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Subject[PATCH v2 00/17] Support Asynchronous Page Fault
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There are two stages of page fault. The guest kernel is responsible for
handling stage-1 page fault, while the host kernel is to take care of the
stage-2 page fault. When the guest is trapped to host because of stage-2
page fault, the guest is suspended until the requested memory (page) is
populated. Sometimes, the cost to populate the requested page isn't cheap
and can take hundreds of milliseconds in extreme cases. Similarly, the
guest has to wait until the requested memory is ready in the scenario of
post-copy live migration.

This series introduces the feature (Asynchronous Page Fault) to improve
situation, so that the guest needn't have to wait in the scenarios. With
it, the overall performance is improved on the guest. This series depends
on the feature "SDEI virtualization" and QEMU changes. All code changes
can be found from github:

https://github.com/gwshan/linux ("sdei") # SDEI virtualization
https://github.com/gwshan/linux ("apf") # This series + "sdei"
https://github.com/gwshan/qemu ("apf") # QEMU code changes

About the design, the details can be found from last patch. Generally,
it's driven by two notifications: page-not-present and page-ready. They
are delivered from the host to guest via SDEI event and PPI separately.
In the mean while, each notification is always associated with a token,
used to identify the notification. The token is passed by the shared
memory between host/guest. Besides, the SMCCC and ioctl interface are
mitigated by VMM and guest to configure, enable, disable, even migrate
the functionality.

When the guest is trapped to host because of stage-2 page fault, a
page-not-present notification is raised by the host, and sent to the
guest through dedicated SDEI event (0x40400001) if the requested page
can't be populated immediately. In the mean while, a (background) worker
is also started to populate the requested page. On receiving the SDEI
event, the guest marks the current running process with special flag
(TIF_ASYNC_PF) and associates it with a pre-allocated waitqueue. At
same time, a (reschedule) IPI is sent to current CPU. After the SDEI
event is acknowledged by the guest, the (reschedule) IPI is delivered
and it causes context switch from that process tagged with TIF_ASYNC_PF
to another process.

Later on, a page-ready notification is sent to guest after the requested
page is populated by the (background) worker. On receiving the interrupt,
the guest uses the associated token to locate the process, which was
previously suspended because of page-not-present. The flag (TIF_ASYNC_PF)
is cleared for the suspended process and it's waken up.

The series is organized as below:

PATCH[01-04] makes the GFN hash table management generic so that it
can be shared by x86/arm64.
PATCH[05-06] support KVM hypervisor SMCCC services from Will Deacon.
PATCH[07-08] preparatory work to support asynchronous page fault.
PATCH[09-10] support asynchronous page fault.
PATCH[11-13] support ioctl and SMCCC interfaces for the functionality.
PATHC[14-16] supoort asynchronous page fault for guest
PATCH[17] adds document to explain the design and internals

Testing
=======

The tests are taken using program "testsuite mem", which is written by
myself. The program basically does two things: (a) Starts a thread to
allocate the specified percentage of available memory, write random
values to them by the specified times, and then release them; (b) Thread
is started to do calculation if needed.

In the mean while, the guest is always assigned with only one vCPU and
4096MB memory in all test cases. The memory cgroup where qemu process
is associated could have different memory limitation settings.

[1] Allocate/free memory without calculation thread

Index -APF +APF Output
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 39477ms 38367ms +0.28%
2 51272ms 49760ms +0.29%

The consumed time is decreased a bit and it should be benefited from
the (background) workers, which runs in parallel.

[2] Allocate/free memory with calculation thread

Index -APF +APF Output
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 81442ms 7155198892 171335ms 22391255613 -110% +213%
2 122002ms 11438214429 191126ms 24984499197 -57% +119%

The increased calculation amount is almost 2 times of the increased
time.

