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SubjectRe: [PATCH v5 5/7] x86/boot: Remove run-time relocations from .head.text code
On Wed, Jul 15, 2020 at 2:41 AM Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu> wrote:
>
> The assembly code in head_{32,64}.S, while meant to be
> position-independent, generates run-time relocations because it uses
> instructions such as
> leal gdt(%edx), %eax
> which make the assembler and linker think that the code is using %edx as
> an index into gdt, and hence gdt needs to be relocated to its run-time
> address.
>
> On 32-bit, with lld Dmitry Golovin reports that this results in a
> link-time error with default options (i.e. unless -z notext is
> explicitly passed):
> LD arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux
> ld.lld: error: can't create dynamic relocation R_386_32 against local
> symbol in readonly segment; recompile object files with -fPIC or pass
> '-Wl,-z,notext' to allow text relocations in the output
>
> With the BFD linker, this generates a warning during the build, if
> --warn-shared-textrel is enabled, which at least Gentoo enables by
> default:
> LD arch/x86/boot/compressed/vmlinux
> ld: arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.o: warning: relocation in read-only section `.head.text'
> ld: warning: creating a DT_TEXTREL in object
>
> On 64-bit, it is not possible to link the kernel as -pie with lld, and
> it is only possible with a BFD linker that supports -z noreloc-overflow,
> i.e. versions >2.26. This is because these instructions cannot really be
> relocated: the displacement field is only 32-bits wide, and thus cannot
> be relocated for a 64-bit load address. The -z noreloc-overflow option
> simply overrides the linker error, and results in R_X86_64_RELATIVE
> relocations that apply a 64-bit relocation to a 32-bit field anyway.
> This happens to work because nothing will process these run-time
> relocations.
>
> Start fixing this by removing relocations from .head.text:
> - On 32-bit, use a base register that holds the address of the GOT and
> reference symbol addresses using @GOTOFF, i.e.
> leal gdt@GOTOFF(%edx), %eax
> - On 64-bit, most of the code can (and already does) use %rip-relative
> addressing, however the .code32 bits can't, and the 64-bit code also
> needs to reference symbol addresses as they will be after moving the
> compressed kernel to the end of the decompression buffer.
> For these cases, reference the symbols as an offset to startup_32 to
> avoid creating relocations, i.e.
> leal (gdt-startup_32)(%bp), %eax
> This only works in .head.text as the subtraction cannot be represented
> as a PC-relative relocation unless startup_32 is in the same section
> as the code. Move efi32_pe_entry into .head.text so that it can use
> the same method to avoid relocations.
>
> Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
> Reviewed-by: Ard Biesheuvel <ardb@kernel.org>
> Reviewed-by: Fangrui Song <maskray@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Arvind Sankar <nivedita@alum.mit.edu>

Tested-by: Sedat Dilek <sedat.dilek@gmail.com>

- Sedat -

> ---
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S | 64 +++++++-----------
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S | 104 ++++++++++++++++++-----------
> 2 files changed, 90 insertions(+), 78 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
> index 39f0bb43218f..8c1a4f5610f5 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
> +++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S
> @@ -33,26 +33,10 @@
> #include <asm/bootparam.h>
>
> /*
> - * The 32-bit x86 assembler in binutils 2.26 will generate R_386_GOT32X
> - * relocation to get the symbol address in PIC. When the compressed x86
> - * kernel isn't built as PIC, the linker optimizes R_386_GOT32X
> - * relocations to their fixed symbol addresses. However, when the
> - * compressed x86 kernel is loaded at a different address, it leads
> - * to the following load failure:
> - *
> - * Failed to allocate space for phdrs
> - *
> - * during the decompression stage.
