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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 0/4] [RFC] Implement Trampoline File Descriptor
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I just resent the trampfd v2 RFC. I forgot to CC the reviewers who provided comments before.
So sorry.

Madhavan

On 9/22/20 4:53 PM, madvenka@linux.microsoft.com wrote:
> From: "Madhavan T. Venkataraman" <madvenka@linux.microsoft.com>
>
> Introduction
> ============
>
> Dynamic code is used in many different user applications. Dynamic code is
> often generated at runtime. Dynamic code can also just be a pre-defined
> sequence of machine instructions in a data buffer. Examples of dynamic
> code are trampolines, JIT code, DBT code, etc.
>
> Dynamic code is placed either in a data page or in a stack page. In order
> to execute dynamic code, the page it resides in needs to be mapped with
> execute permissions. Writable pages with execute permissions provide an
> attack surface for hackers. Attackers can use this to inject malicious
> code, modify existing code or do other harm.
>
> To mitigate this, LSMs such as SELinux implement W^X. That is, they may not
> allow pages to have both write and execute permissions. This prevents
> dynamic code from executing and blocks applications that use it. To allow
> genuine applications to run, exceptions have to be made for them (by setting
> execmem, etc) which opens the door to security issues.
>
> The W^X implementation today is not complete. There exist many user level
> tricks that can be used to load and execute dynamic code. E.g.,
>
> - Load the code into a file and map the file with R-X.
>
> - Load the code in an RW- page. Change the permissions to R--. Then,
> change the permissions to R-X.
>
> - Load the code in an RW- page. Remap the page with R-X to get a separate
> mapping to the same underlying physical page.
>
> IMO, these are all security holes as an attacker can exploit them to inject
> his own code.
>
> In the future, these holes will definitely be closed. For instance, LSMs
> (such as the IPE proposal [1]) may only allow code in properly signed object
> files to be mapped with execute permissions. This will do two things:
>
> - user level tricks using anonymous pages will fail as anonymous
> pages have no file identity
>
> - loading the code in a temporary file and mapping it with R-X
> will fail as the temporary file would not have a signature
>
> We need a way to execute such code without making security exceptions.
> Trampolines are a good example of dynamic code. A couple of examples
> of trampolines are given below. My first use case for this RFC is
> libffi.
>
> Examples of trampolines
> =======================
>
> libffi (A Portable Foreign Function Interface Library):
>
> libffi allows a user to define functions with an arbitrary list of
> arguments and return value through a feature called "Closures".
> Closures use trampolines to jump to ABI handlers that handle calling
> conventions and call a target function. libffi is used by a lot
> of different applications. To name a few:
>
> - Python
> - Java
> - Javascript
> - Ruby FFI
> - Lisp
> - Objective C
>
> GCC nested functions:
>
> GCC has traditionally used trampolines for implementing nested
> functions. The trampoline is placed on the user stack. So, the stack
> needs to be executable.
>
> Currently available solution
> ============================
>
> One solution that has been proposed to allow trampolines to be executed
> without making security exceptions is Trampoline Emulation. See:
>
> https://pax.grsecurity.net/docs/emutramp.txt
>
> In this solution, the kernel recognizes certain sequences of instructions
> as "well-known" trampolines. When such a trampoline is executed, a page
> fault happens because the trampoline page does not have execute permission.
> The kernel recognizes the trampoline and emulates it. Basically, the
> kernel does the work of the trampoline on behalf of the application.
>
> Currently, the emulated trampolines are the ones used in libffi and GCC
> nested functions. To my knowledge, only X86 is supported at this time.
>
> As noted in emutramp.txt, this is not a generic solution. For every new
> trampoline that needs to be supported, new instruction sequences need to
> be recognized by the kernel and emulated. And this has to be done for
> every architecture that needs to be supported.
>
> emutramp.txt notes the following:
>
> "... the real solution is not in emulation but by designing a kernel API
> for runtime code generation and modifying userland to make use of it."
>
> Solution proposed in this RFC
> =============================
>
>>From this RFC's perspective, there are two scenarios for dynamic code:
>
> Scenario 1
> ----------
>
> We know what code we need only at runtime. For instance, JIT code generated
> for frequently executed Java methods. Only at runtime do we know what
> methods need to be JIT compiled. Such code cannot be statically defined. It
> has to be generated at runtime.
