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Subject[RFC PATCH v6 2/3] docs: scheduler: Add scheduler overview documentation
From: John Mathew <>

Add documentation for
-scheduler overview
-scheduler state transtion
-CFS overview
-scheduler data structs

Add rst for scheduler APIs and modify sched/core.c
to add kernel-doc comments.

Suggested-by: Lukas Bulwahn <>
Co-developed-by: Mostafa Chamanara <>
Signed-off-by: Mostafa Chamanara <>
Co-developed-by: Oleg Tsymbal <>
Signed-off-by: Oleg Tsymbal <>
Signed-off-by: John Mathew <>
Documentation/scheduler/cfs-overview.rst | 102 +++++++
Documentation/scheduler/index.rst | 2 +
Documentation/scheduler/overview.rst | 288 ++++++++++++++++++
Documentation/scheduler/sched-cas.rst | 92 ++++++
.../scheduler/sched-data-structs.rst | 182 +++++++++++
Documentation/scheduler/sched-features.rst | 1 +
Documentation/scheduler/scheduler-api.rst | 31 ++
kernel/sched/core.c | 28 +-
kernel/sched/sched.h | 169 +++++++++-
9 files changed, 888 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/scheduler/cfs-overview.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/scheduler/sched-cas.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/scheduler/sched-data-structs.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/scheduler/scheduler-api.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/cfs-overview.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/cfs-overview.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..34f336b8ec86
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/cfs-overview.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+CFS Overview
+Linux 2.6.23 introduced a modular scheduler core and a Completely Fair
+Scheduler (CFS) implemented as a scheduling module. A brief overview of the
+CFS design is provided in :doc:`sched-design-CFS`
+In addition there have been many improvements to the CFS, a few of which are
+**Thermal Pressure**:
+Scale CPU capacity mechanism for CFS so it knows how much CPU capacity is left
+for its use after higher priority sched classes (RT, DL), IRQs and
+'Thermal Pressure' have reduced the 'original' CPU capacity.
+Thermal pressure on a CPU means the maximum possible capacity is
+unavailable due to thermal events.
+** Optimizations to NUMA balancing**:
+When gathering NUMA statistics, information about whether a core is Idle
+is also cached. In case of an imbalance, instead of doing a second scan of
+the node runqueues, the idle core is used as the migration target. When
+doing so multiple tasks can attempt to select an idle CPU but fail, because
+a NUMA balance is active on that CPU. In this case an alternative idle CPU
+scanned. Another optimization is to terminate the search for swap candidate
+when a reasonable one is found instead of searching all the CPUs on the
+target domain.
+**Asymmetric CPU capacity wakeup scan**:
+Previous assumption that CPU capacities within an SD_SHARE_PKG_RESOURCES
+domain (sd_llc) are homogeneous didn't hold for newer generations of big.LITTLE
+systems (DynamIQ) which can accommodate CPUs of different compute capacity
+within a single LLC domain. A new idle sibling helper function was added
+which took CPU capacity into account. The policy is to pick the first idle
+CPU which is big enough for the task (task_util * margin < cpu_capacity).
+If no idle CPU is big enough, the idle CPU with the highest capacity is
+**Optimized idle core selection**:
+Skipped looping through all the threads of a core to evaluate if the
+core is idle or not. If a thread of a core is not idle, evaluation of
+other threads of the core can be skipped.
+**Load balance aggressively for SCHED_IDLE CPUs**:
+Newly-woken task is preferred to be enqueued on a SCHED_IDLE CPU instead
+of other busy or idle CPUs. Also load balancer is made to migrate tasks more
+aggressively to a SCHED_IDLE CPU. Fair scheduler now does the next
+load balance soon after the last non-SCHED_IDLE task is dequeued from a
+runqueue, i.e. making the CPU SCHED_IDLE. Also the the busy_factor
+used with the balance interval to prevent frequent load balancing
+is ignored for such CPU's.
+**Load balancing algorithm Reworked**:
+Some heuristics in the load balancing algorithm became meaningless because
+of the rework of the scheduler's metrics like the introduction of PELT.
