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Subject[PATCH 4/5] mm: Do early cow for pinned pages during fork() for ptes
Date
This patch is greatly inspired by the discussions on the list from Linus, Jason
Gunthorpe and others [1].

It allows copy_pte_range() to do early cow if the pages were pinned on the
source mm. Currently we don't have an accurate way to know whether a page is
pinned or not. The only thing we have is page_maybe_dma_pinned(). However
that's good enough for now. Especially, with the newly added mm->has_pinned
flag to make sure we won't affect processes that never pinned any pages.

It would be easier if we can do GFP_KERNEL allocation within copy_one_pte().
Unluckily, we can't because we're with the page table locks held for both the
parent and child processes. So the page copy process needs to be done outside
copy_one_pte().

The new COPY_MM_BREAK_COW is introduced for this - copy_one_pte() would return
this when it finds any pte that may need an early breaking of cow.

page_duplicate() is used to handle the page copy process in copy_pte_range().
Of course we need to do that after releasing of the locks.

The slightly tricky part is page_duplicate() will fill in the copy_mm_data with
the new page copied and we'll need to re-install the pte again with page table
locks held again. That's done in pte_install_copied_page().

The whole procedure looks quite similar to wp_page_copy() however it's simpler
because we know the page is special (pinned) and we know we don't need tlb
flushings because no one is referencing the new mm yet.

Though we still have to be very careful on maintaining the two pages (one old
source page, one new allocated page) across all these lock taking/releasing
process and make sure neither of them will get lost.

[1] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200914143829.GA1424636@nvidia.com/

Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Peter Xu <peterx@redhat.com>
---
mm/memory.c | 174 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
1 file changed, 167 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index 1530bb1070f4..8f3521be80ca 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -691,12 +691,72 @@ struct page *vm_normal_page_pmd(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr,

#define COPY_MM_DONE 0
#define COPY_MM_SWAP_CONT 1
+#define COPY_MM_BREAK_COW 2

struct copy_mm_data {
/* COPY_MM_SWAP_CONT */
swp_entry_t entry;
+ /* COPY_MM_BREAK_COW */
+ struct {
+ struct page *cow_old_page; /* Released by page_duplicate() */
+ struct page *cow_new_page; /* Released by page_release_cow() */
+ pte_t cow_oldpte;
+ };
};

+static inline void page_release_cow(struct copy_mm_data *data)
+{
+ /* The old page should only be released in page_duplicate() */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(data->cow_old_page);
+
+ if (data->cow_new_page) {
+ put_page(data->cow_new_page);
+ data->cow_new_page = NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Duplicate the page for this PTE. Returns zero if page copied (so we need to
+ * retry on the same PTE again to arm the copied page very soon), or negative
+ * if error happened. In all cases, the old page will be properly released.
+ */
+static int page_duplicate(struct mm_struct *src_mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
+ unsigned long address, struct copy_mm_data *data)
+{
+ struct page *new_page = NULL;
+ int ret;
+
+ /* This should have been set in change_one_pte() when reach here */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(!data->cow_old_page);
+
+ new_page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma, address);
+ if (!new_page) {
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ copy_user_highpage(new_page, data->cow_old_page, address, vma);
+ ret = mem_cgroup_charge(new_page, src_mm, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (ret) {
+ put_page(new_page);
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ cgroup_throttle_swaprate(new_page, GFP_KERNEL);
+ __SetPageUptodate(new_page);
+
+ /* So far so good; arm the new page for the next attempt */
+ data->cow_new_page = new_page;
+
+out:
+ /* Always release the old page */
+ put_page(data->cow_old_page);
+ data->cow_old_page = NULL;
+
+ return ret;
+}
+
/*
* copy one vm_area from one task to the other. Assumes the page tables
* already present in the new task to be cleared in the whole range
@@ -711,6 +771,7 @@ copy_one_pte(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
unsigned long vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;
pte_t pte = *src_pte;
struct page *page;
+ bool wp;

/* pte contains position in swap or file, so copy. */
if (unlikely(!pte_present(pte))) {
@@ -789,10 +850,7 @@ copy_one_pte(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
* If it's a COW mapping, write protect it both
* in the parent and the child
*/
- if (is_cow_mapping(vm_flags) && pte_write(pte)) {
- ptep_set_wrprotect(src_mm, addr, src_pte);
- pte = pte_wrprotect(pte);
- }
+ wp = is_cow_mapping(vm_flags) && pte_write(pte);