> - *
> - * If the compressed x86 kernel is relocatable at run-time, it should be
> - * compiled with -fPIE, instead of -fPIC, if possible and should be built as
> - * Position Independent Executable (PIE) so that linker won't optimize
> - * R_386_GOT32X relocation to its fixed symbol address. Older
> - * linkers generate R_386_32 relocations against locally defined symbols,
> - * _bss, _ebss and _end, in PIE. It isn't wrong, just less optimal than
> - * R_386_RELATIVE. But the x86 kernel fails to properly handle R_386_32
> - * relocations when relocating the kernel. To generate R_386_RELATIVE
> - * relocations, we mark _bss, _ebss and _end as hidden:
> + * These symbols needed to be marked as .hidden to prevent the BFD linker from
> + * generating R_386_32 (rather than R_386_RELATIVE) relocations for them when
> + * the 32-bit compressed kernel is linked as PIE. This is no longer necessary,
> + * but it doesn't hurt to keep them .hidden.
> */
> .hidden _bss
> .hidden _ebss
> @@ -74,10 +58,10 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> leal (BP_scratch+4)(%esi), %esp
> call 1f
> 1: popl %edx
> - subl $1b, %edx
> + addl $_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_+(.-1b), %edx
>
> /* Load new GDT */
> - leal gdt(%edx), %eax
> + leal gdt@GOTOFF(%edx), %eax
> movl %eax, 2(%eax)
> lgdt (%eax)
>
> @@ -90,14 +74,16 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> movl %eax, %ss
>
> /*
> - * %edx contains the address we are loaded at by the boot loader and %ebx
> - * contains the address where we should move the kernel image temporarily
> - * for safe in-place decompression. %ebp contains the address that the kernel
> - * will be decompressed to.
> + * %edx contains the address we are loaded at by the boot loader (plus the
> + * offset to the GOT). The below code calculates %ebx to be the address where
> + * we should move the kernel image temporarily for safe in-place decompression
> + * (again, plus the offset to the GOT).
> + *
> + * %ebp is calculated to be the address that the kernel will be decompressed to.
> */
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_RELOCATABLE
> - movl %edx, %ebx
> + leal startup_32@GOTOFF(%edx), %ebx
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_EFI_STUB
> /*
> @@ -108,7 +94,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * image_offset = startup_32 - image_base
> * Otherwise image_offset will be zero and has no effect on the calculations.
> */
> - subl image_offset(%edx), %ebx
> + subl image_offset@GOTOFF(%edx), %ebx
> #endif
>
> movl BP_kernel_alignment(%esi), %eax
> @@ -125,10 +111,10 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> movl %ebx, %ebp // Save the output address for later
> /* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
> addl BP_init_size(%esi), %ebx
> - subl $_end, %ebx
> + subl $_end@GOTOFF, %ebx
>
> /* Set up the stack */
> - leal boot_stack_end(%ebx), %esp
> + leal boot_stack_end@GOTOFF(%ebx), %esp
>
> /* Zero EFLAGS */
> pushl $0
> @@ -139,8 +125,8 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * where decompression in place becomes safe.
> */
> pushl %esi
> - leal (_bss-4)(%edx), %esi
> - leal (_bss-4)(%ebx), %edi
> + leal (_bss@GOTOFF-4)(%edx), %esi
> + leal (_bss@GOTOFF-4)(%ebx), %edi
> movl $(_bss - startup_32), %ecx
> shrl $2, %ecx
> std
> @@ -153,14 +139,14 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * during extract_kernel below. To avoid any issues, repoint the GDTR
> * to the new copy of the GDT.
> */
> - leal gdt(%ebx), %eax
> + leal gdt@GOTOFF(%ebx), %eax
> movl %eax, 2(%eax)
> lgdt (%eax)
>
> /*
> * Jump to the relocated address.
