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Subject[PATCH v5 18/21] kprobes: Remove kretprobe hash
Date
From: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

The kretprobe hash is mostly superfluous, replace it with a per-task
variable.

This gets rid of the task hash and it's related locking.


Note that this may change the kprobes module-exported API for kretprobe
handlers. If any out-of-tree kretprobe user uses ri->rp, use
get_kretprobe(ri) instead.

Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>
---
Changes in v5:
- Fix not to flush current task's kretprobe_instance
- Remove task scan by merging kretprobe_holder patch
- Use READ_ONCE() and rcu_locked check instead of smp_r/wmb()
- Make the failure case in __kretprobe_trampoline_handler() clearer
---
include/linux/kprobes.h | 19 +++
include/linux/sched.h | 4 +
kernel/fork.c | 4 +
kernel/kprobes.c | 236 +++++++++++++------------------------------
kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c | 3 -
5 files changed, 97 insertions(+), 169 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/kprobes.h b/include/linux/kprobes.h
index 9c880c8a4e80..f8f87a13345a 100644
--- a/include/linux/kprobes.h
+++ b/include/linux/kprobes.h
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <linux/refcount.h>
#include <asm/kprobes.h>

#ifdef CONFIG_KPROBES
@@ -144,6 +145,11 @@ static inline int kprobe_ftrace(struct kprobe *p)
* ignored, due to maxactive being too low.
*
*/
+struct kretprobe_holder {
+ struct kretprobe *rp;
+ refcount_t ref;
+};
+
struct kretprobe {
struct kprobe kp;
kretprobe_handler_t handler;
@@ -152,17 +158,18 @@ struct kretprobe {
int nmissed;
size_t data_size;
struct hlist_head free_instances;
+ struct kretprobe_holder *rph;
raw_spinlock_t lock;
};

struct kretprobe_instance {
union {
+ struct llist_node llist;
struct hlist_node hlist;
struct rcu_head rcu;
};
- struct kretprobe *rp;
+ struct kretprobe_holder *rph;
kprobe_opcode_t *ret_addr;
- struct task_struct *task;
void *fp;
char data[];
};
@@ -221,6 +228,14 @@ unsigned long kretprobe_trampoline_handler(struct pt_regs *regs,
return ret;
}

+static nokprobe_inline struct kretprobe *get_kretprobe(struct kretprobe_instance *ri)
+{
+ RCU_LOCKDEP_WARN(!rcu_read_lock_any_held(),
+ "Kretprobe is accessed from instance under preemptive context");
+
+ return READ_ONCE(ri->rph->rp);
+}
+
#else /* CONFIG_KRETPROBES */
static inline void arch_prepare_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp,
struct pt_regs *regs)
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index 93ecd930efd3..0f2532f052a9 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -1315,6 +1315,10 @@ struct task_struct {
struct callback_head mce_kill_me;
#endif

+#ifdef CONFIG_KRETPROBES
+ struct llist_head kretprobe_instances;
+#endif
+
/*
* New fields for task_struct should be added above here, so that
* they are included in the randomized portion of task_struct.
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index 4d32190861bd..2ff5cceb0732 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -2161,6 +2161,10 @@ static __latent_entropy struct task_struct *copy_process(
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->thread_group);
p->task_works = NULL;

+#ifdef CONFIG_KRETPROBES
+ p->kretprobe_instances.first = NULL;
+#endif
+
/*
* Ensure that the cgroup subsystem policies allow the new process to be
* forked. It should be noted the the new process's css_set can be changed
diff --git a/kernel/kprobes.c b/kernel/kprobes.c
index 732a70163584..bc65603fce00 100644
--- a/kernel/kprobes.c
+++ b/kernel/kprobes.c
@@ -53,7 +53,6 @@ static int kprobes_initialized;
* - RCU hlist traversal under disabling preempt (breakpoint handlers)
*/
static struct hlist_head kprobe_table[KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE];
-static struct hlist_head kretprobe_inst_table[KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE];

/* NOTE: change this value only with kprobe_mutex held */
static bool kprobes_all_disarmed;
@@ -61,9 +60,6 @@ static bool kprobes_all_disarmed;
/* This protects kprobe_table and optimizing_list */
static DEFINE_MUTEX(kprobe_mutex);
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct kprobe *, kprobe_instance) = NULL;
-static struct {
- raw_spinlock_t lock ____cacheline_aligned_in_smp;
-} kretprobe_table_locks[KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE];

kprobe_opcode_t * __weak kprobe_lookup_name(const char *name,
unsigned int __unused)
@@ -71,11 +67,6 @@ kprobe_opcode_t * __weak kprobe_lookup_name(const char *name,
return ((kprobe_opcode_t *)(kallsyms_lookup_name(name)));
}