+Those heuristics were removed. The new load balancing algorithm also fixes
+several pending wrong tasks placement
+ * the 1 task per CPU case with asymmetric system
+ * the case of CFS task preempted by other class
+ * the case of tasks not evenly spread on groups with spare capacity
+Also the load balance decisions have been consolidated in the 3 separate
+* update_sd_pick_busiest() select the busiest sched_group.
+* find_busiest_group() checks if there is an imbalance between local and
+busiest group.
+* calculate_imbalance() decides what have to be moved.
+**Energy-aware wake-ups speeded up**:
+Algorithmic complexity of the EAS was reduced from O(n^2) to O(n).
+Previous algorithm resulted in prohibitively high wake-up latencies on
+systems with complex energy models, such as systems with per-CPU DVFS.
+The EAS wake-up path was re-factored to compute the energy 'delta' on a
+per-performance domain basis, rather than the whole system.
+**Selection of an energy-efficient CPU on task wake-up**:
+An Energy efficient CPU is found by estimating the impact on system-level
+active energy resulting from the placement of the task on the CPU with the
+highest spare capacity in each performance domain. Energy Model (EM) is
+used for this. This strategy spreads tasks in a performance domain and avoids overly
+aggressive task packing. The best CPU energy-wise is then selected if it
+saves a large enough amount of energy with respect to prev_cpu.
+**Consider misfit tasks when load-balancing**:
+A task which ends up on a CPU which doesn't suit its compute demand is
+identified as a misfit task in asymmetric CPU capacity systems. These
+'misfit' tasks are migrated to CPUs with higher compute capacity to ensure
+better throughput. A new group_type: group_misfit_task is added and indicates this
+scenario. Tweaks to the load-balance code are done to make the migrations
+happen. Misfit balancing is done between a source group of lower per-CPU
+capacity and destination group of higher compute capacity. Otherwise, misfit
+balancing is ignored.
+**Make schedstats a runtime tunable that is disabled by default**:
+A kernel command-line and sysctl tunable was added to enable or disable
+schedstats on demand (when it's built in). It is disabled by default.
+The benefits are dependent on how scheduler-intensive the workload is.
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/index.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/index.rst
index 9bdccea74af9..f311abe5b711 100644
--- a/Documentation/scheduler/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/index.rst
@@ -17,6 +17,8 @@ specific implementation differences.
:maxdepth: 2

+ sched-data-structs
+ cfs-overview
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/overview.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/overview.rst
index aee16feefc61..7536bec6afce 100644
--- a/Documentation/scheduler/overview.rst
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/overview.rst
@@ -3,3 +3,291 @@
Scheduler overview
+Linux kernel implements priority-based scheduling. More than one process are
+allowed to run at any given time and each process is allowed to run as if it
+were the only process on the system. The process scheduler coordinates which
+process runs when. In that context, it has the following tasks:
+* share CPU cores equally among all currently running processes.
+* pick appropriate process to run next if required, considering scheduling
+ class/policy and process priorities.
+* balance processes between multiple cores in SMP systems.
+The scheduler attempts to be responsive for I/O bound processes and efficient
+for CPU bound processes. The scheduler also applies different scheduling
+policies for real time and normal processes based on their respective
+priorities. Higher priorities in the kernel have a numerical smaller
+value. Real time priorities range from 1 (highest) – 99 whereas normal
+priorities range from 100 – 139 (lowest). Scheduler implements many scheduling
+classes which encapsulate a particular scheduling policy. Each scheduling
+policy implements scheduler handling of tasks that belong to a particular
+priority. SCHED_FIFO and SCHED_RR policies handle real time priorities tasks
+while SCHED_NORMAL and SCHED_BATCH policies handle tasks with normal priorities.
+SCHED_IDLE is also a normal scheduling policy when means its priority can
+be set between 100 – 139 range too but they are treated as priority 139.
+Their priority doesn't matter since they get minimal weight WEIGHT_IDLEPRI=3.
+SCHED_DEADLINE policy tasks have negative priorities, reflecting
+the fact that any of them has higher priority than RT and NORMAL/BATCH tasks.
