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Subject[PATCH v7 3/7] Reimplement RLIMIT_NPROC on top of ucounts
Date
The rlimit counter is tied to uid in the user_namespace. This allows
rlimit values to be specified in userns even if they are already
globally exceeded by the user. However, the value of the previous
user_namespaces cannot be exceeded.

To illustrate the impact of rlimits, let's say there is a program that
does not fork. Some service-A wants to run this program as user X in
multiple containers. Since the program never fork the service wants to
set RLIMIT_NPROC=1.

service-A
\- program (uid=1000, container1, rlimit_nproc=1)
\- program (uid=1000, container2, rlimit_nproc=1)

The service-A sets RLIMIT_NPROC=1 and runs the program in container1.
When the service-A tries to run a program with RLIMIT_NPROC=1 in
container2 it fails since user X already has one running process.

We cannot use existing inc_ucounts / dec_ucounts because they do not
allow us to exceed the maximum for the counter. Some rlimits can be
overlimited by root or if the user has the appropriate capability.

Signed-off-by: Alexey Gladkov <gladkov.alexey@gmail.com>
---
fs/exec.c | 2 +-
fs/io-wq.c | 22 ++++++------
fs/io-wq.h | 2 +-
fs/io_uring.c | 2 +-
include/linux/cred.h | 2 ++
include/linux/sched/user.h | 1 -
include/linux/user_namespace.h | 13 ++++++++
kernel/cred.c | 10 +++---
kernel/exit.c | 2 +-
kernel/fork.c | 9 ++---
kernel/sys.c | 2 +-
kernel/ucount.c | 61 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
kernel/user.c | 1 -
kernel/user_namespace.c | 3 +-
14 files changed, 103 insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)

diff --git a/fs/exec.c b/fs/exec.c
index 0371a3400be5..e6d7f186f33c 100644
--- a/fs/exec.c
+++ b/fs/exec.c
@@ -1874,7 +1874,7 @@ static int do_execveat_common(int fd, struct filename *filename,
* whether NPROC limit is still exceeded.
*/
if ((current->flags & PF_NPROC_EXCEEDED) &&
- atomic_read(&current_user()->processes) > rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC)) {
+ is_ucounts_overlimit(current_ucounts(), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC))) {
retval = -EAGAIN;
goto out_ret;
}
diff --git a/fs/io-wq.c b/fs/io-wq.c
index a564f36e260c..5b6940c90c61 100644
--- a/fs/io-wq.c
+++ b/fs/io-wq.c
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
#include <linux/blk-cgroup.h>
#include <linux/audit.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
+#include <linux/user_namespace.h>

#include "../kernel/sched/sched.h"
#include "io-wq.h"
@@ -120,7 +121,7 @@ struct io_wq {
io_wq_work_fn *do_work;

struct task_struct *manager;
- struct user_struct *user;
+ const struct cred *cred;
refcount_t refs;
struct completion done;

@@ -234,7 +235,7 @@ static void io_worker_exit(struct io_worker *worker)
if (worker->flags & IO_WORKER_F_RUNNING)
atomic_dec(&acct->nr_running);
if (!(worker->flags & IO_WORKER_F_BOUND))
- atomic_dec(&wqe->wq->user->processes);
+ dec_rlimit_ucounts(wqe->wq->cred->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
worker->flags = 0;
preempt_enable();

@@ -364,15 +365,15 @@ static void __io_worker_busy(struct io_wqe *wqe, struct io_worker *worker,
worker->flags |= IO_WORKER_F_BOUND;
wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND].nr_workers--;
wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_BOUND].nr_workers++;
- atomic_dec(&wqe->wq->user->processes);
+ dec_rlimit_ucounts(wqe->wq->cred->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
} else {
worker->flags &= ~IO_WORKER_F_BOUND;
wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND].nr_workers++;
wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_BOUND].nr_workers--;
- atomic_inc(&wqe->wq->user->processes);
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(wqe->wq->cred->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
}
io_wqe_inc_running(wqe, worker);
- }
+ }
}

/*
@@ -707,7 +708,7 @@ static bool create_io_worker(struct io_wq *wq, struct io_wqe *wqe, int index)
raw_spin_unlock_irq(&wqe->lock);

if (index == IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND)
- atomic_inc(&wq->user->processes);
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(wq->cred->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);

refcount_inc(&wq->refs);
wake_up_process(worker->task);
@@ -838,7 +839,7 @@ static bool io_wq_can_queue(struct io_wqe *wqe, struct io_wqe_acct *acct,
if (free_worker)
return true;