> */
> - leal .Lrelocated(%ebx), %eax
> + leal .Lrelocated@GOTOFF(%ebx), %eax
> jmp *%eax
> SYM_FUNC_END(startup_32)
>
> @@ -170,7 +156,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_ALIAS(efi_stub_entry)
> add $0x4, %esp
> movl 8(%esp), %esi /* save boot_params pointer */
> call efi_main
> - leal startup_32(%eax), %eax
> + /* efi_main returns the possibly relocated address of startup_32 */
> jmp *%eax
> SYM_FUNC_END(efi32_stub_entry)
> SYM_FUNC_END_ALIAS(efi_stub_entry)
> @@ -183,8 +169,8 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL_NOALIGN(.Lrelocated)
> * Clear BSS (stack is currently empty)
> */
> xorl %eax, %eax
> - leal _bss(%ebx), %edi
> - leal _ebss(%ebx), %ecx
> + leal _bss@GOTOFF(%ebx), %edi
> + leal _ebss@GOTOFF(%ebx), %ecx
> subl %edi, %ecx
> shrl $2, %ecx
> rep stosl
> @@ -198,9 +184,9 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_LOCAL_NOALIGN(.Lrelocated)
> pushl %ebp /* output address */
>
> pushl $z_input_len /* input_len */
> - leal input_data(%ebx), %eax
> + leal input_data@GOTOFF(%ebx), %eax
> pushl %eax /* input_data */
> - leal boot_heap(%ebx), %eax
> + leal boot_heap@GOTOFF(%ebx), %eax
> pushl %eax /* heap area */
> pushl %esi /* real mode pointer */
> call extract_kernel /* returns kernel location in %eax */
> diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
> index bf1ab30acc5b..11429092c224 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
> +++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S
> @@ -43,6 +43,32 @@
> .hidden _end
>
> __HEAD
> +
> +/*
> + * This macro gives the relative virtual address of X, i.e. the offset of X
> + * from startup_32. This is the same as the link-time virtual address of X,
> + * since startup_32 is at 0, but defining it this way tells the
> + * assembler/linker that we do not want the actual run-time address of X. This
> + * prevents the linker from trying to create unwanted run-time relocation
> + * entries for the reference when the compressed kernel is linked as PIE.
> + *
> + * A reference X(%reg) will result in the link-time VA of X being stored with
> + * the instruction, and a run-time R_X86_64_RELATIVE relocation entry that
> + * adds the 64-bit base address where the kernel is loaded.
> + *
> + * Replacing it with (X-startup_32)(%reg) results in the offset being stored,
> + * and no run-time relocation.
> + *
> + * The macro should be used as a displacement with a base register containing
> + * the run-time address of startup_32 [i.e. rva(X)(%reg)], or as an immediate
> + * [$ rva(X)].
> + *
> + * This macro can only be used from within the .head.text section, since the
> + * expression requires startup_32 to be in the same section as the code being
> + * assembled.
> + */
> +#define rva(X) ((X) - startup_32)
> +
> .code32
> SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> /*
> @@ -65,10 +91,10 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> leal (BP_scratch+4)(%esi), %esp
> call 1f
> 1: popl %ebp
> - subl $1b, %ebp
> + subl $ rva(1b), %ebp
>
> /* Load new GDT with the 64bit segments using 32bit descriptor */
> - leal gdt(%ebp), %eax
> + leal rva(gdt)(%ebp), %eax
> movl %eax, 2(%eax)
> lgdt (%eax)
>
> @@ -81,7 +107,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> movl %eax, %ss
>
> /* setup a stack and make sure cpu supports long mode. */
> - leal boot_stack_end(%ebp), %esp
> + leal rva(boot_stack_end)(%ebp), %esp
>
> call verify_cpu
> testl %eax, %eax
> @@ -108,7 +134,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * image_offset = startup_32 - image_base
> * Otherwise image_offset will be zero and has no effect on the calculations.
