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SubjectRe: [PATCH v5] mm: Proactive compaction
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Date
On 5/18/20 8:14 PM, Nitin Gupta wrote:
> For some applications, we need to allocate almost all memory as
> hugepages. However, on a running system, higher-order allocations can
> fail if the memory is fragmented. Linux kernel currently does on-demand
> compaction as we request more hugepages, but this style of compaction
> incurs very high latency. Experiments with one-time full memory
> compaction (followed by hugepage allocations) show that kernel is able
> to restore a highly fragmented memory state to a fairly compacted memory
> state within <1 sec for a 32G system. Such data suggests that a more
> proactive compaction can help us allocate a large fraction of memory as
> hugepages keeping allocation latencies low.
>
> For a more proactive compaction, the approach taken here is to define
> a new tunable called 'proactiveness' which dictates bounds for external
> fragmentation wrt HUGETLB_PAGE_ORDER order which kcompactd tries to

HPAGE_PMD_ORDER

> maintain.
>
> The tunable is exposed through sysctl:
> /proc/sys/vm/compaction_proactiveness
>
> It takes value in range [0, 100], with a default of 20.
>
> Note that a previous version of this patch [1] was found to introduce too
> many tunables (per-order extfrag{low, high}), but this one reduces them
> to just one (proactiveness). Also, the new tunable is an opaque value
> instead of asking for specific bounds of "external fragmentation", which
> would have been difficult to estimate. The internal interpretation of
> this opaque value allows for future fine-tuning.
>
> Currently, we use a simple translation from this tunable to [low, high]
> "fragmentation score" thresholds (low=100-proactiveness, high=low+10%).
> The score for a node is defined as weighted mean of per-zone external
> fragmentation wrt HUGETLB_PAGE_ORDER order. A zone's present_pages

HPAGE_PMD_ORDER

> determines its weight.
>
> To periodically check per-node score, we reuse per-node kcompactd
> threads, which are woken up every 500 milliseconds to check the same. If
> a node's score exceeds its high threshold (as derived from user-provided
> proactiveness value), proactive compaction is started until its score
> reaches its low threshold value. By default, proactiveness is set to 20,
> which implies threshold values of low=80 and high=90.
>
> This patch is largely based on ideas from Michal Hocko posted here:
> https://lore.kernel.org/linux-mm/20161230131412.GI13301@dhcp22.suse.cz/

Make this link a [2] reference? I would also add: "See also the LWN article
[3]." where [3] is https://lwn.net/Articles/817905/


