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Subject[PATCH bpf-next v3 1/6] bpf: Introduce pseudo_btf_id
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Pseudo_btf_id is a type of ld_imm insn that associates a btf_id to a
ksym so that further dereferences on the ksym can use the BTF info
to validate accesses. Internally, when seeing a pseudo_btf_id ld insn,
the verifier reads the btf_id stored in the insn[0]'s imm field and
marks the dst_reg as PTR_TO_BTF_ID. The btf_id points to a VAR_KIND,
which is encoded in btf_vminux by pahole. If the VAR is not of a struct
type, the dst reg will be marked as PTR_TO_MEM instead of PTR_TO_BTF_ID
and the mem_size is resolved to the size of the VAR's type.

From the VAR btf_id, the verifier can also read the address of the
ksym's corresponding kernel var from kallsyms and use that to fill
dst_reg.

Therefore, the proper functionality of pseudo_btf_id depends on (1)
kallsyms and (2) the encoding of kernel global VARs in pahole, which
should be available since pahole v1.18.

Signed-off-by: Hao Luo <haoluo@google.com>
---
include/linux/bpf_verifier.h | 7 ++
include/linux/btf.h | 15 ++++
include/uapi/linux/bpf.h | 36 +++++++---
kernel/bpf/btf.c | 15 ----
kernel/bpf/verifier.c | 125 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h | 36 +++++++---
6 files changed, 188 insertions(+), 46 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/bpf_verifier.h b/include/linux/bpf_verifier.h
index 53c7bd568c5d..6a9dd0279ea4 100644
--- a/include/linux/bpf_verifier.h
+++ b/include/linux/bpf_verifier.h
@@ -308,6 +308,13 @@ struct bpf_insn_aux_data {
u32 map_index; /* index into used_maps[] */
u32 map_off; /* offset from value base address */
};
+ struct {
+ u32 reg_type; /* type of pseudo_btf_id */
+ union {
+ u32 btf_id; /* btf_id for struct typed var */
+ u32 mem_size; /* mem_size for non-struct typed var */
+ };
+ } btf_var;
};
u64 map_key_state; /* constant (32 bit) key tracking for maps */
int ctx_field_size; /* the ctx field size for load insn, maybe 0 */
diff --git a/include/linux/btf.h b/include/linux/btf.h
index a9af5e7a7ece..592373d359b9 100644
--- a/include/linux/btf.h
+++ b/include/linux/btf.h
@@ -106,6 +106,21 @@ static inline bool btf_type_is_func_proto(const struct btf_type *t)
return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_FUNC_PROTO;
}

+static inline bool btf_type_is_var(const struct btf_type *t)
+{
+ return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_VAR;
+}
+
+/* union is only a special case of struct:
+ * all its offsetof(member) == 0
+ */
+static inline bool btf_type_is_struct(const struct btf_type *t)
+{
+ u8 kind = BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info);
+
+ return kind == BTF_KIND_STRUCT || kind == BTF_KIND_UNION;
+}
+
static inline u16 btf_type_vlen(const struct btf_type *t)
{
return BTF_INFO_VLEN(t->info);
diff --git a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
index a22812561064..96c828a80520 100644
--- a/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
@@ -356,18 +356,36 @@ enum bpf_link_type {
#define BPF_F_SLEEPABLE (1U << 4)

/* When BPF ldimm64's insn[0].src_reg != 0 then this can have
- * two extensions:
- *
- * insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE
- * insn[0].imm: map fd map fd
- * insn[1].imm: 0 offset into value
- * insn[0].off: 0 0
- * insn[1].off: 0 0
- * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map address of map[0]+offset
- * verifier type: CONST_PTR_TO_MAP PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE
+ * the following extensions:
+ *
+ * insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD
+ * insn[0].imm: map fd
+ * insn[1].imm: 0
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map
+ * verifier type: CONST_PTR_TO_MAP
*/
#define BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD 1
+/* insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE
+ * insn[0].imm: map fd
+ * insn[1].imm: offset into value
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map[0]+offset
+ * verifier type: PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE
+ */
#define BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE 2
+/* insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID
+ * insn[0].imm: kernel btd id of VAR
+ * insn[1].imm: 0
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of the kernel variable
+ * verifier type: PTR_TO_BTF_ID or PTR_TO_MEM, depending on whether the var
+ * is struct/union.
+ */
+#define BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID 3

/* when bpf_call->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_CALL, bpf_call->imm == pc-relative
* offset to another bpf function
diff --git a/kernel/bpf/btf.c b/kernel/bpf/btf.c
index f9ac6935ab3c..5831d9f3f3c5 100644
--- a/kernel/bpf/btf.c
+++ b/kernel/bpf/btf.c
@@ -355,16 +355,6 @@ static bool btf_type_nosize_or_null(const struct btf_type *t)
return !t || btf_type_nosize(t);
}