+And then there are the maintenance scheduler classes: idle sched class and
+stop sched class. Idle class doesn't manage any user tasks and so doesn't
+implement a policy. Its idle tasks 'swapper/X' has priority 120 and and aren't
+visible to user space. Idle tasks are responsible for by putting the CPUs
+into deep idle states when there is no work to do.
+Stop sched class is also used internally by the kernel doesn't implement any
+scheduling policy. Stopper tasks 'migration/X' disguise as as a SCHED_FIFO
+task with priority 139. Stopper tasks are a mechanism to force a CPU to stop
+running everything else and perform a specific task. As this is the
+highest-priority class, it can preempt everything else and nothing ever
+preempts it. It is used by one CPU to stop another in order to run a specific
+function, so it is only available on SMP systems. This class is used by the
+kernel for task migration.
+Process Management
+Each process in the system is represented by struct task_struct. When a
+process/thread is created, the kernel allocates a new task_struct for it.
+The kernel then stores this task_struct in an RCU list. Macro next_task()
+allows a process to obtain its next task and for_each_process() macro enables
+traversal of the list.
+Frequently used fields of the task struct are:
+*state:* The running state of the task. The possible states are:
+* TASK_RUNNING: The task is currently running or in a run queue waiting
+ to run.
+* TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE: The task is sleeping waiting for some event to occur.
+ This task can be interrupted by signals. On waking up the task transitions
+ up on signals. Needs an explicit wake-up call to be woken up. Contributes
+ to loadavg.
+* __TASK_TRACED: Task is being traced by another task like a debugger.
+* __TASK_STOPPED: Task execution has stopped and not eligible to run.
+ SIGSTOP, SIGTSTP etc causes this state. The task can be continued by
+ the signal SIGCONT.
+* TASK_PARKED: State to support kthread parking/unparking.
+* TASK_DEAD: If a task dies, then it sets TASK_DEAD in tsk->state and calls
+ schedule one last time. The schedule call will never return.
+* TASK_WAKEKILL: It works like TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE with the bonus that it
+ can respond to fatal signals.
+* TASK_WAKING: To handle concurrent waking of the same task for SMP.
+ Indicates that someone is already waking the task.
+* TASK_NOLOAD: To be used along with TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE to indicate
+ an idle task which does not contribute to loadavg.
+* TASK_NEW: Set during fork(), to guarantee that no one will run the task,
+ a signal or any other wake event cannot wake it up and insert it on
+ the runqueue.
+*exit_state* : The exiting state of the task. The possible states are:
+* EXIT_ZOMBIE: The task is terminated and waiting for parent to collect
+ the exit information of the task.
+* EXIT_DEAD: After collecting the exit information the task is put to
+ this state and removed from the system.
+*static_prio:* Nice value of a task. The value of this field does
+ not change. Value ranges from -20 to 19. This value is mapped to nice
+ value and used in the scheduler.
+*prio:* Dynamic priority of a task. Previously a function of static
+ priority and tasks interactivity. Value not used by CFS scheduler but used
+ by the RT scheduler. Might be boosted by interactivity modifiers. Changes
+ upon fork, setprio syscalls, and whenever the interactivity estimator
+ recalculates.
+*normal_prio:* Expected priority of a task. The value of static_prio
+ and normal_prio are the same for non-real-time processes. For real time
+ processes value of prio is used.
+*rt_priority:* Field used by real time tasks. Real time tasks are
+ prioritized based on this value.
+*sched_class:* Pointer to sched_class CFS structure.
+*sched_entity:* Pointer to sched_entity CFS structure.
+*policy:* Value for scheduling policy. The possible values are:
+* SCHED_NORMAL: Regular tasks use this policy.
+* SCHED_BATCH: Tasks which need to run longer without preemption
+ use this policy. Suitable for batch jobs.
+* SCHED_IDLE: Policy used by background tasks.
+* SCHED_FIFO & SCHED_RR: These policies for real time tasks. Handled by
+ real time scheduler.
