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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/3 V2] ring-buffer: Have nested events still record running time stamp
On Sun, 28 Jun 2020 22:52:25 -0400
Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> wrote:

> From: "Steven Rostedt (VMware)" <rostedt@goodmis.org>
>
> Up until now, if an event is interrupted while it is recorded by an
> interrupt, and that interrupt records events, the time of those events will
> all be the same. This is because events only record the delta of the time
> since the previous event (or beginning of a page), and to handle updating
> the time keeping for that of nested events is extremely racy. After years of
> thinking about this and several failed attempts, I finally have a solution
> to solve this puzzle.
>
> The problem is that you need to atomically calculate the delta and then
> update the time stamp you made the delta from, as well as then record it
> into the buffer, all this while at any time an interrupt can come in and
> do the same thing. This is easy to solve with heavy weight atomics, but that
> would be detrimental to the performance of the ring buffer. The current
> state of affairs sacrificed the time deltas for nested events for
> performance.
>
> The reason for previous failed attempts at solving this puzzle was because I
> was trying to completely avoid slow atomic operations like cmpxchg. I final
> came to the conclusion to always avoid cmpxchg is not possible, which is why
> those previous attempts always failed. But it is possible to pick one path
> (the most common case) and avoid cmpxchg in that path, which is the "fast
> path". The most common case is that an event will not be interrupted and
> have other events added into it. An event can detect if it has
> interrupted another event, and for these cases we can make it the slow
> path and use the heavy operations like cmpxchg.
>
> One more player was added to the game that made this possible, and that is
> the "absolute timestamp" (by Tom Zanussi) that allows us to inject a full 59
> bit time stamp. (Of course this breaks if a machine is running for more than
> 18 years without a reboot!).
>
> There's barrier() placements around for being paranoid, even when they
> are not needed because of other atomic functions near by. But those
> should not hurt, as if they are not needed, they basically become a nop.
>
> Note, this also makes the race window much smaller, which means there
> are less slow paths to slow down the performance.
>
> Here's the design of this solution:
>
> All this is per cpu, and only needs to worry about nested events (not
> parallel events).
>
> The players:
>
> write_tail: The index in the buffer where new events can be written to.
> It is incremented via local_add() to reserve space for a new event.
>
> before_stamp: A time stamp set by all events before reserving space.
>
> write_stamp: A time stamp updated by events after it has successfully
> reserved space.
>
> /* Save the current position of write */
> [A] w = local_read(write_tail);
> barrier();
> /* Read both before and write stamps before touching anything */
> before = local_read(before_stamp);
> after = local_read(write_stamp);
> barrier();
>
> /*
> * If before and after are the same, then this event is not
> * interrupting a time update. If it is, then reserve space for adding
> * a full time stamp (this can turn into a time extend which is
> * just an extended time delta but fill up the extra space).
> */
> if (after != before)
> abs = true;
>
> ts = clock();
>
> /* Now update the before_stamp (everyone does this!) */
> [B] local_set(before_stamp, ts);
>
> /* Now reserve space on the buffer */
> [C] write = local_add_return(len, write_tail);
>
> /* Set tail to be were this event's data is */
> tail = write - len;
>
> if (w == tail) {
>
> /* Nothing interrupted this between A and C */
> [D] local_set(write_stamp, ts);
> barrier();
> [E] save_before = local_read(before_stamp);
>
> if (!abs) {
> /* This did not interrupt a time update */
> delta = ts - after;
> } else {
> delta = ts; /* The full time stamp will be in use */
> }
> if (ts != save_before) {
> /* slow path - Was interrupted between C and E */
> /* The update to write_stamp could have overwritten the update to
> * it by the interrupting event, but before and after should be
> * the same for all completed top events */
> after = local_read(write_stamp);
> if (save_before > after)
> local_cmpxchg(write_stamp, after, save_before);
> }
> } else {
> /* slow path - Interrupted between A and C */
>
> after = local_read(write_stamp);
> temp_ts = clock();
> barrier();
> [F] if (write == local_read(write_tail) && after < temp_ts) {
> /* This was not interrupted since C and F
> * The last write_stamp is still valid for the previous event
> * in the buffer. */
> delta = temp_ts - after;
> /* OK to keep this new time stamp */
> ts = temp_ts;
> } else {
> /* Interrupted between C and F
> * Well, there's no use to try to know what the time stamp
> * is for the previous event. Just set delta to zero and
> * be the same time as that event that interrupted us before
> * the reservation of the buffer. */
>
> delta = 0;
> }
> /* No need to use full timestamps here */
> abs = 0;
> }
>
> Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20200625094454.732790f7@oasis.local.home
>

Looks good to me :)

Reviewed-by: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>

Thank you!

