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SubjectRe: [PATCH v9 1/7] docs: IOMMU user API
From
Date
On 9/11/20 2:57 PM, Jacob Pan wrote:
> IOMMU UAPI is newly introduced to support communications between guest
> virtual IOMMU and host IOMMU. There has been lots of discussions on how
> it should work with VFIO UAPI and userspace in general.
>
> This document is intended to clarify the UAPI design and usage. The
> mechanics of how future extensions should be achieved are also covered
> in this documentation.
>
> Reviewed-by: Eric Auger <eric.auger@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Liu Yi L <yi.l.liu@intel.com>
> Signed-off-by: Jacob Pan <jacob.jun.pan@linux.intel.com>
> ---
> Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst | 211 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> MAINTAINERS | 1 +
> 2 files changed, 212 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst

Hi,
I have a few edit changes for you below:


> diff --git a/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst b/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..1e68e8f05bb3
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/userspace-api/iommu.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,211 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +.. iommu:
> +
> +=====================================
> +IOMMU Userspace API
> +=====================================
> +
> +IOMMU UAPI is used for virtualization cases where communications are
> +needed between physical and virtual IOMMU drivers. For baremetal
> +usage, the IOMMU is a system device which does not need to communicate
> +with user space directly.

userspace

for consistency

> +
> +The primary use cases are guest Shared Virtual Address (SVA) and
> +guest IO virtual address (IOVA), wherin the vIOMMU implementation

wherein

> +relies on the physical IOMMU and for this reason requires interactions
> +with the host driver.
> +
> +.. contents:: :local:
> +
> +Functionalities
> +===============
> +Communications of user and kernel involve both directions. The
> +supported user-kernel APIs are as follows:
> +
> +1. Alloc/Free PASID
> +2. Bind/Unbind guest PASID (e.g. Intel VT-d)
> +3. Bind/Unbind guest PASID table (e.g. ARM SMMU)
> +4. Invalidate IOMMU caches upon guest requests
> +5. Report errors to the guest and serve page requests
> +
> +Requirements
> +============
> +The IOMMU UAPIs are generic and extensible to meet the following
> +requirements:
> +
> +1. Emulated and para-virtualised vIOMMUs
> +2. Multiple vendors (Intel VT-d, ARM SMMU, etc.)
> +3. Extensions to the UAPI shall not break existing user space

userspace

> +
> +Interfaces
> +==========
> +Although the data structures defined in IOMMU UAPI are self-contained,
> +there is no user API functions introduced. Instead, IOMMU UAPI is

there are no

> +designed to work with existing user driver frameworks such as VFIO.
> +
> +Extension Rules & Precautions
> +-----------------------------
> +When IOMMU UAPI gets extended, the data structures can *only* be
> +modified in two ways:
> +
> +1. Adding new fields by re-purposing the padding[] field. No size change.
> +2. Adding new union members at the end. May increase the structure sizes.
> +
> +No new fields can be added *after* the variable sized union in that it
> +will break backward compatibility when offset moves. A new flag must
> +be introduced whenever a change affects the structure using either
> +method. The IOMMU driver processes the data based on flags which
> +ensures backward compatibility.
> +
> +Version field is only reserved for the unlikely event of UAPI upgrade
> +at its entirety.
> +
> +It's *always* the caller's responsibility to indicate the size of the
> +structure passed by setting argsz appropriately.
> +Though at the same time, argsz is user provided data which is not
> +trusted. The argsz field allows the user app to indicate how much data
> +it is providing, it's still the kernel's responsibility to validate

providing;

> +whether it's correct and sufficient for the requested operation.
> +
> +Compatibility Checking
> +----------------------
> +When IOMMU UAPI extension results in some structure size increase,
> +IOMMU UAPI code shall handle the following cases:
> +
> +1. User and kernel has exact size match
> +2. An older user with older kernel header (smaller UAPI size) running on a
> + newer kernel (larger UAPI size)
> +3. A newer user with newer kernel header (larger UAPI size) running
> + on an older kernel.
> +4. A malicious/misbehaving user pass illegal/invalid size but within

passing

> + range. The data may contain garbage.
> +
> +Feature Checking
> +----------------
> +While launching a guest with vIOMMU, it is strongly advised to check
> +the compatibility upfront, as some subsequent errors happening during
> +vIOMMU operation, such as cache invalidation failures cannot be nicely> +escaladated to the guest due to IOMMU specifications. This can lead to