- if (atomic_read(&wqe->wq->user->processes) >= acct->max_workers &&
+ if (is_ucounts_overlimit(wqe->wq->cred->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, acct->max_workers) &&
!(capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) || capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)))
return false;

@@ -1074,7 +1075,7 @@ struct io_wq *io_wq_create(unsigned bounded, struct io_wq_data *data)
wq->do_work = data->do_work;

/* caller must already hold a reference to this */
- wq->user = data->user;
+ wq->cred = data->cred;

ret = -ENOMEM;
for_each_node(node) {
@@ -1090,10 +1091,7 @@ struct io_wq *io_wq_create(unsigned bounded, struct io_wq_data *data)
wqe->node = alloc_node;
wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_BOUND].max_workers = bounded;
atomic_set(&wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_BOUND].nr_running, 0);
- if (wq->user) {
- wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND].max_workers =
- task_rlimit(current, RLIMIT_NPROC);
- }
+ wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND].max_workers = task_rlimit(current, RLIMIT_NPROC);
atomic_set(&wqe->acct[IO_WQ_ACCT_UNBOUND].nr_running, 0);
wqe->wq = wq;
raw_spin_lock_init(&wqe->lock);
diff --git a/fs/io-wq.h b/fs/io-wq.h
index b158f8addcf3..4130e247c556 100644
--- a/fs/io-wq.h
+++ b/fs/io-wq.h
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ typedef void (free_work_fn)(struct io_wq_work *);
typedef struct io_wq_work *(io_wq_work_fn)(struct io_wq_work *);

struct io_wq_data {
- struct user_struct *user;
+ const struct cred *cred;

io_wq_work_fn *do_work;
free_work_fn *free_work;
diff --git a/fs/io_uring.c b/fs/io_uring.c
index 931671082e61..389998f39843 100644
--- a/fs/io_uring.c
+++ b/fs/io_uring.c
@@ -8084,7 +8084,7 @@ static int io_init_wq_offload(struct io_ring_ctx *ctx,
unsigned int concurrency;
int ret = 0;

- data.user = ctx->user;
+ data.cred = ctx->creds;
data.free_work = io_free_work;
data.do_work = io_wq_submit_work;

diff --git a/include/linux/cred.h b/include/linux/cred.h
index ad160e5fe5c6..8025fe48198f 100644
--- a/include/linux/cred.h
+++ b/include/linux/cred.h
@@ -372,6 +372,7 @@ static inline void put_cred(const struct cred *_cred)

#define task_uid(task) (task_cred_xxx((task), uid))
#define task_euid(task) (task_cred_xxx((task), euid))
+#define task_ucounts(task) (task_cred_xxx((task), ucounts))

#define current_cred_xxx(xxx) \
({ \
@@ -388,6 +389,7 @@ static inline void put_cred(const struct cred *_cred)
#define current_fsgid() (current_cred_xxx(fsgid))
#define current_cap() (current_cred_xxx(cap_effective))
#define current_user() (current_cred_xxx(user))
+#define current_ucounts() (current_cred_xxx(ucounts))

extern struct user_namespace init_user_ns;
#ifdef CONFIG_USER_NS
diff --git a/include/linux/sched/user.h b/include/linux/sched/user.h
index a8ec3b6093fc..d33d867ad6c1 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched/user.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched/user.h
@@ -12,7 +12,6 @@
*/
struct user_struct {
refcount_t __count; /* reference count */
- atomic_t processes; /* How many processes does this user have? */
atomic_t sigpending; /* How many pending signals does this user have? */
#ifdef CONFIG_FANOTIFY
atomic_t fanotify_listeners;
diff --git a/include/linux/user_namespace.h b/include/linux/user_namespace.h
index f71b5a4a3e74..0a27cd049404 100644
--- a/include/linux/user_namespace.h
+++ b/include/linux/user_namespace.h
@@ -50,9 +50,12 @@ enum ucount_type {
UCOUNT_INOTIFY_INSTANCES,
UCOUNT_INOTIFY_WATCHES,
#endif
+ UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC,
UCOUNT_COUNTS,
};

+#define MAX_PER_NAMESPACE_UCOUNTS UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC
+
struct user_namespace {
struct uid_gid_map uid_map;
struct uid_gid_map gid_map;
@@ -107,6 +110,16 @@ struct ucounts *alloc_ucounts(struct user_namespace *ns, kuid_t uid);
struct ucounts *get_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts);
void put_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts);