> Signed-off-by: Steven Rostedt (VMware) <rostedt@goodmis.org>
> ---
> kernel/trace/ring_buffer.c | 276 ++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
> 1 file changed, 181 insertions(+), 95 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/kernel/trace/ring_buffer.c b/kernel/trace/ring_buffer.c
> index 00867ff82412..026238c55b0c 100644
> --- a/kernel/trace/ring_buffer.c
> +++ b/kernel/trace/ring_buffer.c
> @@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
> #include <linux/oom.h>
>
> #include <asm/local.h>
> +#include <asm/local64.h>
>
> static void update_pages_handler(struct work_struct *work);
>
> @@ -418,6 +419,17 @@ struct rb_event_info {
> int add_timestamp;
> };
>
> +/*
> + * Used for the add_timestamp
> + * NONE
> + * NORMAL - may be for either time extend or absolute
> + * FORCE - force a full time stamp.
> + */
> +enum {
> + RB_ADD_STAMP_NONE,
> + RB_ADD_STAMP_NORMAL,
> + RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE
> +};
> /*
> * Used for which event context the event is in.
> * NMI = 0
> @@ -470,7 +482,8 @@ struct ring_buffer_per_cpu {
> size_t shortest_full;
> unsigned long read;
> unsigned long read_bytes;
> - u64 write_stamp;
> + local64_t write_stamp;
> + local64_t before_stamp;
> u64 read_stamp;
> /* ring buffer pages to update, > 0 to add, < 0 to remove */
> long nr_pages_to_update;
> @@ -2416,16 +2429,13 @@ rb_update_event(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> unsigned length = info->length;
> u64 delta = info->delta;
>
> - /* Only a commit updates the timestamp */
> - if (unlikely(!rb_event_is_commit(cpu_buffer, event)))
> - delta = 0;
> -
> /*
> * If we need to add a timestamp, then we
> * add it to the start of the reserved space.