-/* union is only a special case of struct:
- * all its offsetof(member) == 0
- */
-static bool btf_type_is_struct(const struct btf_type *t)
-{
- u8 kind = BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info);
-
- return kind == BTF_KIND_STRUCT || kind == BTF_KIND_UNION;
-}
-
static bool __btf_type_is_struct(const struct btf_type *t)
{
return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_STRUCT;
@@ -375,11 +365,6 @@ static bool btf_type_is_array(const struct btf_type *t)
return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_ARRAY;
}

-static bool btf_type_is_var(const struct btf_type *t)
-{
- return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_VAR;
-}
-
static bool btf_type_is_datasec(const struct btf_type *t)
{
return BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info) == BTF_KIND_DATASEC;
diff --git a/kernel/bpf/verifier.c b/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
index 814bc6c1ad16..de7421a52dbc 100644
--- a/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
+++ b/kernel/bpf/verifier.c
@@ -7378,6 +7378,7 @@ static int check_ld_imm(struct bpf_verifier_env *env, struct bpf_insn *insn)
{
struct bpf_insn_aux_data *aux = cur_aux(env);
struct bpf_reg_state *regs = cur_regs(env);
+ struct bpf_reg_state *dst_reg;
struct bpf_map *map;
int err;

@@ -7394,25 +7395,44 @@ static int check_ld_imm(struct bpf_verifier_env *env, struct bpf_insn *insn)
if (err)
return err;

+ dst_reg = &regs[insn->dst_reg];
if (insn->src_reg == 0) {
u64 imm = ((u64)(insn + 1)->imm << 32) | (u32)insn->imm;

- regs[insn->dst_reg].type = SCALAR_VALUE;
+ dst_reg->type = SCALAR_VALUE;
__mark_reg_known(&regs[insn->dst_reg], imm);
return 0;
}

+ if (insn->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID) {
+ mark_reg_known_zero(env, regs, insn->dst_reg);
+
+ dst_reg->type = aux->btf_var.reg_type;
+ switch (dst_reg->type) {
+ case PTR_TO_MEM:
+ dst_reg->mem_size = aux->btf_var.mem_size;
+ break;
+ case PTR_TO_BTF_ID:
+ dst_reg->btf_id = aux->btf_var.btf_id;
+ break;
+ default:
+ verbose(env, "bpf verifier is misconfigured\n");
+ return -EFAULT;
+ }
+ return 0;
+ }
+
map = env->used_maps[aux->map_index];
mark_reg_known_zero(env, regs, insn->dst_reg);
- regs[insn->dst_reg].map_ptr = map;
+ dst_reg->map_ptr = map;

if (insn->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE) {
- regs[insn->dst_reg].type = PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE;
- regs[insn->dst_reg].off = aux->map_off;
+ dst_reg->type = PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE;
+ dst_reg->off = aux->map_off;
if (map_value_has_spin_lock(map))
- regs[insn->dst_reg].id = ++env->id_gen;
+ dst_reg->id = ++env->id_gen;
} else if (insn->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD) {
- regs[insn->dst_reg].type = CONST_PTR_TO_MAP;
+ dst_reg->type = CONST_PTR_TO_MAP;
} else {
verbose(env, "bpf verifier is misconfigured\n");
return -EINVAL;
@@ -9288,6 +9308,73 @@ static int do_check(struct bpf_verifier_env *env)
return 0;
}

+/* replace pseudo btf_id with kernel symbol address */
+static int check_pseudo_btf_id(struct bpf_verifier_env *env,
+ struct bpf_insn *insn,
+ struct bpf_insn_aux_data *aux)
+{
+ u32 type, id = insn->imm;
+ const struct btf_type *t;
+ const char *sym_name;
+ u64 addr;
+
+ if (!btf_vmlinux) {
+ verbose(env, "kernel is missing BTF, make sure CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO_BTF=y is specified in Kconfig.\n");
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ t = btf_type_by_id(btf_vmlinux, id);
+ if (!t) {
+ verbose(env, "ldimm64 insn specifies invalid btf_id %d.\n", id);
+ return -ENOENT;
+ }
+
+ if (insn[1].imm != 0) {
+ verbose(env, "reserved field (insn[1].imm) is used in pseudo_btf_id ldimm64 insn.\n");
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ if (!btf_type_is_var(t)) {
+ verbose(env, "pseudo btf_id %d in ldimm64 isn't KIND_VAR.\n",
+ id);
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+
+ sym_name = btf_name_by_offset(btf_vmlinux, t->name_off);
+ addr = kallsyms_lookup_name(sym_name);
+ if (!addr) {
+ verbose(env, "ldimm64 failed to find the address for kernel symbol '%s'.\n",
+ sym_name);
+ return -ENOENT;
+ }
+
+ insn[0].imm = (u32)addr;
+ insn[1].imm = addr >> 32;
+
+ type = t->type;
+ t = btf_type_skip_modifiers(btf_vmlinux, type, NULL);
+ if (!btf_type_is_struct(t)) {
+ const struct btf_type *ret;
+ const char *tname;
+ u32 tsize;
+
+ /* resolve the type size of ksym. */
+ ret = btf_resolve_size(btf_vmlinux, t, &tsize);
+ if (IS_ERR(ret)) {
+ tname = btf_name_by_offset(btf_vmlinux, t->name_off);
+ verbose(env, "ldimm64 unable to resolve the size of type '%s': %ld\n",
+ tname, PTR_ERR(ret));
+ return -EINVAL;
+ }
+ aux->btf_var.reg_type = PTR_TO_MEM;
+ aux->btf_var.mem_size = tsize;
+ } else {
+ aux->btf_var.reg_type = PTR_TO_BTF_ID;
+ aux->btf_var.btf_id = type;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
static int check_map_prealloc(struct bpf_map *map)
{
return (map->map_type != BPF_MAP_TYPE_HASH &&
@@ -9398,10 +9485,14 @@ static bool bpf_map_is_cgroup_storage(struct bpf_map *map)
map->map_type == BPF_MAP_TYPE_PERCPU_CGROUP_STORAGE);
}