> */
> - subl image_offset(%ebp), %ebx
> + subl rva(image_offset)(%ebp), %ebx
> #endif
>
> movl BP_kernel_alignment(%esi), %eax
> @@ -124,7 +150,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
>
> /* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
> addl BP_init_size(%esi), %ebx
> - subl $_end, %ebx
> + subl $ rva(_end), %ebx
>
> /*
> * Prepare for entering 64 bit mode
> @@ -152,19 +178,19 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> 1:
>
> /* Initialize Page tables to 0 */
> - leal pgtable(%ebx), %edi
> + leal rva(pgtable)(%ebx), %edi
> xorl %eax, %eax
> movl $(BOOT_INIT_PGT_SIZE/4), %ecx
> rep stosl
>
> /* Build Level 4 */
> - leal pgtable + 0(%ebx), %edi
> + leal rva(pgtable + 0)(%ebx), %edi
> leal 0x1007 (%edi), %eax
> movl %eax, 0(%edi)
> addl %edx, 4(%edi)
>
> /* Build Level 3 */
> - leal pgtable + 0x1000(%ebx), %edi
> + leal rva(pgtable + 0x1000)(%ebx), %edi
> leal 0x1007(%edi), %eax
> movl $4, %ecx
> 1: movl %eax, 0x00(%edi)
> @@ -175,7 +201,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> jnz 1b
>
> /* Build Level 2 */
> - leal pgtable + 0x2000(%ebx), %edi
> + leal rva(pgtable + 0x2000)(%ebx), %edi
> movl $0x00000183, %eax
> movl $2048, %ecx
> 1: movl %eax, 0(%edi)
> @@ -186,7 +212,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> jnz 1b
>
> /* Enable the boot page tables */
> - leal pgtable(%ebx), %eax
> + leal rva(pgtable)(%ebx), %eax
> movl %eax, %cr3
>
> /* Enable Long mode in EFER (Extended Feature Enable Register) */
> @@ -211,14 +237,14 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * We place all of the values on our mini stack so lret can
> * used to perform that far jump.
> */
> - leal startup_64(%ebp), %eax
> + leal rva(startup_64)(%ebp), %eax
> #ifdef CONFIG_EFI_MIXED
> - movl efi32_boot_args(%ebp), %edi
> + movl rva(efi32_boot_args)(%ebp), %edi
> cmp $0, %edi
> jz 1f
> - leal efi64_stub_entry(%ebp), %eax
> - movl efi32_boot_args+4(%ebp), %esi
> - movl efi32_boot_args+8(%ebp), %edx // saved bootparams pointer
> + leal rva(efi64_stub_entry)(%ebp), %eax
> + movl rva(efi32_boot_args+4)(%ebp), %esi
> + movl rva(efi32_boot_args+8)(%ebp), %edx // saved bootparams pointer
> cmpl $0, %edx
> jnz 1f
> /*
> @@ -229,7 +255,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(startup_32)
> * the correct stack alignment for entry.
> */
> subl $40, %esp
> - leal efi_pe_entry(%ebp), %eax
> + leal rva(efi_pe_entry)(%ebp), %eax
> movl %edi, %ecx // MS calling convention
> movl %esi, %edx
> 1:
> @@ -255,18 +281,18 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(efi32_stub_entry)
>
> call 1f
> 1: pop %ebp
> - subl $1b, %ebp
> + subl $ rva(1b), %ebp
>
> - movl %esi, efi32_boot_args+8(%ebp)
> + movl %esi, rva(efi32_boot_args+8)(%ebp)
> SYM_INNER_LABEL(efi32_pe_stub_entry, SYM_L_LOCAL)
> - movl %ecx, efi32_boot_args(%ebp)
> - movl %edx, efi32_boot_args+4(%ebp)
> - movb $0, efi_is64(%ebp)
> + movl %ecx, rva(efi32_boot_args)(%ebp)
> + movl %edx, rva(efi32_boot_args+4)(%ebp)
> + movb $0, rva(efi_is64)(%ebp)
>
> /* Save firmware GDTR and code/data selectors */
> - sgdtl efi32_boot_gdt(%ebp)
> - movw %cs, efi32_boot_cs(%ebp)
> - movw %ds, efi32_boot_ds(%ebp)
> + sgdtl rva(efi32_boot_gdt)(%ebp)
> + movw %cs, rva(efi32_boot_cs)(%ebp)
> + movw %ds, rva(efi32_boot_ds)(%ebp)
>
> /* Disable paging */
> movl %cr0, %eax
> @@ -345,11 +371,11 @@ SYM_CODE_START(startup_64)
>
> /* Target address to relocate to for decompression */
> movl BP_init_size(%rsi), %ebx
> - subl $_end, %ebx
> + subl $ rva(_end), %ebx
> addq %rbp, %rbx
>
> /* Set up the stack */
> - leaq boot_stack_end(%rbx), %rsp
> + leaq rva(boot_stack_end)(%rbx), %rsp
>
> /*
> * At this point we are in long mode with 4-level paging enabled,
> @@ -423,7 +449,7 @@ SYM_CODE_START(startup_64)
> lretq
> trampoline_return:
> /* Restore the stack, the 32-bit trampoline uses its own stack */
> - leaq boot_stack_end(%rbx), %rsp
> + leaq rva(boot_stack_end)(%rbx), %rsp
>
> /*
> * cleanup_trampoline() would restore trampoline memory.