-static raw_spinlock_t *kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(unsigned long hash)
-{
- return &(kretprobe_table_locks[hash].lock);
-}
-
/* Blacklist -- list of struct kprobe_blacklist_entry */
static LIST_HEAD(kprobe_blacklist);

@@ -1223,65 +1214,30 @@ void kprobes_inc_nmissed_count(struct kprobe *p)
}
NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kprobes_inc_nmissed_count);

+static void free_rp_inst_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
+{
+ struct kretprobe_instance *ri = container_of(head, struct kretprobe_instance, rcu);
+
+ if (refcount_dec_and_test(&ri->rph->ref))
+ kfree(ri->rph);
+ kfree(ri);
+}
+NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(free_rp_inst_rcu);
+
static void recycle_rp_inst(struct kretprobe_instance *ri)
{
- struct kretprobe *rp = ri->rp;
+ struct kretprobe *rp = get_kretprobe(ri);

- /* remove rp inst off the rprobe_inst_table */
- hlist_del(&ri->hlist);
INIT_HLIST_NODE(&ri->hlist);
if (likely(rp)) {
raw_spin_lock(&rp->lock);
hlist_add_head(&ri->hlist, &rp->free_instances);
raw_spin_unlock(&rp->lock);
} else
- kfree_rcu(ri, rcu);
+ call_rcu(&ri->rcu, free_rp_inst_rcu);
}
NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(recycle_rp_inst);

-static void kretprobe_hash_lock(struct task_struct *tsk,
- struct hlist_head **head, unsigned long *flags)
-__acquires(hlist_lock)
-{
- unsigned long hash = hash_ptr(tsk, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
- raw_spinlock_t *hlist_lock;
-
- *head = &kretprobe_inst_table[hash];
- hlist_lock = kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(hash);
- raw_spin_lock_irqsave(hlist_lock, *flags);
-}
-NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_hash_lock);
-
-static void kretprobe_table_lock(unsigned long hash,
- unsigned long *flags)
-__acquires(hlist_lock)
-{
- raw_spinlock_t *hlist_lock = kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(hash);
- raw_spin_lock_irqsave(hlist_lock, *flags);
-}
-NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_table_lock);
-
-static void kretprobe_hash_unlock(struct task_struct *tsk,
- unsigned long *flags)
-__releases(hlist_lock)
-{
- unsigned long hash = hash_ptr(tsk, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
- raw_spinlock_t *hlist_lock;
-
- hlist_lock = kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(hash);
- raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(hlist_lock, *flags);
-}
-NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_hash_unlock);
-
-static void kretprobe_table_unlock(unsigned long hash,
- unsigned long *flags)
-__releases(hlist_lock)
-{
- raw_spinlock_t *hlist_lock = kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(hash);
- raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(hlist_lock, *flags);
-}
-NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_table_unlock);
-
static struct kprobe kprobe_busy = {
.addr = (void *) get_kprobe,
};
@@ -1311,24 +1267,21 @@ void kprobe_busy_end(void)
void kprobe_flush_task(struct task_struct *tk)
{
struct kretprobe_instance *ri;
- struct hlist_head *head;
- struct hlist_node *tmp;
- unsigned long hash, flags = 0;
+ struct llist_node *node;

+ /* Early boot, not yet initialized. */
if (unlikely(!kprobes_initialized))
- /* Early boot. kretprobe_table_locks not yet initialized. */
return;

kprobe_busy_begin();

- hash = hash_ptr(tk, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
- head = &kretprobe_inst_table[hash];
- kretprobe_table_lock(hash, &flags);
- hlist_for_each_entry_safe(ri, tmp, head, hlist) {
- if (ri->task == tk)
- recycle_rp_inst(ri);
+ node = __llist_del_all(&tk->kretprobe_instances);
+ while (node) {
+ ri = container_of(node, struct kretprobe_instance, llist);
+ node = node->next;
+
+ recycle_rp_inst(ri);
}
- kretprobe_table_unlock(hash, &flags);

kprobe_busy_end();
}
@@ -1338,36 +1291,19 @@ static inline void free_rp_inst(struct kretprobe *rp)
{
struct kretprobe_instance *ri;
struct hlist_node *next;
+ int count = 0;

hlist_for_each_entry_safe(ri, next, &rp->free_instances, hlist) {
hlist_del(&ri->hlist);
kfree(ri);
+ count++;
}
-}
-
-static void cleanup_rp_inst(struct kretprobe *rp)
-{
- unsigned long flags, hash;
- struct kretprobe_instance *ri;
- struct hlist_node *next;
- struct hlist_head *head;

