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Subject[PATCH v8 10/10] Documentation: Add documentation for VDUSE
Date
VDUSE (vDPA Device in Userspace) is a framework to support
implementing software-emulated vDPA devices in userspace. This
document is intended to clarify the VDUSE design and usage.

Signed-off-by: Xie Yongji <xieyongji@bytedance.com>
---
Documentation/userspace-api/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/userspace-api/vduse.rst | 222 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
2 files changed, 223 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/userspace-api/vduse.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/index.rst b/Documentation/userspace-api/index.rst
index 0b5eefed027e..c432be070f67 100644
--- a/Documentation/userspace-api/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/userspace-api/index.rst
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@ place where this information is gathered.
iommu
media/index
sysfs-platform_profile
+ vduse

.. only:: subproject and html

diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/vduse.rst b/Documentation/userspace-api/vduse.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2f9cd1a4e530
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/userspace-api/vduse.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,222 @@
+==================================
+VDUSE - "vDPA Device in Userspace"
+==================================
+
+vDPA (virtio data path acceleration) device is a device that uses a
+datapath which complies with the virtio specifications with vendor
+specific control path. vDPA devices can be both physically located on
+the hardware or emulated by software. VDUSE is a framework that makes it
+possible to implement software-emulated vDPA devices in userspace. And
+to make it simple, the emulated vDPA device's control path is handled in
+the kernel and only the data path is implemented in the userspace.
+
+Note that only virtio block device is supported by VDUSE framework now,
+which can reduce security risks when the userspace process that implements
+the data path is run by an unprivileged user. The Support for other device
+types can be added after the security issue is clarified or fixed in the future.
+
+Start/Stop VDUSE devices
+------------------------
+
+VDUSE devices are started as follows:
+
+1. Create a new VDUSE instance with ioctl(VDUSE_CREATE_DEV) on
+ /dev/vduse/control.
+
+2. Begin processing VDUSE messages from /dev/vduse/$NAME. The first
+ messages will arrive while attaching the VDUSE instance to vDPA bus.
+
+3. Send the VDPA_CMD_DEV_NEW netlink message to attach the VDUSE
+ instance to vDPA bus.
+
+VDUSE devices are stopped as follows:
+
+1. Send the VDPA_CMD_DEV_DEL netlink message to detach the VDUSE
+ instance from vDPA bus.
+
+2. Close the file descriptor referring to /dev/vduse/$NAME
+
+3. Destroy the VDUSE instance with ioctl(VDUSE_DESTROY_DEV) on
+ /dev/vduse/control
+
+The netlink messages metioned above can be sent via vdpa tool in iproute2
+or use the below sample codes:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ static int netlink_add_vduse(const char *name, enum vdpa_command cmd)
+ {
+ struct nl_sock *nlsock;
+ struct nl_msg *msg;
+ int famid;
+
+ nlsock = nl_socket_alloc();
+ if (!nlsock)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ if (genl_connect(nlsock))
+ goto free_sock;
+
+ famid = genl_ctrl_resolve(nlsock, VDPA_GENL_NAME);
+ if (famid < 0)
+ goto close_sock;
+
+ msg = nlmsg_alloc();
+ if (!msg)
+ goto close_sock;
+
+ if (!genlmsg_put(msg, NL_AUTO_PORT, NL_AUTO_SEQ, famid, 0, 0, cmd, 0))
+ goto nla_put_failure;
+
+ NLA_PUT_STRING(msg, VDPA_ATTR_DEV_NAME, name);
+ if (cmd == VDPA_CMD_DEV_NEW)
+ NLA_PUT_STRING(msg, VDPA_ATTR_MGMTDEV_DEV_NAME, "vduse");
+
+ if (nl_send_sync(nlsock, msg))
+ goto close_sock;
+
+ nl_close(nlsock);
+ nl_socket_free(nlsock);
+
+ return 0;
+ nla_put_failure:
+ nlmsg_free(msg);
+ close_sock:
+ nl_close(nlsock);
+ free_sock:
+ nl_socket_free(nlsock);