> Performance data
> ================
>
> System: x64_64, 1T RAM, 80 CPU threads.
> Kernel: 5.6.0-rc3 + this patch
>
> echo madvise | sudo tee /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
> echo madvise | sudo tee /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag
>
> Before starting the driver, the system was fragmented from a userspace
> program that allocates all memory and then for each 2M aligned section,
> frees 3/4 of base pages using munmap. The workload is mainly anonymous
> userspace pages, which are easy to move around. I intentionally avoided
> unmovable pages in this test to see how much latency we incur when
> hugepage allocations hit direct compaction.
>
> 1. Kernel hugepage allocation latencies
>
> With the system in such a fragmented state, a kernel driver then allocates
> as many hugepages as possible and measures allocation latency:
>
> (all latency values are in microseconds)
>
> - With vanilla 5.6.0-rc3
>
> echo 0 | sudo tee /sys/kernel/mm/compaction/node-*/proactiveness
>
> percentile latency
> –––––––––– –––––––
> 5 7894
> 10 9496
> 25 12561
> 30 15295
> 40 18244
> 50 21229
> 60 27556
> 75 30147
> 80 31047
> 90 32859
> 95 33799
>
> Total 2M hugepages allocated = 383859 (749G worth of hugepages out of
> 762G total free => 98% of free memory could be allocated as hugepages)
>
> - With 5.6.0-rc3 + this patch, with proactiveness=20
>
> echo 20 | sudo tee /sys/kernel/mm/compaction/node-*/proactiveness
>
> percentile latency
> –––––––––– –––––––
> 5 2
> 10 2
> 25 3
> 30 3
> 40 3
> 50 4
> 60 4
> 75 4
> 80 4
> 90 5
> 95 429
>
> Total 2M hugepages allocated = 384105 (750G worth of hugepages out of
> 762G total free => 98% of free memory could be allocated as hugepages)
>
> 2. JAVA heap allocation
>
> In this test, we first fragment memory using the same method as for (1).
>
> Then, we start a Java process with a heap size set to 700G and request
> the heap to be allocated with THP hugepages. We also set THP to madvise
> to allow hugepage backing of this heap.
>
> /usr/bin/time
> java -Xms700G -Xmx700G -XX:+UseTransparentHugePages -XX:+AlwaysPreTouch
>
> The above command allocates 700G of Java heap using hugepages.
>
> - With vanilla 5.6.0-rc3
>
> 17.39user 1666.48system 27:37.89elapsed
>
> - With 5.6.0-rc3 + this patch, with proactiveness=20
>
> 8.35user 194.58system 3:19.62elapsed
>
> Elapsed time remains around 3:15, as proactiveness is further increased.
>
> Note that proactive compaction happens throughout the runtime of these
> workloads. The situation of one-time compaction, sufficient to supply
> hugepages for following allocation stream, can probably happen for more
> extreme proactiveness values, like 80 or 90.
>
> In the above Java workload, proactiveness is set to 20. The test starts
> with a node's score of 80 or higher, depending on the delay between the
> fragmentation step and starting the benchmark, which gives more-or-less
> time for the initial round of compaction. As the benchmark consumes
> hugepages, node's score quickly rises above the high threshold (90) and
> proactive compaction starts again, which brings down the score to the
> low threshold level (80). Repeat.
>
> bpftrace also confirms proactive compaction running 20+ times during the
> runtime of this Java benchmark. kcompactd threads consume 100% of one of
> the CPUs while it tries to bring a node's score within thresholds.
>
> Backoff behavior
> ================
>
> Above workloads produce a memory state which is easy to compact.
> However, if memory is filled with unmovable pages, proactive compaction
> should essentially back off. To test this aspect:
>
> - Created a kernel driver that allocates almost all memory as hugepages
> followed by freeing first 3/4 of each hugepage.
> - Set proactiveness=40
> - Note that proactive_compact_node() is deferred maximum number of times
> with HPAGE_FRAG_CHECK_INTERVAL_MSEC of wait between each check
> (=> ~30 seconds between retries).
>
> [1] https://patchwork.kernel.org/patch/11098289/
>
> Signed-off-by: Nitin Gupta <nigupta@nvidia.com>
> To: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
> To: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
> To: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
> CC: Matthew Wilcox <willy@infradead.org>
> CC: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
> CC: Mike Kravetz <mike.kravetz@oracle.com>
> CC: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
> CC: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
> CC: Nitin Gupta <ngupta@nitingupta.dev>
> CC: linux-kernel <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>
> CC: linux-mm <linux-mm@kvack.org>
> CC: Linux API <linux-api@vger.kernel.org>

Reviewed-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>

With some smaller nitpicks below.

But as we are adding a new API, I would really appreciate others comment about
the approach at least.