+* SCHED_DEADLINE: Tasks which are activated on a periodic or sporadic fashion
+ use this policy. This policy implements the Earliest Deadline First (EDF)
+ scheduling algorithm. This policy is explained in detail in the
+ :doc:`sched-deadline` documentation.
+*nr_cpus_allowed:* Bit field containing tasks affinity towards a set of
+ CPU cores. Set using sched_setaffinity() system call.
+New processes are created using the fork() system call which is described
+at manpage :manpage:`FORK(2)` or the clone system call described at
+Users can create threads within a process to achieve parallelism. Threads
+share address space, open files and other resources of the process. Threads
+are created like normal tasks with their unique task_struct, but clone()
+is provided with flags that enable the sharing of resources such as address
+space ::
+The scheduler schedules task_structs so from scheduler perspective there is
+no difference between threads and processes. Threads are created using
+the system call pthread_create described at :manpage:`PTHREAD_CREATE(3)`
+POSIX threads creation is described at :manpage:`PTHREADS(7)`
+The Scheduler Entry Point
+The main scheduler entry point is an architecture independent schedule()
+function defined in kernel/sched/core.c. Its objective is to find a process in
+the runqueue list and then assign the CPU to it. It is invoked, directly
+or in a lazy (deferred) way from many different places in the kernel. A lazy
+invocation does not call the function by its name, but gives the kernel a
+hint by setting a flag TIF_NEED_RESCHED. The flag is a message to the kernel
+that the scheduler should be invoked as soon as possible because another
+process deserves to run.
+Following are some places that notify the kernel to schedule:
+* scheduler_tick()
+* Running task goes to sleep state : Right before a task goes to sleep,
+ schedule() will be called to pick the next task to run and the change
+ instance, prepare_to_wait() is one of the functions that makes the
+ task go to the sleep state.
+* try_to_wake_up()
+* yield()
+* wait_event()
+* cond_resched() : It gives the scheduler a chance to run a higher-priority
+ process.
+* cond_resched_lock() : If a reschedule is pending, drop the given lock,
+ call schedule, and on return reacquire the lock.
+* do_task_dead()
+* preempt_schedule() : The function checks whether local interrupts are
+ enabled and the preempt_count field of current is zero; if both
+ conditions are true, it invokes schedule() to select another process
+ to run.
+* preempt_schedule_irq()
+Calling functions mentioned above leads to a call to __schedule(). Note
+that preemption must be disabled before it is called and enabled after
+the call using preempt_disable and preempt_enable functions family.
+The steps during invocation are:
+1. Disable preemption to avoid another task preempting the scheduling
+ thread itself.
+2. Retrieve the runqueue of current processor and its lock is obtained to
+ allow only one thread to modify the runqueue at a time.
+3. The state of the previously executed task when the schedule()
+ was called is examined. If it is not runnable and has not been
+ preempted in kernel mode, it is removed from the runqueue. If the
+ previous task has non-blocked pending signals, its state is set to
+ TASK_RUNNING and left in the runqueue.
+4. Scheduler classes are iterated and the corresponding class hook to
+ pick the next suitable task to be scheduled on the CPU is called.
+ Since most tasks are handled by the sched_fair class, a shortcut to this
+ class is implemented in the beginning of the function.
+5. TIF_NEED_RESCHED and architecture specific need_resched flags are cleared.
+6. If the scheduler class picks a different task from what was running
+ before, a context switch is performed by calling context_switch().
+ Internally, context_switch() switches to the new task's memory map and
+ swaps the register state and stack. If scheduler class picked the same
+ task as the previous task, no task switch is performed and the current
+ task keeps running.
+7. Balance callback list is processed. Each scheduling class can migrate tasks
+ between CPUs to balance load. These load balancing operations are queued
+ on a Balance callback list which get executed when balance_callback() is
+ called.
+8. The runqueue is unlocked and preemption is re-enabled. In case
+ preemption was requested during the time in which it was disabled,
+ schedule() is run again right away.