+ return -1;
+ }
+
+How VDUSE works
+---------------
+
+Since the emuldated vDPA device's control path is handled in the kernel,
+a message-based communication protocol and few types of control messages
+are introduced by VDUSE framework to make userspace be aware of the data
+path related changes:
+
+- VDUSE_GET_VQ_STATE: Get the state for virtqueue from userspace
+
+- VDUSE_START_DATAPLANE: Notify userspace to start the dataplane
+
+- VDUSE_STOP_DATAPLANE: Notify userspace to stop the dataplane
+
+- VDUSE_UPDATE_IOTLB: Notify userspace to update the memory mapping in device IOTLB
+
+Userspace needs to read()/write() on /dev/vduse/$NAME to receive/reply
+those control messages from/to VDUSE kernel module as follows:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ static int vduse_message_handler(int dev_fd)
+ {
+ int len;
+ struct vduse_dev_request req;
+ struct vduse_dev_response resp;
+
+ len = read(dev_fd, &req, sizeof(req));
+ if (len != sizeof(req))
+ return -1;
+
+ resp.request_id = req.request_id;
+
+ switch (req.type) {
+
+ /* handle different types of message */
+
+ }
+
+ if (req.flags & VDUSE_REQ_FLAGS_NO_REPLY)
+ return 0;
+
+ len = write(dev_fd, &resp, sizeof(resp));
+ if (len != sizeof(resp))
+ return -1;
+
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+After VDUSE_START_DATAPLANE messages is received, userspace should start the
+dataplane processing with the help of some ioctls on /dev/vduse/$NAME:
+
+- VDUSE_IOTLB_GET_FD: get the file descriptor to the first overlapped iova region.
+ Userspace can access this iova region by passing fd and corresponding size, offset,
+ perm to mmap(). For example:
+
+.. code-block:: c
+
+ static int perm_to_prot(uint8_t perm)
+ {
+ int prot = 0;
+
+ switch (perm) {
+ case VDUSE_ACCESS_WO:
+ prot |= PROT_WRITE;
+ break;
+ case VDUSE_ACCESS_RO:
+ prot |= PROT_READ;
+ break;
+ case VDUSE_ACCESS_RW:
+ prot |= PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE;
+ break;
+ }
+
+ return prot;
+ }
+
+ static void *iova_to_va(int dev_fd, uint64_t iova, uint64_t *len)
+ {
+ int fd;
+ void *addr;
+ size_t size;
+ struct vduse_iotlb_entry entry;
+
+ entry.start = iova;
+ entry.last = iova + 1;
+ fd = ioctl(dev_fd, VDUSE_IOTLB_GET_FD, &entry);
+ if (fd < 0)
+ return NULL;
+
+ size = entry.last - entry.start + 1;
+ *len = entry.last - iova + 1;
+ addr = mmap(0, size, perm_to_prot(entry.perm), MAP_SHARED,
+ fd, entry.offset);
+ close(fd);
+ if (addr == MAP_FAILED)
+ return NULL;
+
+ /* do something to cache this iova region */
+
+ return addr + iova - entry.start;
+ }
+
+- VDUSE_DEV_GET_FEATURES: Get the negotiated features
+
+- VDUSE_DEV_UPDATE_CONFIG: Update the configuration space and inject a config interrupt
+
+- VDUSE_VQ_GET_INFO: Get the specified virtqueue's metadata
+
+- VDUSE_VQ_SETUP_KICKFD: set the kickfd for virtqueue, this eventfd is used
+ by VDUSE kernel module to notify userspace to consume the vring.
+
+- VDUSE_INJECT_VQ_IRQ: inject an interrupt for specific virtqueue
+
+MMU-based IOMMU Driver
+----------------------
+
+VDUSE framework implements an MMU-based on-chip IOMMU driver to support
+mapping the kernel DMA buffer into the userspace iova region dynamically.
+This is mainly designed for virtio-vdpa case (kernel virtio drivers).
+
+The basic idea behind this driver is treating MMU (VA->PA) as IOMMU (IOVA->PA).
+The driver will set up MMU mapping instead of IOMMU mapping for the DMA transfer
+so that the userspace process is able to use its virtual address to access
+the DMA buffer in kernel.
+
+And to avoid security issue, a bounce-buffering mechanism is introduced to
+prevent userspace accessing the original buffer directly which may contain other
+kernel data. During the mapping, unmapping, the driver will copy the data from
+the original buffer to the bounce buffer and back, depending on the direction of
+the transfer. And the bounce-buffer addresses will be mapped into the user address
+space instead of the original one.
--
2.11.0
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