> ---
> Changelog v5 vs v4:
> - Change tunable from sysfs to sysctl (Vlastimil)
> - HUGETLB_PAGE_ORDER -> HPAGE_PMD_ORDER (Vlastimil)
> - Minor cleanups (remove redundant initializations, ...)
>
> Changelog v4 vs v3:
> - Document various functions.
> - Added admin-guide for the new tunable `proactiveness`.
> - Rename proactive_compaction_score to fragmentation_score for clarity.
>
> Changelog v3 vs v2:
> - Make proactiveness a global tunable and not per-node. Also upadated the
> patch description to reflect the same (Vlastimil Babka).
> - Don't start proactive compaction if kswapd is running (Vlastimil Babka).
> - Clarified in the description that compaction runs in parallel with
> the workload, instead of a one-time compaction followed by a stream of
> hugepage allocations.
>
> Changelog v2 vs v1:
> - Introduce per-node and per-zone "proactive compaction score". This
> score is compared against watermarks which are set according to
> user provided proactiveness value.
> - Separate code-paths for proactive compaction from targeted compaction
> i.e. where pgdat->kcompactd_max_order is non-zero.
> - Renamed hpage_compaction_effort -> proactiveness. In future we may
> use more than extfrag wrt hugepage size to determine proactive
> compaction score.
> ---
> Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/vm.rst | 13 ++
> include/linux/compaction.h | 2 +
> kernel/sysctl.c | 9 ++
> mm/compaction.c | 165 +++++++++++++++++++++++-
> mm/internal.h | 1 +
> mm/vmstat.c | 17 +++
> 6 files changed, 202 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/vm.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/vm.rst
> index 0329a4d3fa9e..e5d88cabe980 100644
> --- a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/vm.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/vm.rst
> @@ -119,6 +119,19 @@ all zones are compacted such that free memory is available in contiguous
> blocks where possible. This can be important for example in the allocation of
> huge pages although processes will also directly compact memory as required.
>
> +compaction_proactiveness
> +========================
> +
> +This tunable takes a value in the range [0, 100] with a default value of
> +20. This tunable determines how aggressively compaction is done in the
> +background. Setting it to 0 disables proactive compaction.
> +
> +Note that compaction has a non-trivial system-wide impact as pages
> +belonging to different processes are moved around, which could also lead
> +to latency spikes in unsuspecting applications. The kernel employs
> +various heuristics to avoid wasting CPU cycles if it detects that
> +proactive compaction is not being effective.
> +
>
> compact_unevictable_allowed
> ===========================
> diff --git a/include/linux/compaction.h b/include/linux/compaction.h
> index 4b898cdbdf05..ccd28978b296 100644
> --- a/include/linux/compaction.h
> +++ b/include/linux/compaction.h
> @@ -85,11 +85,13 @@ static inline unsigned long compact_gap(unsigned int order)
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_COMPACTION
> extern int sysctl_compact_memory;
> +extern int sysctl_compaction_proactiveness;
> extern int sysctl_compaction_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
> void __user *buffer, size_t *length, loff_t *ppos);
> extern int sysctl_extfrag_threshold;
> extern int sysctl_compact_unevictable_allowed;
>
> +extern int extfrag_for_order(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order);
> extern int fragmentation_index(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order);
> extern enum compact_result try_to_compact_pages(gfp_t gfp_mask,
> unsigned int order, unsigned int alloc_flags,
> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
> index 8a176d8727a3..51c90906efbc 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
> @@ -1458,6 +1458,15 @@ static struct ctl_table vm_table[] = {
> .mode = 0200,
> .proc_handler = sysctl_compaction_handler,
> },
> + {
> + .procname = "compaction_proactiveness",
> + .data = &sysctl_compaction_proactiveness,
> + .maxlen = sizeof(int),
> + .mode = 0644,
> + .proc_handler = proc_dointvec_minmax,
> + .extra1 = SYSCTL_ZERO,
> + .extra2 = &one_hundred,
> + },
> {
> .procname = "extfrag_threshold",
> .data = &sysctl_extfrag_threshold,
> diff --git a/mm/compaction.c b/mm/compaction.c
> index 46f0fcc93081..bf7f57a475ce 100644
> --- a/mm/compaction.c
> +++ b/mm/compaction.c
> @@ -50,6 +50,11 @@ static inline void count_compact_events(enum vm_event_item item, long delta)
> #define pageblock_start_pfn(pfn) block_start_pfn(pfn, pageblock_order)
> #define pageblock_end_pfn(pfn) block_end_pfn(pfn, pageblock_order)
>
> +/*
> + * Fragmentation score check interval for proactive compaction purposes.
> + */
> +static const int HPAGE_FRAG_CHECK_INTERVAL_MSEC = 500;
> +
> static unsigned long release_freepages(struct list_head *freelist)
> {
> struct page *page, *next;
> @@ -1855,6 +1860,71 @@ static inline bool is_via_compact_memory(int order)
> return order == -1;
> }
>
> +static bool kswapd_is_running(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + return pgdat->kswapd && (pgdat->kswapd->state == TASK_RUNNING);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * A zone's fragmentation score is the external fragmentation wrt to the
> + * HUGETLB_PAGE_ORDER scaled by the zone's size. It returns a value in the

