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SubjectRe: [PATCH v5] RISC-V: Implement ASID allocator
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On Wed, 03 Feb 2021 01:49:07 PST (-0800), Anup Patel wrote:
> Currently, we do local TLB flush on every MM switch. This is very harsh on
> performance because we are forcing page table walks after every MM switch.
>
> This patch implements ASID allocator for assigning an ASID to a MM context.
> The number of ASIDs are limited in HW so we create a logical entity named
> CONTEXTID for assigning to MM context. The lower bits of CONTEXTID are ASID
> and upper bits are VERSION number. The number of usable ASID bits supported
> by HW are detected at boot-time by writing 1s to ASID bits in SATP CSR.
>
> We allocate new CONTEXTID on first MM switch for a MM context where the
> ASID is allocated from an ASID bitmap and VERSION is provide by an atomic
> counter. At time of allocating new CONTEXTID, if we run out of available
> ASIDs then:
> 1. We flush the ASID bitmap
> 2. Increment current VERSION atomic counter
> 3. Re-allocate ASID from ASID bitmap
> 4. Flush TLB on all CPUs
> 5. Try CONTEXTID re-assignment on all CPUs
>
> Please note that we don't use ASID #0 because it is used at boot-time by
> all CPUs for initial MM context. Also, newly created context is always
> assigned CONTEXTID #0 (i.e. VERSION #0 and ASID #0) which is an invalid
> context in our implementation.
>
> Using above approach, we have virtually infinite CONTEXTIDs on-top-of
> limited number of HW ASIDs. This approach is inspired from ASID allocator
> used for Linux ARM/ARM64 but we have adapted it for RISC-V. Overall, this
> ASID allocator helps us reduce rate of local TLB flushes on every CPU
> thereby increasing performance.
>
> This patch is tested on QEMU virt machine, Spike and SiFive Unleashed
> board. On QEMU virt machine, we see some (3-5% approx) performance
> improvement with SW emulated TLBs provided by QEMU. Unfortunately,
> the ASID bits of the SATP CSR are not implemented on Spike and SiFive
> Unleashed board so we don't see any change in performance. On real HW
> having all ASID bits implemented, the performance gains will be much
> more due improved sharing of TLB among different processes.
>
> Signed-off-by: Anup Patel <anup.patel@wdc.com>
> Reviewed-by: Palmer Dabbelt <palmerdabbelt@google.com>
> ---
> Changes since v4:
> - Rebased on Linux-5.11-rc6
> - Used lockdep_assert_held() in __new_context() and __flush_context()
>
> Changes since v3:
> - Rebased on Linux-5.11-rc4. The previous v3 patch (almost 2 years back)
> was based on Linux-5.1-rc2
> - Updated implementation to consider NoMMU kernel
> - Converted use_asid_allocator boolean flag into static key
> - Improved boot-time print in asids_init() to show number of ASID bits
> - Access SATP CSR by number instead of old CSR name "sptbr"
>
> Changes since v2:
> - Move to lazy TLB flushing because we get slow path warnings if we
> use flush_tlb_all()
> - Don't set ASID bits to all 1s in head.s. Instead just do it on
> boot CPU calling asids_init() for determining number of HW ASID bits
> - Make CONTEXT version comparison more readable in set_mm_asid()
> - Fix typo in __flush_context()
>
> Changes since v1:
> - We adapt good aspects from Gary Guo's ASID allocator implementation
> and provide due credit to him by adding his SoB.