escalated

> +catastrophic failures for the users.
> +
> +User applications such as QEMU are expected to import kernel UAPI
> +headers. Backward compatibility is supported per feature flags.
> +For example, an older QEMU (with older kernel header) can run on newer
> +kernel. Newer QEMU (with new kernel header) may refuse to initialize
> +on an older kernel if new feature flags are not supported by older
> +kernel. Simply recompiling existing code with newer kernel header should
> +not be an issue in that only existing flags are used.
> +
> +IOMMU vendor driver should report the below features to IOMMU UAPI
> +consumers (e.g. via VFIO).
> +
> +1. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_SYSWIDE_PASID
> +2. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_BIND_PGTBL
> +3. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_BIND_PASID_TABLE
> +4. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_CACHE_INVLD
> +5. IOMMU_NESTING_FEAT_PAGE_REQUEST
> +
> +Take VFIO as example, upon request from VFIO user space (e.g. QEMU),

userspace

> +VFIO kernel code shall query IOMMU vendor driver for the support of
> +the above features. Query result can then be reported back to the
> +user-space caller. Details can be found in

userspace

> +Documentation/driver-api/vfio.rst.
> +
> +
> +Data Passing Example with VFIO
> +------------------------------
> +As the ubiquitous userspace driver framework, VFIO is already IOMMU
> +aware and shares many key concepts such as device model, group, and
> +protection domain. Other user driver frameworks can also be extended
> +to support IOMMU UAPI but it is outside the scope of this document.
> +
> +In this tight-knit VFIO-IOMMU interface, the ultimate consumer of the
> +IOMMU UAPI data is the host IOMMU driver. VFIO facilitates user-kernel
> +transport, capability checking, security, and life cycle management of
> +process address space ID (PASID).
> +
> +VFIO layer conveys the data structures down to the IOMMU driver, it

driver. It

> +follows the pattern below::
> +
> + struct {
> + __u32 argsz;
> + __u32 flags;
> + __u8 data[];
> + };
> +
> +Here data[] contains the IOMMU UAPI data structures. VFIO has the
> +freedom to bundle the data as well as parse data size based on its own flags.
> +
> +In order to determine the size and feature set of the user data, argsz
> +and flags (or the equivalent) are also embedded in the IOMMU UAPI data
> +structures.
> +
> +A "__u32 argsz" field is *always* at the beginning of each structure.
> +
> +For example:
> +::
> +
> + struct iommu_cache_invalidate_info {
> + __u32 argsz;
> + #define IOMMU_CACHE_INVALIDATE_INFO_VERSION_1 1
> + __u32 version;
> + /* IOMMU paging structure cache */
> + #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_IOTLB (1 << 0) /* IOMMU IOTLB */
> + #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_DEV_IOTLB (1 << 1) /* Device IOTLB */
> + #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_PASID (1 << 2) /* PASID cache */
> + #define IOMMU_CACHE_INV_TYPE_NR (3)
> + __u8 cache;
> + __u8 granularity;
> + __u8 padding[6];
> + union {
> + struct iommu_inv_pasid_info pasid_info;
> + struct iommu_inv_addr_info addr_info;
> + } granu;
> + };
> +
> +VFIO is responsible for checking its own argsz and flags. It then
> +invokes appropriate IOMMU UAPI functions. The user pointers are passed
> +to the IOMMU layer for further processing. The responsibilities are
> +divided as follows:
> +
> +- Generic IOMMU layer checks argsz range based on UAPI data in the
> + current kernel version

version.

> +
> +- Generic IOMMU layer checks content of the UAPI data for non-zero
> + reserved bits in flags, padding fields, and unsupported version.
> + This is to ensure not breaking userspace in the future when these
> + fields or flags are used.
> +
> +- Vendor IOMMU driver checks argsz based on vendor flags, UAPI data

flags. UAPI data

> + is consumed based on flags. Vendor driver has access to
> + unadulterated argsz value in case of vendor specific future
> + extensions. Currently, it does not perform the copy_from_user()
> + itself. A __user pointer can be provided in some future scenarios
> + where there's vendor data outside of the structure definition.
> +
> +IOMMU code treats UAPI data into two categories:

in

> +
> +- structure contains vendor data
> + (Example: iommu_uapi_cache_invalidate())
> +
> +- structure contains only generic data
> + (Example: iommu_uapi_sva_bind_gpasid())
> +
> +
> +
> +Sharing UAPI with in-kernel users
> +---------------------------------
> +For UAPIs that are shared with in-kernel users, a wrapper function is
> +provided to distinguish the callers. For example,
> +
> +Userspace caller ::
> +
> + int iommu_uapi_sva_unbind_gpasid(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> + struct device *dev,
> + void __user *udata)
> +
> +In-kernel caller ::
> +
> + int iommu_sva_unbind_gpasid(struct iommu_domain *domain,
> + struct device *dev,
> + struct iommu_gpasid_bind_data *data)


thanks.
--
~Randy

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