HPAGE_PMD_ORDER

> + * range [0, 100].
> +
> + * The scaling factor ensures that proactive compaction focuses on larger
> + * zones like ZONE_NORMAL, rather than smaller, specialized zones like
> + * ZONE_DMA32. For smaller zones, the score value remains close to zero,
> + * and thus never exceeds the high threshold for proactive compaction.
> + */
> +static int fragmentation_score_zone(struct zone *zone)
> +{
> + unsigned long score;
> +
> + score = zone->present_pages *
> + extfrag_for_order(zone, HPAGE_PMD_ORDER);
> + return div64_ul(score, zone->zone_pgdat->node_present_pages + 1);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * The per-node proactive (background) compaction process is started by its
> + * corresponding kcompactd thread when the node's fragmentation score
> + * exceeds the high threshold. The compaction process remains active till
> + * the node's score falls below the low threshold, or one of the back-off
> + * conditions is met.
> + */
> +static int fragmentation_score_node(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + unsigned long score = 0;
> + int zoneid;
> +
> + for (zoneid = 0; zoneid < MAX_NR_ZONES; zoneid++) {
> + struct zone *zone;
> +
> + zone = &pgdat->node_zones[zoneid];
> + score += fragmentation_score_zone(zone);
> + }
> +
> + return score;
> +}
> +
> +static int fragmentation_score_wmark(pg_data_t *pgdat, bool low)
> +{
> + int wmark_low;
> +
> + wmark_low = 100 - sysctl_compaction_proactiveness;
> + return low ? wmark_low : min(wmark_low + 10, 100);
> +}
> +
> +static bool should_proactive_compact_node(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + int wmark_high;
> +
> + if (!sysctl_compaction_proactiveness || kswapd_is_running(pgdat))
> + return false;
> +
> + wmark_high = fragmentation_score_wmark(pgdat, false);
> + return fragmentation_score_node(pgdat) > wmark_high;
> +}
> +
> static enum compact_result __compact_finished(struct compact_control *cc)
> {
> unsigned int order;
> @@ -1881,6 +1951,25 @@ static enum compact_result __compact_finished(struct compact_control *cc)
> return COMPACT_PARTIAL_SKIPPED;
> }
>
> + if (cc->proactive_compaction) {
> + int score, wmark_low;
> + pg_data_t *pgdat;
> +
> + pgdat = cc->zone->zone_pgdat;
> + if (kswapd_is_running(pgdat))
> + return COMPACT_PARTIAL_SKIPPED;
> +
> + score = fragmentation_score_zone(cc->zone);
> + wmark_low = fragmentation_score_wmark(pgdat, true);
> +
> + if (score > wmark_low)
> + ret = COMPACT_CONTINUE;
> + else
> + ret = COMPACT_SUCCESS;
> +
> + goto out;
> + }
> +
> if (is_via_compact_memory(cc->order))
> return COMPACT_CONTINUE;
>
> @@ -1939,6 +2028,7 @@ static enum compact_result __compact_finished(struct compact_control *cc)
> }
> }
>
> +out:
> if (cc->contended || fatal_signal_pending(current))
> ret = COMPACT_CONTENDED;
>
> @@ -2412,6 +2502,41 @@ enum compact_result try_to_compact_pages(gfp_t gfp_mask, unsigned int order,
> return rc;
> }
>
> +/*
> + * Compact all zones within a node till each zone's fragmentation score
> + * reaches within proactive compaction thresholds (as determined by the
> + * proactiveness tunable).
> + *
> + * It is possible that the function returns before reaching score targets
> + * due to various back-off conditions, such as, contention on per-node or
> + * per-zone locks.
> + */
> +static void proactive_compact_node(pg_data_t *pgdat)
> +{
> + int zoneid;
> + struct zone *zone;
> + struct compact_control cc = {
> + .order = -1,
> + .mode = MIGRATE_SYNC_LIGHT,
> + .ignore_skip_hint = true,
> + .whole_zone = true,
> + .gfp_mask = GFP_KERNEL,
> + .proactive_compaction = true,
> + };
> +
> + for (zoneid = 0; zoneid < MAX_NR_ZONES; zoneid++) {
> + zone = &pgdat->node_zones[zoneid];
> + if (!populated_zone(zone))
> + continue;
> +
> + cc.zone = zone;
> +
> + compact_zone(&cc, NULL);
> +
> + VM_BUG_ON(!list_empty(&cc.freepages));
> + VM_BUG_ON(!list_empty(&cc.migratepages));
> + }
> +}
>
> /* Compact all zones within a node */
> static void compact_node(int nid)
> @@ -2458,6 +2583,13 @@ static void compact_nodes(void)
> /* The written value is actually unused, all memory is compacted */
> int sysctl_compact_memory;
>
> +/*
> + * Tunable for proactive compaction. It determines how
> + * aggressively the kernel should compact memory in the
> + * background. It takes values in the range [0, 100].
> + */
> +int sysctl_compaction_proactiveness = 20;