>
> Scenario 2
> ----------
>
> We know what code we need in advance. User trampolines are a good example of
> this. It is possible to define such code statically with some help from the
> kernel.
>
> This RFC addresses (2). (1) needs a general purpose trusted code generator
> and is out of scope for this RFC.
>
> For (2), the solution is to convert dynamic code to static code and place it
> in a source file. The binary generated from the source can be signed. The
> kernel can use signature verification to authenticate the binary and
> allow the code to be mapped and executed.
>
> The problem is that the static code has to be able to find the data that it
> needs when it executes. For functions, the ABI defines the way to pass
> parameters. But, for arbitrary dynamic code, there isn't a standard ABI
> compliant way to pass data to the code for most architectures. Each instance
> of dynamic code defines its own way. For instance, co-location of code and
> data and PC-relative data referencing are used in cases where the ISA
> supports it.
>
> We need one standard way that would work for all architectures and ABIs.
>
> The solution proposed here is:
>
> 1. Write the static code assuming that the data needed by the code is already
> pointed to by a designated register.
>
> 2. Get the kernel to supply a small universal trampoline that does the
> following:
>
> - Load the address of the data in a designated register
> - Load the address of the static code in a designated register
> - Jump to the static code
>
> User code would use a kernel supplied API to create and map the trampoline.
> The address values would be baked into the code so that no special ISA
> features are needed.
>
> To conserve memory, the kernel will pack as many trampolines as possible in
> a page and provide a trampoline table to user code. The table itself is
> managed by the user.
>
> Trampoline File Descriptor (trampfd)
> ==========================
>
> I am proposing a kernel API using anonymous file descriptors that can be
> used to create the trampolines. The API is described in patch 1/4 of this
> patchset. I provide a summary here:
>
> - Create a trampoline file object
>
> - Write a code descriptor into the trampoline file and specify:
>
> - the number of trampolines desired
> - the name of the code register
> - user pointer to a table of code addresses, one address
> per trampoline
>
> - Write a data descriptor into the trampoline file and specify:
>
> - the name of the data register
> - user pointer to a table of data addresses, one address
> per trampoline
>
> - mmap() the trampoline file. The kernel generates a table of
> trampolines in a page and returns the trampoline table address
>
> - munmap() a trampoline file mapping
>
> - Close the trampoline file
>
> Each mmap() will only map a single base page. Large pages are not supported.
>
> A trampoline file can only be mapped once in an address space.
>
> Trampoline file mappings cannot be shared across address spaces. So,
> sending the trampoline file descriptor over a unix domain socket and
> mapping it in another process will not work.
>
> It is recommended that the code descriptor and the code table be placed
> in the .rodata section so an attacker cannot modify them.
>
> Trampoline use and reuse
> ========================
>
> The code for trampoline X in the trampoline table is:
>
> load &code_table[X], code_reg
> load (code_reg), code_reg
> load &data_table[X], data_reg
> load (data_reg), data_reg
> jump code_reg
>
> The addresses &code_table[X] and &data_table[X] are baked into the
> trampoline code. So, PC-relative data references are not needed. The user
> can modify code_table[X] and data_table[X] dynamically.
>
> For instance, within libffi, the same trampoline X can be used for different
> closures at different times by setting:
>
> data_table[X] = closure;
> code_table[X] = ABI handling code;
>
> Advantages of the Trampoline File Descriptor approach
> =====================================================
>
> - Using this support from the kernel, dynamic code can be converted to
> static code with a little effort so applications and libraries can move to
> a more secure model. In the simplest cases such as libffi, dynamic code can
> even be eliminated.
>
> - This initial work is targeted towards X86 and ARM. But it can be supported
> easily on all architectures. We don't need any special ISA features such
> as PC-relative data referencing.
>
> - The only code generation needed is for this small, universal trampoline.
>
> - The kernel does not have to deal with any ABI issues in the generation of
> this trampoline.
>
> - The kernel provides a trampoline table to conserve memory.
