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SubjectRe: [PATCH 13/18] arm64: ioremap: use nGnRnE mappings on platforms that require it
> From: Hector Martin <>
> Date: Wed, 10 Feb 2021 21:24:15 +0900

Hi Hector,

Since device tree bindings are widely used outside the Linux tree,
here are some thoughts from a U-Boot and OpenBSD perspective.

> Hi Will, I'm pulling you in at Marc's suggestion. Do you have an opinion
> on what the better solution to this problem is?
> The executive summary is that Apple SoCs require nGnRnE memory mappings
> for MMIO, except for PCI space which uses nGnRE. ARM64 currently uses
> nGnRE everywhere. Solutions discussed in this thread and elsewhere include:
> 1. Something similar to the current hacky patch (which isn't really
> intended as a real solution...); change ioremap to default to nGnRnE
> using some kind of platform-level flag in the DT, then figure out how to
> get the PCI drivers to bypass that. This requires changing almost every
> PCI driver, since most of them use plain ioremap().
> 2. A per-device DT property that tells of_address_to_resource to set a
> flag in the struct resource, which is then used by
> devm_ioremap_resource/of_iomap to pick a new ioremap_ variant for nGnRnE
> (introduce ioremap_np() for nonposted?) (PCI would work with this
> inasmuch as it would not support it, and thus fall back to the current
> nGnRE default, which is correct for PCI...). This requires changing
> DT-binding drivers that we depend on to not use plain ioremap() (if any
> do so), but that is a finite subset (unlike PCI which involves
> potentially every driver, because thunderbolt).

That solution is not dissimilar to how "dma-coherent", "big-endian"
and "little-endian" properties work. U-Boot could simply ignore the
property since it already has a memory map with the required memory
attributes for each SoC. I don't see any issue with this for the
OpenBSD kernel either.

The number of existing drivers that would need to be changed is small.
The dwc3 core driver already uses devm_ioremap_resource(). The nvme
driver uses plain ioremap() in the PCI-specific part of the driver,
but that will need new glue for a platform driver anyway.

As things stand now that leaves us with the samsung serial driver
which uses devm_ioremap(). That could be turned into a
devm_iomap_resource() without much trouble I think.

> 3. Encode the mapping type in the address of child devices, either
> abusing the high bits of the reg or introducing an extra DT cell there,
> introduce a new OF bus type that strips those away via a ranges mapping
> and sets flags in the struct resource, similar to what the PCI bus does
> with its 3-cell ranges, then do as (2) above and make
> devm_ioremap_resource/of_iomap use it:
> On 09/02/2021 07.57, Arnd Bergmann wrote:
> > #define MAP_NONPOSTED 0x80000000
> >
> > arm-io { /* name for adt, should be changed */
> > compatible = "apple,m1-internal-bus";
> > #address-cells = <2>; /* or maybe <3> if we want */
> > #size-cells = <2>;
> > ranges =
> > /* on-chip MMIO */
> > <(MAP_NONPOSTED | 0x2) 0x0 0x2 0x0 0x1 0x0>,
> >
> > /* first PCI: 2GB control, 4GB memory space */
> > <(MAP_NONPOSTED | 0x3) 0x80000000 0x3 0x80000000 0x0 0x80000000>,
> > <0x4 0x0 0x4 0x0 0x1 0x0>,
> [...]
> > The MAP_NONPOSTED flag then gets interpreted by the .translate() and
> > .get_flags() callbacks of "struct of_bus" in the kernel, where it is put into
> > a "struct resource" flag, and interpreted when the resource gets mapped.
> >
> > The PCI host controller nests inside of the node above, and (in theory)
> > uses the same trick to distinguish between prefetchable and non-prefetchable
> > memory, except in practice this is handled in device drivers that already
> > know whether to call ioremap() or ioremap_wc().

Using the high bit in the address would be awkward I think. For
example in U-Boot I'd have to mask that bit away but doing so in a
per-SoC way would be ugly. Unless you map the high bit away using a
ranges property for the bus.

Using #address-cells = <3> wll cause some fallout as well as it is
convenient to store addresses as 64-bit integers. I've written code
that just panics if that isn't possible.

> 4. Introduce a new top-level DT element in the style of reserved-memory,
> that describes address ranges and the mapping type to use. This could be
> implemented entirely in arch code, having arm64's ioremap look up the
> address in a structure populated from this.

This isn't a strange idea either. For UEFI such a mapping already
exists as a separate table that encodes the cache attributes of
certain memory regions.

> As an additional wrinkle, earlycon is almost certainly going to need a
> special path to handle this very early, before OF stuff is available; it
> also uses fixmap instead of ioremap, which has its own idea about what
> type of mapping to use.

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