- /* To avoid recursive kretprobe by NMI, set kprobe busy here */
- kprobe_busy_begin();
- for (hash = 0; hash < KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE; hash++) {
- kretprobe_table_lock(hash, &flags);
- head = &kretprobe_inst_table[hash];
- hlist_for_each_entry_safe(ri, next, head, hlist) {
- if (ri->rp == rp)
- ri->rp = NULL;
- }
- kretprobe_table_unlock(hash, &flags);
+ if (refcount_sub_and_test(count, &rp->rph->ref)) {
+ kfree(rp->rph);
+ rp->rph = NULL;
}
- kprobe_busy_end();
-
- free_rp_inst(rp);
}
-NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(cleanup_rp_inst);

/* Add the new probe to ap->list */
static int add_new_kprobe(struct kprobe *ap, struct kprobe *p)
@@ -1928,88 +1864,56 @@ unsigned long __kretprobe_trampoline_handler(struct pt_regs *regs,
void *trampoline_address,
void *frame_pointer)
{
- struct kretprobe_instance *ri = NULL, *last = NULL;
- struct hlist_head *head;
- struct hlist_node *tmp;
- unsigned long flags;
kprobe_opcode_t *correct_ret_addr = NULL;
- bool skipped = false;
+ struct kretprobe_instance *ri = NULL;
+ struct llist_node *first, *node;
+ struct kretprobe *rp;

- kretprobe_hash_lock(current, &head, &flags);
+ /* Find all nodes for this frame. */
+ first = node = current->kretprobe_instances.first;
+ while (node) {
+ ri = container_of(node, struct kretprobe_instance, llist);

- /*
- * It is possible to have multiple instances associated with a given
- * task either because multiple functions in the call path have
- * return probes installed on them, and/or more than one
- * return probe was registered for a target function.
- *
- * We can handle this because:
- * - instances are always pushed into the head of the list
- * - when multiple return probes are registered for the same
- * function, the (chronologically) first instance's ret_addr
- * will be the real return address, and all the rest will
- * point to kretprobe_trampoline.
- */
- hlist_for_each_entry(ri, head, hlist) {
- if (ri->task != current)
- /* another task is sharing our hash bucket */
- continue;
- /*
- * Return probes must be pushed on this hash list correct
- * order (same as return order) so that it can be popped
- * correctly. However, if we find it is pushed it incorrect
- * order, this means we find a function which should not be
- * probed, because the wrong order entry is pushed on the
- * path of processing other kretprobe itself.
- */
- if (ri->fp != frame_pointer) {
- if (!skipped)
- pr_warn("kretprobe is stacked incorrectly. Trying to fixup.\n");
- skipped = true;
- continue;
- }
+ BUG_ON(ri->fp != frame_pointer);

- correct_ret_addr = ri->ret_addr;
- if (skipped)
- pr_warn("%ps must be blacklisted because of incorrect kretprobe order\n",
- ri->rp->kp.addr);
-
- if (correct_ret_addr != trampoline_address)
+ if (ri->ret_addr != trampoline_address) {
+ correct_ret_addr = ri->ret_addr;
/*
* This is the real return address. Any other
* instances associated with this task are for
* other calls deeper on the call stack
*/
- break;
+ goto found;
+ }
+
+ node = node->next;
}
+ pr_err("Oops! Kretprobe fails to find correct return address.\n");
+ BUG_ON(1);

- BUG_ON(!correct_ret_addr || (correct_ret_addr == trampoline_address));
- last = ri;
+found:
+ /* Unlink all nodes for this frame. */
+ current->kretprobe_instances.first = node->next;
+ node->next = NULL;

- hlist_for_each_entry_safe(ri, tmp, head, hlist) {
- if (ri->task != current)
- /* another task is sharing our hash bucket */
- continue;
- if (ri->fp != frame_pointer)
- continue;
+ /* Run them.. */
+ while (first) {
+ ri = container_of(first, struct kretprobe_instance, llist);
+ first = first->next;

- if (ri->rp && ri->rp->handler) {
+ rp = get_kretprobe(ri);
+ if (rp && rp->handler) {
struct kprobe *prev = kprobe_running();