[3] 5 Times of allocate/free memory with calculation thread and post-copy
live migration

Index -APF +APF Output
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 240635ms 19722999876 658955ms 89242030748 +174% +352%


Results retrieved from "info migrate":

Param -APF +APF Output
--------------------------------------------------------------------
store-global-state: on on
only-migratable: off off
send-configuration: on on
send-section-footer: on on
decompress-error-check: on on
clear-bitmap-shift: 18 18
Migration status: completed completed
total time: 9576 ms 10461 ms +9.2%
downtime: 78 ms 44 ms -43.5%
setup: 62 ms 47ms -24.1%
transferred ram: 889007 kbytes 1206436 kbytes +35.7%
throughput: 765.53 mbps 949.08 mbps +24%
remaining ram: 0 kbytes 0 kbytes
total ram: 4325952 kbytes 4325952 kbytes
duplicate: 861559 pages 823954 pages
skipped: 0 pages 0 pages
normal: 219929 pages 299214 pages
normal bytes: 879716 kbytes 1196856 kbytes
dirty sync count: 2 2
page size: 4 kbytes 4 kbytes
multifd bytes: 0 kbytes 0 kbytes
pages-per-second: 33684 72400 +115%
postcopy request count: 121 75 -38%

The asynchronous page fault is beneficial to throughput and speed in
the scenario of post-copy live migration.

Chnagelog
=========
v2:
* Rebase to v5.11.rc6 (Gavin)
* Split the patches (James)
* Allocate "struct kvm_arch_async_control" dymaicall and use
it to check if the feature has been enabled. The kernel
option (CONFIG_KVM_ASYNC_PF) isn't used. (James)
* Add document to explain the design (James)
* Make GFN hash table management generic (James)
* Add ioctl commands to support migration (Gavin)

Gavin Shan (15):
KVM: async_pf: Move struct kvm_async_pf around
KVM: async_pf: Add helper function to check completion queue
KVM: async_pf: Make GFN slot management generic
KVM: x86: Use generic async PF slot management
KVM: arm64: Export kvm_handle_user_mem_abort()
KVM: arm64: Add paravirtualization header files
KVM: arm64: Support page-not-present notification
KVM: arm64: Support page-ready notification
KVM: arm64: Support async PF hypercalls
KVM: arm64: Support async PF ioctl commands
KVM: arm64: Export async PF capability
arm64: Detect async PF para-virtualization feature
arm64: Reschedule process on aync PF
arm64: Enable async PF
KVM: arm64: Add async PF document

Will Deacon (2):
arm64: Probe for the presence of KVM hypervisor services during boot
KVM: arm64: Advertise KVM UID to guests via SMCCC

Documentation/virt/kvm/arm/apf.rst | 143 +++++++
Documentation/virt/kvm/arm/index.rst | 1 +
arch/arm64/Kconfig | 11 +
arch/arm64/include/asm/esr.h | 6 +
arch/arm64/include/asm/hypervisor.h | 11 +
arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_emulate.h | 27 +-
arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_host.h | 85 ++++
arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_para.h | 37 ++
arch/arm64/include/asm/processor.h | 1 +
arch/arm64/include/asm/thread_info.h | 4 +-
arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/Kbuild | 2 -
arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/kvm.h | 19 +
arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/kvm_para.h | 23 ++
arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/kvm_sdei.h | 1 +
arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
arch/arm64/kernel/kvm.c | 452 +++++++++++++++++++++
arch/arm64/kernel/setup.c | 32 ++
arch/arm64/kernel/signal.c | 17 +
arch/arm64/kvm/Kconfig | 2 +
arch/arm64/kvm/Makefile | 1 +
arch/arm64/kvm/arm.c | 37 +-
arch/arm64/kvm/async_pf.c | 535 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/arm64/kvm/hypercalls.c | 33 +-
arch/arm64/kvm/mmu.c | 75 +++-
arch/arm64/kvm/sdei.c | 5 +
arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h | 1 -
arch/x86/kvm/Kconfig | 1 +
arch/x86/kvm/mmu/mmu.c | 2 +-
arch/x86/kvm/x86.c | 88 +---
include/linux/arm-smccc.h | 40 ++
include/linux/kvm_host.h | 73 +++-
include/uapi/linux/kvm.h | 3 +
virt/kvm/Kconfig | 3 +
virt/kvm/async_pf.c | 91 ++++-
virt/kvm/kvm_main.c | 4 +-
35 files changed, 1706 insertions(+), 161 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/virt/kvm/arm/apf.rst
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_para.h
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/kvm_para.h
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/kvm.c
create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kvm/async_pf.c

--
2.23.0

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