> @@ -435,7 +461,7 @@ trampoline_return:
> * this function call.
> */
> pushq %rsi
> - leaq top_pgtable(%rbx), %rdi
> + leaq rva(top_pgtable)(%rbx), %rdi
> call cleanup_trampoline
> popq %rsi
>
> @@ -449,9 +475,9 @@ trampoline_return:
> */
> pushq %rsi
> leaq (_bss-8)(%rip), %rsi
> - leaq (_bss-8)(%rbx), %rdi
> - movq $_bss /* - $startup_32 */, %rcx
> - shrq $3, %rcx
> + leaq rva(_bss-8)(%rbx), %rdi
> + movl $(_bss - startup_32), %ecx
> + shrl $3, %ecx
> std
> rep movsq
> cld
> @@ -462,15 +488,15 @@ trampoline_return:
> * during extract_kernel below. To avoid any issues, repoint the GDTR
> * to the new copy of the GDT.
> */
> - leaq gdt64(%rbx), %rax
> - leaq gdt(%rbx), %rdx
> + leaq rva(gdt64)(%rbx), %rax
> + leaq rva(gdt)(%rbx), %rdx
> movq %rdx, 2(%rax)
> lgdt (%rax)
>
> /*
> * Jump to the relocated address.
> */
> - leaq .Lrelocated(%rbx), %rax
> + leaq rva(.Lrelocated)(%rbx), %rax
> jmp *%rax
> SYM_CODE_END(startup_64)
>
> @@ -482,7 +508,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START_ALIAS(efi_stub_entry)
> movq %rdx, %rbx /* save boot_params pointer */
> call efi_main
> movq %rbx,%rsi
> - leaq startup_64(%rax), %rax
> + leaq rva(startup_64)(%rax), %rax
> jmp *%rax
> SYM_FUNC_END(efi64_stub_entry)
> SYM_FUNC_END_ALIAS(efi_stub_entry)
> @@ -645,7 +671,7 @@ SYM_DATA(efi_is64, .byte 1)
> #define BS32_handle_protocol 88 // offsetof(efi_boot_services_32_t, handle_protocol)
> #define LI32_image_base 32 // offsetof(efi_loaded_image_32_t, image_base)
>
> - .text
> + __HEAD
> .code32
> SYM_FUNC_START(efi32_pe_entry)
> /*
> @@ -667,12 +693,12 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(efi32_pe_entry)
>
> call 1f
> 1: pop %ebx
> - subl $1b, %ebx
> + subl $ rva(1b), %ebx
>
> /* Get the loaded image protocol pointer from the image handle */
> leal -4(%ebp), %eax
> pushl %eax // &loaded_image
> - leal loaded_image_proto(%ebx), %eax
> + leal rva(loaded_image_proto)(%ebx), %eax
> pushl %eax // pass the GUID address
> pushl 8(%ebp) // pass the image handle
>
> @@ -707,7 +733,7 @@ SYM_FUNC_START(efi32_pe_entry)
> * use it before we get to the 64-bit efi_pe_entry() in C code.
> */
> subl %esi, %ebx
> - movl %ebx, image_offset(%ebp) // save image_offset
> + movl %ebx, rva(image_offset)(%ebp) // save image_offset
> jmp efi32_pe_stub_entry
>
> 2: popl %edi // restore callee-save registers
> --
> 2.26.2
>

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