> */
> if (unlikely(info->add_timestamp)) {
> - bool abs = ring_buffer_time_stamp_abs(cpu_buffer->buffer);
> + bool abs = info->add_timestamp == RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE ||
> + ring_buffer_time_stamp_abs(cpu_buffer->buffer);
>
> event = rb_add_time_stamp(event, abs ? info->delta : delta, abs);
> length -= RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;
> @@ -2480,6 +2490,39 @@ static inline bool sched_clock_stable(void)
> }
> #endif
>
> +static __always_inline bool
> +rb_event_is_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> + struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> +{
> + unsigned long addr = (unsigned long)event;
> + unsigned long index;
> +
> + index = rb_event_index(event);
> + addr &= PAGE_MASK;
> +
> + return cpu_buffer->commit_page->page == (void *)addr &&
> + rb_commit_index(cpu_buffer) == index;
> +}
> +
> +static u64 rb_time_delta(struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> +{
> + switch (event->type_len) {
> + case RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING:
> + return 0;
> +
> + case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND:
> + return ring_buffer_event_time_stamp(event);
> +
> + case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP:
> + return 0;
> +
> + case RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA:
> + return event->time_delta;
> + default:
> + return 0;
> + }
> +}
> +
> static inline int
> rb_try_to_discard(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> @@ -2488,6 +2531,8 @@ rb_try_to_discard(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> struct buffer_page *bpage;
> unsigned long index;
> unsigned long addr;
> + u64 write_stamp;
> + u64 delta;
>
> new_index = rb_event_index(event);
> old_index = new_index + rb_event_ts_length(event);
> @@ -2496,10 +2541,32 @@ rb_try_to_discard(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
>
> bpage = READ_ONCE(cpu_buffer->tail_page);
>
> + delta = rb_time_delta(event);
> +
> + write_stamp = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp);
> +
> + /* Make sure the write stamp is read before testing the location */
> + barrier();
> +
> if (bpage->page == (void *)addr && rb_page_write(bpage) == old_index) {
> unsigned long write_mask =
> local_read(&bpage->write) & ~RB_WRITE_MASK;
> unsigned long event_length = rb_event_length(event);
> + u64 ret;
> +
> + ret = local64_cmpxchg(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp, write_stamp, write_stamp - delta);
> + /* Something came in, can't discard */
> + if (ret != write_stamp)
> + return 0;
> +
> + /*
> + * If an event were to come in now, it would see that the
> + * write_stamp and the before_stamp are different, and assume
> + * that this event just added itself before updating
> + * the write stamp. The interrupting event will fix the
> + * write stamp for us, and use the before stamp as its delta.
> + */
> +
> /*
> * This is on the tail page. It is possible that
> * a write could come in and move the tail page
> @@ -2551,10 +2618,6 @@ rb_set_commit_to_write(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
> local_set(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit,
> rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page));
> rb_inc_page(cpu_buffer, &cpu_buffer->commit_page);
> - /* Only update the write stamp if the page has an event */
> - if (rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page))
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
> - cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
> /* add barrier to keep gcc from optimizing too much */
> barrier();
> }
> @@ -2626,54 +2689,10 @@ static inline void rb_event_discard(struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> event->time_delta = 1;
> }
>
> -static __always_inline bool
> -rb_event_is_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> - struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> -{
> - unsigned long addr = (unsigned long)event;
> - unsigned long index;
> -
> - index = rb_event_index(event);
> - addr &= PAGE_MASK;
> -
> - return cpu_buffer->commit_page->page == (void *)addr &&
> - rb_commit_index(cpu_buffer) == index;
> -}
> -
> -static __always_inline void
> -rb_update_write_stamp(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> - struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> -{
> - u64 delta;
> -
> - /*
> - * The event first in the commit queue updates the
> - * time stamp.
> - */
> - if (rb_event_is_commit(cpu_buffer, event)) {
> - /*
> - * A commit event that is first on a page
> - * updates the write timestamp with the page stamp
> - */
> - if (!rb_event_index(event))
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
> - cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
> - else if (event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND) {
> - delta = ring_buffer_event_time_stamp(event);
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp += delta;
> - } else if (event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP) {
> - delta = ring_buffer_event_time_stamp(event);
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp = delta;
> - } else
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp += event->time_delta;
> - }
> -}
> -
> static void rb_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> struct ring_buffer_event *event)
> {
> local_inc(&cpu_buffer->entries);
> - rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
> rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
> }
>
> @@ -2872,13 +2891,13 @@ rb_handle_timestamp(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> KERN_WARNING "Delta way too big! %llu ts=%llu write stamp = %llu\n%s",
> (unsigned long long)info->delta,
> (unsigned long long)info->ts,
> - (unsigned long long)cpu_buffer->write_stamp,
> + (unsigned long long)local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp),
> sched_clock_stable() ? "" :
> "If you just came from a suspend/resume,\n"
> "please switch to the trace global clock:\n"
> " echo global > /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_clock\n"
> "or add trace_clock=global to the kernel command line\n");
> - info->add_timestamp = 1;
> + info->add_timestamp = RB_ADD_STAMP_NORMAL;
> }
>
> static struct ring_buffer_event *
> @@ -2887,8 +2906,36 @@ __rb_reserve_next(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> {
> struct ring_buffer_event *event;
> struct buffer_page *tail_page;
> - unsigned long tail, write;
> + unsigned long tail, write, w;
> + u64 before, after;
> + bool abs = false;
> +
> + /* Don't let the compiler play games with cpu_buffer->tail_page */
> + tail_page = info->tail_page = READ_ONCE(cpu_buffer->tail_page);
> +
> + /*A*/ w = local_read(&tail_page->write) & RB_WRITE_MASK;
> + barrier();
> + before = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp);
> + after = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp);
> + barrier();
> + info->ts = rb_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer);
> +
> + if (ring_buffer_time_stamp_abs(cpu_buffer->buffer)) {
> + info->delta = info->ts;
> + abs = true;
> + } else {
> + info->delta = info->ts - after;
> + }
> +
> + if (unlikely(test_time_stamp(info->delta)))
> + rb_handle_timestamp(cpu_buffer, info);
>
> + /*
> + * If interrupting an event time update, we may need an absolute timestamp.
> + * Don't bother if this is the start of a new page (w == 0).
> + */
> + if (unlikely(before != after && w))
> + info->add_timestamp = RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE;
> /*
> * If the time delta since the last event is too big to
> * hold in the time field of the event, then we append a
> @@ -2897,25 +2944,88 @@ __rb_reserve_next(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
> if (unlikely(info->add_timestamp))
> info->length += RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;
>
> - /* Don't let the compiler play games with cpu_buffer->tail_page */
> - tail_page = info->tail_page = READ_ONCE(cpu_buffer->tail_page);
> - write = local_add_return(info->length, &tail_page->write);
> + /*B*/ local64_set(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp, info->ts);
> +
> + /*C*/ write = local_add_return(info->length, &tail_page->write);
>
> /* set write to only the index of the write */
> write &= RB_WRITE_MASK;
> +
> tail = write - info->length;
>
> + /* See if we shot pass the end of this buffer page */
> + if (unlikely(write > BUF_PAGE_SIZE)) {
> + if (tail != w) {
> + /* before and after may now different, fix it up*/
> + before = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp);
> + after = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp);
> + if (before != after)
> + (void)local64_cmpxchg(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp, before, after);
> + }
> + return rb_move_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);
> + }
> +
> + if (likely(tail == w)) {
> + u64 save_before;
> +
> + /* Nothing interrupted us between A and C */
> + /*D*/ local64_set(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp, info->ts);
> + barrier();
> + /*E*/ save_before = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp);
> + if (likely(info->add_timestamp != RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE))
> + /* This did not interrupt any time update */
> + info->delta = info->ts - after;
> + else
> + /* Just use full timestamp for inerrupting event */
> + info->delta = info->ts;
> + barrier();
> + if (unlikely(info->ts != save_before)) {
> + /* SLOW PATH - Interrupted between C and E */
> +
> + after = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp);
> + /* Write stamp must only go forward */
> + if (save_before > after) {
> + /*
> + * We do not care about the result, only that
> + * it gets updated atomically.
> + */
> + (void)local64_cmpxchg(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp, after, save_before);
> + }
> + }
> + } else {
> + u64 ts;
> + /* SLOW PATH - Interrupted between A and C */
> + after = local64_read(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp);
> + ts = rb_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer);
> + barrier();
> + /*E*/ if (write == (local_read(&tail_page->write) & RB_WRITE_MASK) &&
> + after < ts) {
> + /* Nothing came after this event between C and E */
> + info->delta = ts - after;
> + (void)local64_cmpxchg(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp, after, info->ts);
> + info->ts = ts;
> + } else {
> + /*
> + * Interrupted beween C and E:
> + * Lost the previous events time stamp. Just set the
> + * delta to zero, and this will be the same time as
> + * the event this event interrupted. And the events that
> + * came after this will still be correct (as they would
> + * have built their delta on the previous event.
