource. As noted previously, this just
> > > > > works for a Hyper-V guest. The live migration discussion may come
> > > > > back later after a deeper investigation by Hyper-V.
> > > >
> > > > Great; thanks for this!
> > > >
> > > > > For clockevents, there's not a near term fix. It's more than just plumbing
> > > > > an interrupt for Hyper-V to virtualize the ARM64 arch timer in a guest VM.
> > > > > From their perspective there's also benefit in having a timer abstraction
> > > > > that's independent of the architecture, and in the Linux guest, the STIMER
> > > > > code is common across x86/x64 and ARM64. It follows the standard Linux
> > > > > clockevents model, as it should. The code is already in use in out-of-tree
> > > > > builds in the Linux VMs included in Windows 10 on ARM64 as part of the
> > > > > so-called "Windows Subsystem for Linux".
> > > > >
> > > > > So I'm hoping we can get this core support for ARM64 guests on Hyper-V
> > > > > into upstream using the existing STIMER support. At some point, Hyper-V
> > > > > will do the virtualization of the ARM64 arch timer, but we don't want to
> > > > > have to stay out-of-tree until after that happens.
> > > >
> > > > My main concern here is making sure that we can rely on architected
> > > > properties, and don't have to special-case architected bits for hyperv
> > > > (or any other hypervisor), since that inevitably causes longer-term
> > > > pain.
> > > >
> > > > While in abstract I'm not as worried about using the timer
> > > > clock_event_device specifically, that same driver provides the
> > > > clocksource and the event stream, and I want those to work as usual,
> > > > without being tied into the hyperv code. IIUC that will require some
> > > > work, since the driver won't register if the GTDT is missing timer
> > > > interrupts (or if there is no GTDT).
> > > >
> > > > I think it really depends on what that looks like.
> > >
> > > Mark,
> > >
> > > Here are the details:
> > >
> > > The existing initialization and registration code in arm_arch_timer.c
> > > works in a Hyper-V guest with no changes. As previously mentioned,
> > > the GTDT exists and is correctly populated. Even though it isn't used,
> > > there's a PPI INTID specified for the virtual timer, just so
> > > the "arm_sys_timer" clockevent can be initialized and registered.
> > > The IRQ shows up in the output of "cat /proc/interrupts" with zero counts
> > > for all CPUs since no interrupts are ever generated. The EL1 virtual
> > > timer registers (CNTV_CVAL_EL0, CNTV_TVAL_EL0, and CNTV_CTL_EL0)
> > > are accessible in the VM. The "arm_sys_timer" clockevent is left in
> > > a shutdown state with CNTV_CTL_EL0.ENABLE set to zero when the
> > > Hyper-V STIMER clockevent is registered with a higher rating.
> >
> > This concerns me, since we're lying to the kernel, and assuming that it
> > will never try to use this timer. I appreciate that evidently we don't
> > happen to rely on that today if you register a higher priority timer,
> > but that does open us up to future fragility (e.g. if we added sanity
> > checks when registering timers), and IIRC there are ways for userspace
> > to change the clockevent device today.
>
> Indeed. Userspace can perfectly unbind the clockevent using
> /sys/devices/system/clockevents/clockevent*/unbind_device, and the
> kernel will be happy to switch to the next per-cpu timer, which
> happens to be the arch timer. Oh wait...
>
> >
> > > Event streams are initialized and the __delay() implementation
> > > for ARM64 inside the kernel works. However, on the Ampere
> > > eMAG hardware I'm using for testing, the WFE instruction returns
> > > more quickly than it should even though the event stream fields in
> > > CNTKCTL_EL1 are correct. I have a query in to the Hyper-V team
> > > to see if they are trapping WFE and just returning, vs. perhaps the
> > > eMAG processor takes the easy way out and has WFE just return
> > > immediately. I'm not knowledgeable about other uses of timer
> > > event streams, so let me know if there are other usage scenarios
> > > I should check.
> >
> > I saw your reply confirming that this is gnerally working as expected
> > (and that Hyper-V is not trapping WFE) so this sounds fine to me.
> >
> > > Finally, the "arch_sys_counter" clocksource gets initialized and
> > > setup correctly. If the Hyper-V clocksource is also initialized,
> > > you can flip between the two clocksources at runtime as expected.
> > > If the Hyper-V clocksource is not setup, then Linux in the VM runs
> > > fine with the "arch_sys_counter" clocksource.
> >
> > Great!
> >
> > As above, my remaining concern here is fragility around the
> > clockevent_device; I'm not keen that we're lying (in the GTDT) that
> > interrupts are wired up when they not functional, and while you can get
> > away with that today, that relies on kernel implementation details that
> > could change.
> >
> > Ideally, Hyper-V would provide the architectural timer (as it's already
> > claiming to in the GTDT), things would "just work", and the Hyper-V
> > timer would be an optimization rather than a functional necessity.
> >
> > You mentioned above that Hyper-V will virtualize the timer "at some
> > point" -- is that already planned, and when is that likely to be?
> >
> > Marc, do you have any thoughts on this?
>
> Overall, lying to the kernel is a bad idea. Only implementing half of
> the architecture is another bad idea. I doubt the combination of two
> bad ideas produces a good one.
>
> If Hyper-V guests need to use another timer (for migration purposes?),
> that's fine. But we rely on both the base architecture to be
> completely implemented *and* on advertised features to be functional.
> I think this has been our position since the first Hyper-V patches
> were posted... 3 years ago?
>
> What is the hold up for reliably virtualising the arch timer,
> including interrupt delivery?

Marc (and Mark) --

In our early interactions about the Hyper-V clocks and timers, the code
was a bit spread out, and you suggested moving all the clocksource
and clockevent stuff to a driver under drivers/clocksource. See
https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/e0374a07-809c-cabd-2eb6-e6b5ad84742e@arm.com/.
That was a good change independent of any ARM64 considerations,
but I read (or perhaps overread) your comments to say that it was OK
to use these Hyper-V para-virtualized clocks/timers instead of the ARM64
architectural ones in a Hyper-V VM. They work and it's what the Hyper-V
guys wanted to do anyway, so having Hyper-V offer the ARM64 arch
counter and timer in a VM hasn't been a priority. They had other stuff that
didn't work at all on ARM64, so that's where their attention went.

I agree that it would be better to have the ARM64 arch counter/timer
fully implemented in a Hyper-V VM. But we're wanting to find a practical
way to move forward, and in doing so confine any rough edges to Hyper-V
VMs and the Hyper-V specific code in the kernel tree. We're maintaining
and shipping the code out-of-tree based on Hyper-V ARM64 current behavior
and would like to get this core enablement code upstream. Sure, unbinding
the Hyper-V clockevent doesn't work, but that's not a problem in any use
cases we see from customers.

All that said, our discussions with the Hyper-V team are continuing. We're
still in the process of seeing what's practical to get and when.

Michael

>
> Thanks,
>
> M.
>
> --
> Without deviation from the norm, progress is not possible.

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