These are usually __read_mostly

> +
> /*
> * This is the entry point for compacting all nodes via
> * /proc/sys/vm/compact_memory
> @@ -2637,6 +2769,7 @@ static int kcompactd(void *p)
> {
> pg_data_t *pgdat = (pg_data_t*)p;
> struct task_struct *tsk = current;
> + unsigned int proactive_defer = 0;
>
> const struct cpumask *cpumask = cpumask_of_node(pgdat->node_id);
>
> @@ -2652,12 +2785,34 @@ static int kcompactd(void *p)
> unsigned long pflags;
>
> trace_mm_compaction_kcompactd_sleep(pgdat->node_id);
> - wait_event_freezable(pgdat->kcompactd_wait,
> - kcompactd_work_requested(pgdat));
> + if (wait_event_freezable_timeout(pgdat->kcompactd_wait,
> + kcompactd_work_requested(pgdat),
> + msecs_to_jiffies(HPAGE_FRAG_CHECK_INTERVAL_MSEC))) {

Hmm perhaps the wakeups should also backoff if there's nothing to do?

> +
> + psi_memstall_enter(&pflags);
> + kcompactd_do_work(pgdat);
> + psi_memstall_leave(&pflags);
> + continue;
> + }
>
> - psi_memstall_enter(&pflags);
> - kcompactd_do_work(pgdat);
> - psi_memstall_leave(&pflags);
> + /* kcompactd wait timeout */
> + if (should_proactive_compact_node(pgdat)) {
> + unsigned int prev_score, score;
> +
> + if (proactive_defer) {
> + proactive_defer--;
> + continue;
> + }
> + prev_score = fragmentation_score_node(pgdat);
> + proactive_compact_node(pgdat);
> + score = fragmentation_score_node(pgdat);
> + /*
> + * Defer proactive compaction if the fragmentation
> + * score did not go down i.e. no progress made.
> + */
> + proactive_defer = score < prev_score ?
> + 0 : 1 << COMPACT_MAX_DEFER_SHIFT;
> + }
> }
>
> return 0;
> diff --git a/mm/internal.h b/mm/internal.h
> index b5634e78f01d..9671bccd97d5 100644
> --- a/mm/internal.h
> +++ b/mm/internal.h
> @@ -228,6 +228,7 @@ struct compact_control {
> bool no_set_skip_hint; /* Don't mark blocks for skipping */
> bool ignore_block_suitable; /* Scan blocks considered unsuitable */
> bool direct_compaction; /* False from kcompactd or /proc/... */
> + bool proactive_compaction; /* kcompactd proactive compaction */
> bool whole_zone; /* Whole zone should/has been scanned */
> bool contended; /* Signal lock or sched contention */
> bool rescan; /* Rescanning the same pageblock */
> diff --git a/mm/vmstat.c b/mm/vmstat.c
> index 96d21a792b57..d7ab7dbdc3a5 100644
> --- a/mm/vmstat.c
> +++ b/mm/vmstat.c
> @@ -1074,6 +1074,23 @@ static int __fragmentation_index(unsigned int order, struct contig_page_info *in
> return 1000 - div_u64( (1000+(div_u64(info->free_pages * 1000ULL, requested))), info->free_blocks_total);
> }
>
> +/*
> + * Calculates external fragmentation within a zone wrt the given order.
> + * It is defined as the percentage of pages found in blocks of size
> + * less than 1 << order. It returns values in range [0, 100].
> + */
> +int extfrag_for_order(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
> +{
> + struct contig_page_info info;
> +
> + fill_contig_page_info(zone, order, &info);
> + if (info.free_pages == 0)
> + return 0;
> +
> + return (info.free_pages - (info.free_blocks_suitable << order)) * 100
> + / info.free_pages;

I guess this should also use div_u64() like __fragmentation_index() does.

> +}
> +
> /* Same as __fragmentation index but allocs contig_page_info on stack */
> int fragmentation_index(struct zone *zone, unsigned int order)
> {
>

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