- __this_cpu_write(current_kprobe, &ri->rp->kp);
+ __this_cpu_write(current_kprobe, &rp->kp);
ri->ret_addr = correct_ret_addr;
- ri->rp->handler(ri, regs);
+ rp->handler(ri, regs);
__this_cpu_write(current_kprobe, prev);
}

recycle_rp_inst(ri);
-
- if (ri == last)
- break;
}

- kretprobe_hash_unlock(current, &flags);
-
return (unsigned long)correct_ret_addr;
}
NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(__kretprobe_trampoline_handler)
@@ -2021,11 +1925,10 @@ NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(__kretprobe_trampoline_handler)
static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
{
struct kretprobe *rp = container_of(p, struct kretprobe, kp);
- unsigned long hash, flags = 0;
+ unsigned long flags = 0;
struct kretprobe_instance *ri;

/* TODO: consider to only swap the RA after the last pre_handler fired */
- hash = hash_ptr(current, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&rp->lock, flags);
if (!hlist_empty(&rp->free_instances)) {
ri = hlist_entry(rp->free_instances.first,
@@ -2033,9 +1936,6 @@ static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
hlist_del(&ri->hlist);
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rp->lock, flags);

- ri->rp = rp;
- ri->task = current;
-
if (rp->entry_handler && rp->entry_handler(ri, regs)) {
raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&rp->lock, flags);
hlist_add_head(&ri->hlist, &rp->free_instances);
@@ -2045,11 +1945,8 @@ static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)

arch_prepare_kretprobe(ri, regs);

- /* XXX(hch): why is there no hlist_move_head? */
- INIT_HLIST_NODE(&ri->hlist);
- kretprobe_table_lock(hash, &flags);
- hlist_add_head(&ri->hlist, &kretprobe_inst_table[hash]);
- kretprobe_table_unlock(hash, &flags);
+ __llist_add(&ri->llist, &current->kretprobe_instances);
+
} else {
rp->nmissed++;
raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rp->lock, flags);
@@ -2112,16 +2009,24 @@ int register_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp)
}
raw_spin_lock_init(&rp->lock);
INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&rp->free_instances);
+ rp->rph = kzalloc(sizeof(struct kretprobe_holder), GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!rp->rph)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ rp->rph->rp = rp;
for (i = 0; i < rp->maxactive; i++) {
- inst = kmalloc(sizeof(struct kretprobe_instance) +
+ inst = kzalloc(sizeof(struct kretprobe_instance) +
rp->data_size, GFP_KERNEL);
if (inst == NULL) {
+ refcount_set(&rp->rph->ref, i);
free_rp_inst(rp);
return -ENOMEM;
}
+ inst->rph = rp->rph;
INIT_HLIST_NODE(&inst->hlist);
hlist_add_head(&inst->hlist, &rp->free_instances);
}
+ refcount_set(&rp->rph->ref, i);

rp->nmissed = 0;
/* Establish function entry probe point */
@@ -2163,16 +2068,18 @@ void unregister_kretprobes(struct kretprobe **rps, int num)
if (num <= 0)
return;
mutex_lock(&kprobe_mutex);
- for (i = 0; i < num; i++)
+ for (i = 0; i < num; i++) {
if (__unregister_kprobe_top(&rps[i]->kp) < 0)
rps[i]->kp.addr = NULL;
+ rps[i]->rph->rp = NULL;
+ }
mutex_unlock(&kprobe_mutex);

synchronize_rcu();
for (i = 0; i < num; i++) {
if (rps[i]->kp.addr) {
__unregister_kprobe_bottom(&rps[i]->kp);
- cleanup_rp_inst(rps[i]);
+ free_rp_inst(rps[i]);
}
}
}
@@ -2534,11 +2441,8 @@ static int __init init_kprobes(void)

/* FIXME allocate the probe table, currently defined statically */
/* initialize all list heads */
- for (i = 0; i < KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < KPROBE_TABLE_SIZE; i++)
INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&kprobe_table[i]);
- INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&kretprobe_inst_table[i]);
- raw_spin_lock_init(&(kretprobe_table_locks[i].lock));
- }

err = populate_kprobe_blacklist(__start_kprobe_blacklist,
__stop_kprobe_blacklist);
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
index aefb6065b508..07baf6f6cecc 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace_kprobe.c
@@ -1714,7 +1714,8 @@ NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kprobe_dispatcher);
static int
kretprobe_dispatcher(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct pt_regs *regs)
{
- struct trace_kprobe *tk = container_of(ri->rp, struct trace_kprobe, rp);
+ struct kretprobe *rp = get_kretprobe(ri);
+ struct trace_kprobe *tk = container_of(rp, struct trace_kprobe, rp);

raw_cpu_inc(*tk->nhit);

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