-/* look for pseudo eBPF instructions that access map FDs and
- * replace them with actual map pointers
+/* find and rewrite pseudo imm in ld_imm64 instructions:
+ *
+ * 1. if it accesses map FD, replace it with actual map pointer.
+ * 2. if it accesses btf_id of a VAR, replace it with pointer to the var.
+ *
+ * NOTE: btf_vmlinux is required for converting pseudo btf_id.
*/
-static int replace_map_fd_with_map_ptr(struct bpf_verifier_env *env)
+static int resolve_pseudo_ldimm64(struct bpf_verifier_env *env)
{
struct bpf_insn *insn = env->prog->insnsi;
int insn_cnt = env->prog->len;
@@ -9442,6 +9533,14 @@ static int replace_map_fd_with_map_ptr(struct bpf_verifier_env *env)
/* valid generic load 64-bit imm */
goto next_insn;

+ if (insn[0].src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID) {
+ aux = &env->insn_aux_data[i];
+ err = check_pseudo_btf_id(env, insn, aux);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ goto next_insn;
+ }
+
/* In final convert_pseudo_ld_imm64() step, this is
* converted into regular 64-bit imm load insn.
*/
@@ -11392,10 +11491,6 @@ int bpf_check(struct bpf_prog **prog, union bpf_attr *attr,
if (is_priv)
env->test_state_freq = attr->prog_flags & BPF_F_TEST_STATE_FREQ;

- ret = replace_map_fd_with_map_ptr(env);
- if (ret < 0)
- goto skip_full_check;
-
if (bpf_prog_is_dev_bound(env->prog->aux)) {
ret = bpf_prog_offload_verifier_prep(env->prog);
if (ret)
@@ -11421,6 +11516,10 @@ int bpf_check(struct bpf_prog **prog, union bpf_attr *attr,
if (ret)
goto skip_full_check;

+ ret = resolve_pseudo_ldimm64(env);
+ if (ret < 0)
+ goto skip_full_check;
+
ret = check_cfg(env);
if (ret < 0)
goto skip_full_check;
diff --git a/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h b/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
index a22812561064..96c828a80520 100644
--- a/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
+++ b/tools/include/uapi/linux/bpf.h
@@ -356,18 +356,36 @@ enum bpf_link_type {
#define BPF_F_SLEEPABLE (1U << 4)

/* When BPF ldimm64's insn[0].src_reg != 0 then this can have
- * two extensions:
- *
- * insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE
- * insn[0].imm: map fd map fd
- * insn[1].imm: 0 offset into value
- * insn[0].off: 0 0
- * insn[1].off: 0 0
- * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map address of map[0]+offset
- * verifier type: CONST_PTR_TO_MAP PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE
+ * the following extensions:
+ *
+ * insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD
+ * insn[0].imm: map fd
+ * insn[1].imm: 0
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map
+ * verifier type: CONST_PTR_TO_MAP
*/
#define BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_FD 1
+/* insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE
+ * insn[0].imm: map fd
+ * insn[1].imm: offset into value
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of map[0]+offset
+ * verifier type: PTR_TO_MAP_VALUE
+ */
#define BPF_PSEUDO_MAP_VALUE 2
+/* insn[0].src_reg: BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID
+ * insn[0].imm: kernel btd id of VAR
+ * insn[1].imm: 0
+ * insn[0].off: 0
+ * insn[1].off: 0
+ * ldimm64 rewrite: address of the kernel variable
+ * verifier type: PTR_TO_BTF_ID or PTR_TO_MEM, depending on whether the var
+ * is struct/union.
+ */
+#define BPF_PSEUDO_BTF_ID 3

/* when bpf_call->src_reg == BPF_PSEUDO_CALL, bpf_call->imm == pc-relative
* offset to another bpf function
--
2.28.0.618.gf4bc123cb7-goog
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