+static inline long get_ucounts_value(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type)
+{
+ return atomic_long_read(&ucounts->ucount[type]);
+}
+
+bool inc_rlimit_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long v);
+bool inc_rlimit_ucounts_and_test(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long v, long max);
+void dec_rlimit_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long v);
+bool is_ucounts_overlimit(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long max);
+
#ifdef CONFIG_USER_NS

static inline struct user_namespace *get_user_ns(struct user_namespace *ns)
diff --git a/kernel/cred.c b/kernel/cred.c
index 58a8a9e24347..dcfa30b337c5 100644
--- a/kernel/cred.c
+++ b/kernel/cred.c
@@ -360,7 +360,7 @@ int copy_creds(struct task_struct *p, unsigned long clone_flags)
kdebug("share_creds(%p{%d,%d})",
p->cred, atomic_read(&p->cred->usage),
read_cred_subscribers(p->cred));
- atomic_inc(&p->cred->user->processes);
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(task_ucounts(p), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
return 0;
}

@@ -395,8 +395,8 @@ int copy_creds(struct task_struct *p, unsigned long clone_flags)
}
#endif

- atomic_inc(&new->user->processes);
p->cred = p->real_cred = get_cred(new);
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(task_ucounts(p), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
alter_cred_subscribers(new, 2);
validate_creds(new);
return 0;
@@ -496,12 +496,12 @@ int commit_creds(struct cred *new)
* in set_user().
*/
alter_cred_subscribers(new, 2);
- if (new->user != old->user)
- atomic_inc(&new->user->processes);
+ if (new->user != old->user || new->user_ns != old->user_ns)
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(new->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
rcu_assign_pointer(task->real_cred, new);
rcu_assign_pointer(task->cred, new);
if (new->user != old->user)
- atomic_dec(&old->user->processes);
+ dec_rlimit_ucounts(old->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
alter_cred_subscribers(old, -2);

/* send notifications */
diff --git a/kernel/exit.c b/kernel/exit.c
index 04029e35e69a..61c0fe902b50 100644
--- a/kernel/exit.c
+++ b/kernel/exit.c
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ void release_task(struct task_struct *p)
/* don't need to get the RCU readlock here - the process is dead and
* can't be modifying its own credentials. But shut RCU-lockdep up */
rcu_read_lock();
- atomic_dec(&__task_cred(p)->user->processes);
+ dec_rlimit_ucounts(task_ucounts(p), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
rcu_read_unlock();

cgroup_release(p);
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index 40a5da7d3d70..812b023ecdce 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -819,9 +819,11 @@ void __init fork_init(void)
init_task.signal->rlim[RLIMIT_SIGPENDING] =
init_task.signal->rlim[RLIMIT_NPROC];

- for (i = 0; i < UCOUNT_COUNTS; i++)
+ for (i = 0; i < MAX_PER_NAMESPACE_UCOUNTS; i++)
init_user_ns.ucount_max[i] = max_threads/2;

+ init_user_ns.ucount_max[UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC] = task_rlimit(&init_task, RLIMIT_NPROC);
+
#ifdef CONFIG_VMAP_STACK
cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_BP_PREPARE_DYN, "fork:vm_stack_cache",
NULL, free_vm_stack_cache);
@@ -1962,8 +1964,7 @@ static __latent_entropy struct task_struct *copy_process(
DEBUG_LOCKS_WARN_ON(!p->softirqs_enabled);
#endif
retval = -EAGAIN;
- if (atomic_read(&p->real_cred->user->processes) >=
- task_rlimit(p, RLIMIT_NPROC)) {
+ if (is_ucounts_overlimit(task_ucounts(p), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC))) {
if (p->real_cred->user != INIT_USER &&
!capable(CAP_SYS_RESOURCE) && !capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN))
goto bad_fork_free;
@@ -2366,7 +2367,7 @@ static __latent_entropy struct task_struct *copy_process(
#endif
delayacct_tsk_free(p);
bad_fork_cleanup_count:
- atomic_dec(&p->cred->user->processes);
+ dec_rlimit_ucounts(task_ucounts(p), UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
exit_creds(p);
bad_fork_free:
p->state = TASK_DEAD;
diff --git a/kernel/sys.c b/kernel/sys.c
index 373def7debe8..304b6b5e5942 100644
--- a/kernel/sys.c
+++ b/kernel/sys.c
@@ -474,7 +474,7 @@ static int set_user(struct cred *new)
* for programs doing set*uid()+execve() by harmlessly deferring the
* failure to the execve() stage.
*/
- if (atomic_read(&new_user->processes) >= rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC) &&
+ if (is_ucounts_overlimit(new->ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC)) &&
new_user != INIT_USER)
current->flags |= PF_NPROC_EXCEEDED;
else
diff --git a/kernel/ucount.c b/kernel/ucount.c
index 50cc1dfb7d28..2f42d2ee6e27 100644
--- a/kernel/ucount.c
+++ b/kernel/ucount.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
#include <linux/hash.h>
#include <linux/kmemleak.h>
#include <linux/user_namespace.h>
+#include <linux/security.h>