>
> - An SELinux setting called "exectramp" can be implemented along the
> lines of "execmem", "execstack" and "execheap" to selectively allow the
> use of trampolines on a per application basis.
>
> - In version 1, a trip to the kernel was required to execute the trampoline.
> In version 2, that is not required. So, there are no performance
> concerns in this approach.
>
> libffi
> ======
>
> I have implemented my solution for libffi and provided the changes for
> X86 and ARM, 32-bit and 64-bit. Here is the reference patch:
>
> http://linux.microsoft.com/~madvenka/libffi/libffi.v2.txt
>
> If the trampfd patchset gets accepted, I will send the libffi changes
> to the maintainers for a review. BTW, I have also successfully executed
> the libffi self tests.
>
> Work that is pending
> ====================
>
> - I am working on implementing the SELinux setting - "exectramp".
>
> - I have a test program to test the kernel API. I am working on adding it
> to selftests.
>
> References
> ==========
>
> [1] https://microsoft.github.io/ipe/
> ---
>
> Changelog:
>
> v1
> Introduced the Trampfd feature.
>
> v2
> - Changed the system call. Version 2 does not support different
> trampoline types and their associated type structures. It only
> supports a kernel generated trampoline.
>
> The system call now returns information to the user that is
> used to define trampoline descriptors. E.g., the maximum
> number of trampolines that can be packed in a single page.
>
> - Removed all the trampoline contexts such as register contexts
> and stack contexts. This is based on the feedback that the kernel
> should not have to worry about ABI issues and H/W features that
> may deal with the context of a process.
>
> - Removed the need to make a trip into the kernel on trampoline
> invocation. This is based on the feedback about performance.
>
> - Removed the ability to share trampolines across address spaces.
> This would have made sense to different trampoline types based
> on their semantics. But since I support only one specific
> trampoline, sharing does not make sense.
>
> - Added calls to specify trampoline descriptors that the kernel
> uses to generate trampolines.
>
> - Added architecture-specific code to generate the small, universal
> trampoline for X86 32 and 64-bit, ARM 32 and 64-bit.
>
> - Implemented the trampoline table in a page.
> Madhavan T. Venkataraman (4):
> Implement the kernel API for the trampoline file descriptor.
> Implement i386 and X86 support for the trampoline file descriptor.
> Implement ARM64 support for the trampoline file descriptor.
> Implement ARM support for the trampoline file descriptor.
>
> arch/arm/include/uapi/asm/ptrace.h | 21 +++
> arch/arm/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
> arch/arm/kernel/trampfd.c | 124 +++++++++++++
> arch/arm/tools/syscall.tbl | 1 +
> arch/arm64/include/asm/unistd.h | 2 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/unistd32.h | 2 +
> arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/ptrace.h | 59 ++++++
> arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile | 2 +
> arch/arm64/kernel/trampfd.c | 244 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
> arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_32.tbl | 1 +
> arch/x86/entry/syscalls/syscall_64.tbl | 1 +
> arch/x86/include/uapi/asm/ptrace.h | 38 ++++
> arch/x86/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
> arch/x86/kernel/trampfd.c | 238 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
> fs/Makefile | 1 +
> fs/trampfd/Makefile | 5 +
> fs/trampfd/trampfd_fops.c | 241 ++++++++++++++++++++++++
> fs/trampfd/trampfd_map.c | 142 ++++++++++++++
> include/linux/syscalls.h | 2 +
> include/linux/trampfd.h | 49 +++++
> include/uapi/asm-generic/unistd.h | 4 +-
> include/uapi/linux/trampfd.h | 184 +++++++++++++++++++
> init/Kconfig | 7 +
> kernel/sys_ni.c | 3 +
> 24 files changed, 1371 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 arch/arm/kernel/trampfd.c
> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/trampfd.c
> create mode 100644 arch/x86/kernel/trampfd.c
> create mode 100644 fs/trampfd/Makefile
> create mode 100644 fs/trampfd/trampfd_fops.c
> create mode 100644 fs/trampfd/trampfd_map.c
> create mode 100644 include/linux/trampfd.h
> create mode 100644 include/uapi/linux/trampfd.h
>

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