> - Track ASIDs active during context flush and mark them as reserved
> - Set ASID bits to all 1s to simplify number of ASID bit detection
> - Use atomic_long_t instead of atomic64_t for being 32bit friendly
> - Use unsigned long instead of u64 for being 32bit friendly
> - Use flush_tlb_all() instead of lazy local_tlb_flush_all() at time
> of context flush
>
> This patch is based on Linux-5.11-rc6 and can be found in the
> riscv_asid_allocator_v5 branch of https://github.com/avpatel/linux.git
> ---
> arch/riscv/include/asm/csr.h | 6 +
> arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu.h | 2 +
> arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu_context.h | 10 +
> arch/riscv/mm/context.c | 265 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> 4 files changed, 279 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/csr.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/csr.h
> index cec462e198ce..caadfc1d7487 100644
> --- a/arch/riscv/include/asm/csr.h
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/csr.h
> @@ -41,10 +41,16 @@
> #define SATP_PPN _AC(0x003FFFFF, UL)
> #define SATP_MODE_32 _AC(0x80000000, UL)
> #define SATP_MODE SATP_MODE_32
> +#define SATP_ASID_BITS 9
> +#define SATP_ASID_SHIFT 22
> +#define SATP_ASID_MASK _AC(0x1FF, UL)
> #else
> #define SATP_PPN _AC(0x00000FFFFFFFFFFF, UL)
> #define SATP_MODE_39 _AC(0x8000000000000000, UL)
> #define SATP_MODE SATP_MODE_39
> +#define SATP_ASID_BITS 16
> +#define SATP_ASID_SHIFT 44
> +#define SATP_ASID_MASK _AC(0xFFFF, UL)
> #endif
>
> /* Exception cause high bit - is an interrupt if set */
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu.h
> index dabcf2cfb3dc..0099dc116168 100644
> --- a/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu.h
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu.h
> @@ -12,6 +12,8 @@
> typedef struct {
> #ifndef CONFIG_MMU
> unsigned long end_brk;
> +#else
> + atomic_long_t id;
> #endif
> void *vdso;
> #ifdef CONFIG_SMP
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> index 250defa06f3a..b0659413a080 100644
> --- a/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> +++ b/arch/riscv/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> @@ -23,6 +23,16 @@ static inline void activate_mm(struct mm_struct *prev,
> switch_mm(prev, next, NULL);
> }
>
> +#define init_new_context init_new_context
> +static inline int init_new_context(struct task_struct *tsk,
> + struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> +#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> + atomic_long_set(&mm->context.id, 0);
> +#endif
> + return 0;
> +}
> +
> #include <asm-generic/mmu_context.h>
>
> #endif /* _ASM_RISCV_MMU_CONTEXT_H */
> diff --git a/arch/riscv/mm/context.c b/arch/riscv/mm/context.c
> index 613ec81a8979..68aa312fc352 100644
> --- a/arch/riscv/mm/context.c
> +++ b/arch/riscv/mm/context.c
> @@ -2,13 +2,273 @@
> /*
> * Copyright (C) 2012 Regents of the University of California
> * Copyright (C) 2017 SiFive
> + * Copyright (C) 2021 Western Digital Corporation or its affiliates.
> */
>
> +#include <linux/bitops.h>
> +#include <linux/cpumask.h>
> #include <linux/mm.h>
> +#include <linux/percpu.h>
> +#include <linux/slab.h>
> +#include <linux/spinlock.h>
> +#include <linux/static_key.h>
> #include <asm/tlbflush.h>
> #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
> #include <asm/mmu_context.h>
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> +
> +static DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(use_asid_allocator);
> +
> +static unsigned long asid_bits;
> +static unsigned long num_asids;
> +static unsigned long asid_mask;
> +
> +static atomic_long_t current_version;
> +
> +static DEFINE_RAW_SPINLOCK(context_lock);
> +static cpumask_t context_tlb_flush_pending;
> +static unsigned long *context_asid_map;
> +
> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(atomic_long_t, active_context);
> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long, reserved_context);
> +
> +static bool check_update_reserved_context(unsigned long cntx,
> + unsigned long newcntx)
> +{
> + int cpu;
> + bool hit = false;
> +
> + /*
> + * Iterate over the set of reserved CONTEXT looking for a match.
> + * If we find one, then we can update our mm to use new CONTEXT
> + * (i.e. the same CONTEXT in the current_version) but we can't
> + * exit the loop early, since we need to ensure that all copies
> + * of the old CONTEXT are updated to reflect the mm. Failure to do
> + * so could result in us missing the reserved CONTEXT in a future
> + * version.