+Scheduler State Transition
+A very high level scheduler state transition flow with a few states can
+be depicted as follows. ::
+ *
+ |
+ | task
+ | forks
+ v
+ +------------------------------+
+ | TASK_NEW |
+ | (Ready to run) |
+ +------------------------------+
+ |
+ |
+ v
+ +------------------------------------+
+ +---------------> | (Ready to run) | <--+
+ | +------------------------------------+ |
+ | | |
+ | | schedule() calls context_switch() | task is preempted
+ | v |
+ | +------------------------------------+ |
+ | | TASK_RUNNING | |
+ | | (Running) | ---+
+ | event occurred +------------------------------------+
+ | |
+ | | task needs to wait for event
+ | v
+ | +------------------------------------+
+ +-----------------| TASK_WAKEKILL |
+ +------------------------------------+
+ |
+ | task exits via do_exit()
+ v
+ +------------------------------+
+ +------------------------------+
+Scheduler provides trace events tracing all major events of the scheduler.
+The trace events are defined in ::
+ include/trace/events/sched.h
+Using these trace events it is possible to model the scheduler state transition
+in an automata model. The following journal paper discusses such modeling:
+Daniel B. de Oliveira, Rômulo S. de Oliveira, Tommaso Cucinotta, **A thread
+synchronization model for the PREEMPT_RT Linux kernel**, *Journal of Systems
+Architecture*, Volume 107, 2020, 101729, ISSN 1383-7621,
+To model the scheduler efficiently the system was divided in to generators
+and specifications. Some of the generators used were "need_resched",
+"sleepable" and "runnable", "thread_context" and "scheduling context".
+The specifications are the necessary and sufficient conditions to call
+the scheduler. New trace events were added to specify the generators
+and specifications. In case a kernel event referred to more than one
+event, extra fields of the kernel event was used to distinguish between
+automation events. The final model was generated from parallel composition
+of all generators and specifications which composed of 34 events,
+12 generators and 33 specifications. This resulted in 9017 states, and
+20103 transitions.
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/sched-cas.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-cas.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..fcebc5770803
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-cas.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+Capacity-Aware Scheduling
+Scheduling load balancing on Asymmetric Multiprocessor systems was improved
+through the introduction of Capacity-Aware Scheduling. It identifies the
+most efficient CPU to assign a task based on its capacity. This capacity
+may be asymmetric due to heterogeneous computing architecture such
+as ARM big.LITTLE. Scheduler gets information about asymmetric capacities
+when the scheduler domain hierarchy is built using build_sched_domains().
+CPU capacities are provided to the scheduler topology code through the
+architecture specific implementation of the arch_scale_cpu_capacity().
+The SD_ASYM_CPUCAPACITY flag is set by the scheduler topology for a domain
+in the hierarchy where all CPU capacities are visible for any cpu's point
+of view on asymmetric CPU capacity systems. The scheduler can then take
+capacity asymmetry into account when load balancing.
+Initial CPU capacities are derived from the Device Tree and CPU frequency.
+For RISC-V & ARM64 it is done in drivers/base/arch_topology.c. A cpu-map
+device tree is parsed to obtain the cpu topology and the initial CPU capacity
+is set using the CPUFreq subsystem. A callback is registered to the CPUFreq
+subsystem to rebuild sched_domains once the CPUFreq is loaded, which is when
+a complete view of the capacities of the CPUs (which is a mix of µarch and
+frequencies) is available.
+Asymmetric CPU capacity information is used in
+* Energy Aware Scheduling: The scheduler is able to predict the impact of
+ its decisions on the energy consumed by CPUs. Described in :doc:`sched-energy` .
+* Optimized task wakeup load balancing by finding idle CPU with enough capacity.
+The different scheduler classes asymmetric use the Asymmetric CPU capacity
+information differently.
+CFS Capacity Awareness
+Used to identify misfit tasks:
+A load intensive task on a CPU which doesn't meet its compute demand is
+identified as a misfit task. 'Misfit' tasks are migrated to CPUs with
+higher compute capacity to ensure better throughput. CFS frequently updates
+the misfit status of the current task by comparing its utilization vs the
+CPU capacity using task_fits_capacity(). If the utilization is more than the
+CPU capacity the calculated misfit load is updated to the runqueue
+rq->misfit_task_load. This misfit load is then checked by the load
+balancing operations to migrate the task to a CPU of higher capacity.