struct ucounts init_ucounts = {
.ns = &init_user_ns,
@@ -80,6 +81,7 @@ static struct ctl_table user_table[] = {
UCOUNT_ENTRY("max_inotify_instances"),
UCOUNT_ENTRY("max_inotify_watches"),
#endif
+ { },
{ }
};
#endif /* CONFIG_SYSCTL */
@@ -222,6 +224,19 @@ static inline bool atomic_long_inc_below(atomic_long_t *v, int u)
}
}

+static inline long atomic_long_dec_value(atomic_long_t *v, long n)
+{
+ long c, old;
+ c = atomic_long_read(v);
+ for (;;) {
+ old = atomic_long_cmpxchg(v, c, c - n);
+ if (likely(old == c))
+ return c;
+ c = old;
+ }
+ return c;
+}
+
struct ucounts *inc_ucount(struct user_namespace *ns, kuid_t uid,
enum ucount_type type)
{
@@ -255,6 +270,51 @@ void dec_ucount(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type)
put_ucounts(ucounts);
}

+bool inc_rlimit_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long v)
+{
+ struct ucounts *iter;
+ bool overlimit = false;
+
+ for (iter = ucounts; iter; iter = iter->ns->ucounts) {
+ long max = READ_ONCE(iter->ns->ucount_max[type]);
+ if (atomic_long_add_return(v, &iter->ucount[type]) > max)
+ overlimit = true;
+ }
+
+ return overlimit;
+}
+
+bool inc_rlimit_ucounts_and_test(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type,
+ long v, long max)
+{
+ bool overlimit = inc_rlimit_ucounts(ucounts, type, v);
+ if (!overlimit && get_ucounts_value(ucounts, type) > max)
+ overlimit = true;
+ return overlimit;
+}
+
+void dec_rlimit_ucounts(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long v)
+{
+ struct ucounts *iter;
+ for (iter = ucounts; iter; iter = iter->ns->ucounts) {
+ long dec = atomic_long_dec_value(&iter->ucount[type], v);
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(dec < 0);
+ }
+}
+
+bool is_ucounts_overlimit(struct ucounts *ucounts, enum ucount_type type, long max)
+{
+ struct ucounts *iter;
+ if (get_ucounts_value(ucounts, type) > max)
+ return true;
+ for (iter = ucounts; iter; iter = iter->ns->ucounts) {
+ max = READ_ONCE(iter->ns->ucount_max[type]);
+ if (get_ucounts_value(iter, type) > max)
+ return true;
+ }
+ return false;
+}
+
static __init int user_namespace_sysctl_init(void)
{
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSCTL
@@ -271,6 +331,7 @@ static __init int user_namespace_sysctl_init(void)
BUG_ON(!setup_userns_sysctls(&init_user_ns));
#endif
hlist_add_ucounts(&init_ucounts);
+ inc_rlimit_ucounts(&init_ucounts, UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC, 1);
return 0;
}
subsys_initcall(user_namespace_sysctl_init);
diff --git a/kernel/user.c b/kernel/user.c
index a2478cddf536..7f5ff498207a 100644
--- a/kernel/user.c
+++ b/kernel/user.c
@@ -98,7 +98,6 @@ static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(uidhash_lock);
/* root_user.__count is 1, for init task cred */
struct user_struct root_user = {
.__count = REFCOUNT_INIT(1),
- .processes = ATOMIC_INIT(1),
.sigpending = ATOMIC_INIT(0),
.locked_shm = 0,
.uid = GLOBAL_ROOT_UID,
diff --git a/kernel/user_namespace.c b/kernel/user_namespace.c
index 516db53166ab..2434b13b02e5 100644
--- a/kernel/user_namespace.c
+++ b/kernel/user_namespace.c
@@ -118,9 +118,10 @@ int create_user_ns(struct cred *new)
ns->owner = owner;
ns->group = group;
INIT_WORK(&ns->work, free_user_ns);
- for (i = 0; i < UCOUNT_COUNTS; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < MAX_PER_NAMESPACE_UCOUNTS; i++) {
ns->ucount_max[i] = INT_MAX;
}
+ ns->ucount_max[UCOUNT_RLIMIT_NPROC] = rlimit(RLIMIT_NPROC);
ns->ucounts = ucounts;

/* Inherit USERNS_SETGROUPS_ALLOWED from our parent */
--
2.29.2
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