> + */
> + for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
> + if (per_cpu(reserved_context, cpu) == cntx) {
> + hit = true;
> + per_cpu(reserved_context, cpu) = newcntx;
> + }
> + }
> +
> + return hit;
> +}
> +
> +static void __flush_context(void)
> +{
> + int i;
> + unsigned long cntx;
> +
> + /* Must be called with context_lock held */
> + lockdep_assert_held(&context_lock);
> +
> + /* Update the list of reserved ASIDs and the ASID bitmap. */
> + bitmap_clear(context_asid_map, 0, num_asids);
> +
> + /* Mark already active ASIDs as used */
> + for_each_possible_cpu(i) {
> + cntx = atomic_long_xchg_relaxed(&per_cpu(active_context, i), 0);
> + /*
> + * If this CPU has already been through a rollover, but
> + * hasn't run another task in the meantime, we must preserve
> + * its reserved CONTEXT, as this is the only trace we have of
> + * the process it is still running.
> + */
> + if (cntx == 0)
> + cntx = per_cpu(reserved_context, i);
> +
> + __set_bit(cntx & asid_mask, context_asid_map);
> + per_cpu(reserved_context, i) = cntx;
> + }
> +
> + /* Mark ASID #0 as used because it is used at boot-time */
> + __set_bit(0, context_asid_map);
> +
> + /* Queue a TLB invalidation for each CPU on next context-switch */
> + cpumask_setall(&context_tlb_flush_pending);
> +}
> +
> +static unsigned long __new_context(struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> + static u32 cur_idx = 1;
> + unsigned long cntx = atomic_long_read(&mm->context.id);
> + unsigned long asid, ver = atomic_long_read(&current_version);
> +
> + /* Must be called with context_lock held */
> + lockdep_assert_held(&context_lock);
> +
> + if (cntx != 0) {
> + unsigned long newcntx = ver | (cntx & asid_mask);
> +
> + /*
> + * If our current CONTEXT was active during a rollover, we
> + * can continue to use it and this was just a false alarm.
> + */
> + if (check_update_reserved_context(cntx, newcntx))
> + return newcntx;
> +
> + /*
> + * We had a valid CONTEXT in a previous life, so try to
> + * re-use it if possible.
> + */
> + if (!__test_and_set_bit(cntx & asid_mask, context_asid_map))
> + return newcntx;
> + }
> +
> + /*
> + * Allocate a free ASID. If we can't find one then increment
> + * current_version and flush all ASIDs.
> + */
> + asid = find_next_zero_bit(context_asid_map, num_asids, cur_idx);
> + if (asid != num_asids)
> + goto set_asid;
> +
> + /* We're out of ASIDs, so increment current_version */
> + ver = atomic_long_add_return_relaxed(num_asids, &current_version);
> +
> + /* Flush everything */
> + __flush_context();
> +
> + /* We have more ASIDs than CPUs, so this will always succeed */
> + asid = find_next_zero_bit(context_asid_map, num_asids, 1);
> +
> +set_asid:
> + __set_bit(asid, context_asid_map);
> + cur_idx = asid;
> + return asid | ver;
> +}
> +
> +static void set_mm_asid(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> +{
> + unsigned long flags;
> + bool need_flush_tlb = false;
> + unsigned long cntx, old_active_cntx;
> +
> + cntx = atomic_long_read(&mm->context.id);
> +
> + /*
> + * If our active_context is non-zero and the context matches the
> + * current_version, then we update the active_context entry with a
> + * relaxed cmpxchg.
> + *
> + * Following is how we handle racing with a concurrent rollover:
> + *
> + * - We get a zero back from the cmpxchg and end up waiting on the
> + * lock. Taking the lock synchronises with the rollover and so
> + * we are forced to see the updated verion.
> + *
> + * - We get a valid context back from the cmpxchg then we continue
> + * using old ASID because __flush_context() would have marked ASID
> + * of active_context as used and next context switch we will
> + * allocate new context.