> + */
> + info->delta = 0;
> + }
> + if (info->add_timestamp == RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE)
> + info->add_timestamp = RB_ADD_STAMP_NORMAL;
> + }
> +
> /*
> * If this is the first commit on the page, then it has the same
> * timestamp as the page itself.
> */
> - if (!tail && !ring_buffer_time_stamp_abs(cpu_buffer->buffer))
> + if (unlikely(!tail && info->add_timestamp != RB_ADD_STAMP_FORCE && !abs))
> info->delta = 0;
>
> - /* See if we shot pass the end of this buffer page */
> - if (unlikely(write > BUF_PAGE_SIZE))
> - return rb_move_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);
> -
> /* We reserved something on the buffer */
>
> event = __rb_page_index(tail_page, tail);
> @@ -2944,9 +3054,9 @@ rb_reserve_next_event(struct trace_buffer *buffer,
> struct ring_buffer_event *event;
> struct rb_event_info info;
> int nr_loops = 0;
> - u64 diff;
>
> rb_start_commit(cpu_buffer);
> + /* The commit page can not change after this */
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_RING_BUFFER_ALLOW_SWAP
> /*
> @@ -2965,7 +3075,7 @@ rb_reserve_next_event(struct trace_buffer *buffer,
>
> info.length = rb_calculate_event_length(length);
> again:
> - info.add_timestamp = 0;
> + info.add_timestamp = RB_ADD_STAMP_NONE;
> info.delta = 0;
>
> /*
> @@ -2980,22 +3090,6 @@ rb_reserve_next_event(struct trace_buffer *buffer,
> if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 1000))
> goto out_fail;
>
> - info.ts = rb_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer);
> - diff = info.ts - cpu_buffer->write_stamp;
> -
> - /* make sure this diff is calculated here */
> - barrier();
> -
> - if (ring_buffer_time_stamp_abs(buffer)) {
> - info.delta = info.ts;
> - rb_handle_timestamp(cpu_buffer, &info);
> - } else /* Did the write stamp get updated already? */
> - if (likely(info.ts >= cpu_buffer->write_stamp)) {
> - info.delta = diff;
> - if (unlikely(test_time_stamp(info.delta)))
> - rb_handle_timestamp(cpu_buffer, &info);
> - }
> -
> event = __rb_reserve_next(cpu_buffer, &info);
>
> if (unlikely(PTR_ERR(event) == -EAGAIN)) {
> @@ -3004,11 +3098,8 @@ rb_reserve_next_event(struct trace_buffer *buffer,
> goto again;
> }
>
> - if (!event)
> - goto out_fail;
> -
> - return event;
> -
> + if (likely(event))
> + return event;
> out_fail:
> rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
> return NULL;
> @@ -3154,11 +3245,6 @@ void ring_buffer_discard_commit(struct trace_buffer *buffer,
> if (rb_try_to_discard(cpu_buffer, event))
> goto out;
>
> - /*
> - * The commit is still visible by the reader, so we
> - * must still update the timestamp.
> - */
> - rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
> out:
> rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
>
> @@ -4475,8 +4561,8 @@ rb_reset_cpu(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
> cpu_buffer->read = 0;
> cpu_buffer->read_bytes = 0;
>
> - cpu_buffer->write_stamp = 0;
> - cpu_buffer->read_stamp = 0;
> + local64_set(&cpu_buffer->write_stamp, 0);
> + local64_set(&cpu_buffer->before_stamp, 0);
>
> cpu_buffer->lost_events = 0;
> cpu_buffer->last_overrun = 0;
> --
> 2.26.2
>
>


--
Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>

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