/*
* If it's a shared mapping, mark it clean in
@@ -813,15 +871,80 @@ copy_one_pte(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
page = vm_normal_page(vma, addr, pte);
if (page) {
get_page(page);
+
+ /*
+ * If the page is pinned in source mm, do early cow right now
+ * so that the pinned page won't be replaced by another random
+ * page without being noticed after the fork().
+ *
+ * Note: there can be some very rare cases that we'll do
+ * unnecessary cow here, due to page_maybe_dma_pinned() is
+ * sometimes bogus, and has_pinned flag is currently aggresive
+ * too. However this should be good enough for us for now as
+ * long as we covered all the pinned pages. We can make this
+ * better in the future by providing an accurate accounting for
+ * pinned pages.
+ *
+ * Because we'll need to release the locks before doing cow,
+ * pass this work to upper layer.
+ */
+ if (READ_ONCE(src_mm->has_pinned) && wp &&
+ page_maybe_dma_pinned(page)) {
+ /* We've got the page already; we're safe */
+ data->cow_old_page = page;
+ data->cow_oldpte = *src_pte;
+ return COPY_MM_BREAK_COW;
+ }
+
page_dup_rmap(page, false);
rss[mm_counter(page)]++;
}

+ if (wp) {
+ ptep_set_wrprotect(src_mm, addr, src_pte);
+ pte = pte_wrprotect(pte);
+ }
+
out_set_pte:
set_pte_at(dst_mm, addr, dst_pte, pte);
return COPY_MM_DONE;
}

+/*
+ * Install the pte with the copied page stored in `data'. Returns true when
+ * installation completes, or false when src pte has changed.
+ */
+static int pte_install_copied_page(struct mm_struct *dst_mm,
+ struct vm_area_struct *new,
+ pte_t *src_pte, pte_t *dst_pte,
+ unsigned long addr, int *rss,
+ struct copy_mm_data *data)
+{
+ struct page *new_page = data->cow_new_page;
+ pte_t entry;
+
+ if (!pte_same(*src_pte, data->cow_oldpte)) {
+ /* PTE has changed under us. Release the page and retry */
+ page_release_cow(data);
+ return false;
+ }
+
+ entry = mk_pte(new_page, new->vm_page_prot);
+ entry = pte_sw_mkyoung(entry);
+ entry = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry), new);
+ page_add_new_anon_rmap(new_page, new, addr, false);
+ set_pte_at(dst_mm, addr, dst_pte, entry);
+ rss[mm_counter(new_page)]++;
+
+ /*
+ * Manually clear the new page pointer since we've moved ownership to
+ * the newly armed PTE.
+ */
+ data->cow_new_page = NULL;
+
+ return true;
+}
+
static int copy_pte_range(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
pmd_t *dst_pmd, pmd_t *src_pmd, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
struct vm_area_struct *new,
@@ -830,16 +953,23 @@ static int copy_pte_range(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
pte_t *orig_src_pte, *orig_dst_pte;
pte_t *src_pte, *dst_pte;
spinlock_t *src_ptl, *dst_ptl;
- int progress, copy_ret = COPY_MM_DONE;
+ int progress, ret, copy_ret = COPY_MM_DONE;
int rss[NR_MM_COUNTERS];
struct copy_mm_data data;

again:
+ /* We don't reset this for COPY_MM_BREAK_COW */
+ memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
+
+again_break_cow:
init_rss_vec(rss);

dst_pte = pte_alloc_map_lock(dst_mm, dst_pmd, addr, &dst_ptl);
- if (!dst_pte)
+ if (!dst_pte) {
+ /* Guarantee that the new page is released if there is */
+ page_release_cow(&data);
return -ENOMEM;
+ }
src_pte = pte_offset_map(src_pmd, addr);
src_ptl = pte_lockptr(src_mm, src_pmd);
spin_lock_nested(src_ptl, SINGLE_DEPTH_NESTING);
@@ -859,6 +989,25 @@ static int copy_pte_range(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
spin_needbreak(src_ptl) || spin_needbreak(dst_ptl))
break;
}
+
+ if (unlikely(data.cow_new_page)) {
+ /*
+ * If cow_new_page set, we must be at the 2nd round of
+ * a previous COPY_MM_BREAK_COW. Try to arm the new
+ * page now. Note that in all cases page_break_cow()
+ * will properly release the objects in copy_mm_data.
+ */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(copy_ret != COPY_MM_BREAK_COW);
+ if (pte_install_copied_page(dst_mm, new, src_pte,
+ dst_pte, addr, rss,
+ &data)) {
+ /* We installed the pte successfully; move on */
+ progress++;
+ continue;
+ }
+ /* PTE changed. Retry this pte (falls through) */
+ }
+
if (pte_none(*src_pte)) {
progress++;
continue;
@@ -882,8 +1031,19 @@ static int copy_pte_range(struct mm_struct *dst_mm, struct mm_struct *src_mm,
if (add_swap_count_continuation(data.entry, GFP_KERNEL) < 0)
return -ENOMEM;
break;
- default:
+ case COPY_MM_BREAK_COW:
+ /* Do accounting onto parent mm directly */
+ ret = page_duplicate(src_mm, vma, addr, &data);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+ goto again_break_cow;
+ case COPY_MM_DONE:
+ /* This means we're all good. */
break;
+ default:
+ /* This should mean copy_ret < 0. Time to fail this fork().. */
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(copy_ret >= 0);
+ return copy_ret;
}

if (addr != end)
--
2.26.2
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