> + */
> + old_active_cntx = atomic_long_read(&per_cpu(active_context, cpu));
> + if (old_active_cntx &&
> + ((cntx & ~asid_mask) == atomic_long_read(&current_version)) &&
> + atomic_long_cmpxchg_relaxed(&per_cpu(active_context, cpu),
> + old_active_cntx, cntx))
> + goto switch_mm_fast;
> +
> + raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&context_lock, flags);
> +
> + /* Check that our ASID belongs to the current_version. */
> + cntx = atomic_long_read(&mm->context.id);
> + if ((cntx & ~asid_mask) != atomic_long_read(&current_version)) {
> + cntx = __new_context(mm);
> + atomic_long_set(&mm->context.id, cntx);
> + }
> +
> + if (cpumask_test_and_clear_cpu(cpu, &context_tlb_flush_pending))
> + need_flush_tlb = true;
> +
> + atomic_long_set(&per_cpu(active_context, cpu), cntx);
> +
> + raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&context_lock, flags);
> +
> +switch_mm_fast:
> + csr_write(CSR_SATP, virt_to_pfn(mm->pgd) |
> + ((cntx & asid_mask) << SATP_ASID_SHIFT) |
> + SATP_MODE);
> +
> + if (need_flush_tlb)
> + local_flush_tlb_all();
> +}
> +
> +static void set_mm_noasid(struct mm_struct *mm)
> +{
> + /* Switch the page table and blindly nuke entire local TLB */
> + csr_write(CSR_SATP, virt_to_pfn(mm->pgd) | SATP_MODE);
> + local_flush_tlb_all();
> +}
> +
> +static inline void set_mm(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> +{
> + if (static_branch_unlikely(&use_asid_allocator))
> + set_mm_asid(mm, cpu);
> + else
> + set_mm_noasid(mm);
> +}
> +
> +static int asids_init(void)
> +{
> + unsigned long old;
> +
> + /* Figure-out number of ASID bits in HW */
> + old = csr_read(CSR_SATP);
> + asid_bits = old | (SATP_ASID_MASK << SATP_ASID_SHIFT);
> + csr_write(CSR_SATP, asid_bits);
> + asid_bits = (csr_read(CSR_SATP) >> SATP_ASID_SHIFT) & SATP_ASID_MASK;
> + asid_bits = fls_long(asid_bits);
> + csr_write(CSR_SATP, old);
> +
> + /*
> + * In the process of determining number of ASID bits (above)
> + * we polluted the TLB of current HART so let's do TLB flushed
> + * to remove unwanted TLB enteries.
> + */
> + local_flush_tlb_all();
> +
> + /* Pre-compute ASID details */
> + num_asids = 1 << asid_bits;
> + asid_mask = num_asids - 1;
> +
> + /*
> + * Use ASID allocator only if number of HW ASIDs are
> + * at-least twice more than CPUs
> + */
> + if (num_asids > (2 * num_possible_cpus())) {
> + atomic_long_set(&current_version, num_asids);
> +
> + context_asid_map = kcalloc(BITS_TO_LONGS(num_asids),
> + sizeof(*context_asid_map), GFP_KERNEL);
> + if (!context_asid_map)
> + panic("Failed to allocate bitmap for %lu ASIDs\n",
> + num_asids);
> +
> + __set_bit(0, context_asid_map);
> +
> + static_branch_enable(&use_asid_allocator);
> +
> + pr_info("ASID allocator using %lu bits (%lu entries)\n",
> + asid_bits, num_asids);
> + } else {
> + pr_info("ASID allocator disabled\n");
> + }
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +early_initcall(asids_init);
> +#else
> +static inline void set_mm(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> +{
> + /* Nothing to do here when there is no MMU */
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> /*
> * When necessary, performs a deferred icache flush for the given MM context,
> * on the local CPU. RISC-V has no direct mechanism for instruction cache
> @@ -58,10 +318,7 @@ void switch_mm(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
> cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(prev));
> cpumask_set_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(next));
>
> -#ifdef CONFIG_MMU
> - csr_write(CSR_SATP, virt_to_pfn(next->pgd) | SATP_MODE);
> - local_flush_tlb_all();
> -#endif
> + set_mm(next, cpu);
>
> flush_icache_deferred(next);
> }

Thanks, this is on for-next.

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