+Modified wakeup logic to support DynamIQ systems:
+When the scheduler class calls select_task_rq_fair to select a runqueue for
+a waking task, load balancing is performed by selecting the idlest CPU in
+the idlest group, or under certain conditions an idle sibling CPU if the
+domain has SD_WAKE_AFFINE set. In DynamIQ systems Last Level Cache (LLC)
+domain of a CPU spans all CPUs in the system. This may include CPU's of
+different capacities. So in select_idle_sibling() an idle sibling is picked
+based on CPU capacity for asymmetric CPU capacity systems and for symmetric
+systems use LLC domain is used. The policy is to pick the first idle CPU
+which is big enough for the task (task_util * margin < cpu_capacity).
+If no idle CPU is big enough, the idle CPU with the highest capacity is
+picked. For asymmetric CPU capacity systems select_idle_sibling() operates
+on the sd_asym_cpucapacity sched_domain pointer, which is guaranteed to span
+all known CPU capacities in the system. This works for both "legacy"
+big.LITTLE (LITTLEs & bigs split at MC, joined at DIE) and for newer
+DynamIQ systems (e.g. LITTLEs and bigs in the same MC domain).
+RT Capacity Awareness
+Since RT tasks doesn't have a per task utilization signal RT tasks uses uclamp
+to guarantee a minimum performance point. Utilization clamping is a mechanism
+which allows to "clamp" (i.e. filter) the utilization generated by RT and
+FAIR tasks within a range defined by user-space. It exposes to user-space a
+new set of per-task attributes the scheduler can use as hints about the
+expected/required utilization for a task. RT is made capacity aware
+by ensuring that the capacity of the CPU is >= uclamp_min value. This check
+is done in the rt_task_fits_capacity()
+DL Capacity Awareness
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/sched-data-structs.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-data-structs.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a16408676b71
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-data-structs.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,182 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+Scheduler Data Structures
+The main parts of the Linux scheduler are:
+:c:type:`struct rq <rq>` is the central data structure of process
+scheduling. It keeps track of tasks that are in a runnable state assigned
+for a particular processor. Each CPU has its own run queue and stored in a
+per CPU array::
+ DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct rq, runqueues);
+Access to the queue requires locking and lock acquire operations must be
+ordered by ascending runqueue. Macros for accessing and locking the runqueue
+are provided in::
+ kernel/sched/sched.h
+The runqueue contains scheduling class specific queues and several scheduling
+Scheduling entity
+Scheduler uses scheduling entities which contain sufficient information to
+actually accomplish the scheduling job of a task or a task-group. The
+scheduling entity may be a group of tasks or a single task. Every task is
+associated with a sched_entity structure. CFS adds support for nesting of
+tasks and task groups. Each scheduling entity may be run from its parents
+runqueue. The scheduler traverses the sched_entity hierarchy to pick the
+next task to run on the CPU. The entity gets picked up from the cfs_rq on
+which it is queued and its time slice is divided among all the tasks on its my_q.
+Scheduler classes
+It is an extensible hierarchy of scheduler modules. The modules encapsulate
+scheduling policy details. They are called from the core code which is
+independent. Scheduling classes are implemented through the sched_class
+structure. dl_sched_class for deadline scheduler, fair_sched_class for CFS
+and rt_sched_class for RT are implementations of this class.
+The important methods of scheduler class are:
+enqueue_task and dequeue_task
+ These functions are used to put and remove tasks from the runqueue
+ respectively to change a property of a task. This is referred to as
+ change pattern. Change is defined as the following sequence of calls::
+ * dequeue_task()
+ * put_prev_task()
+ * change a property
+ * enqueue_task()
+ * set_next_task()
+ The enqueue_task function takes the runqueue, the task which needs to
+ be enqueued/dequeued and a bit mask of flags as parameters. The main
+ purpose of the flags is to describe why the enqueue or dequeue is being
+ called. The different flags used are described in ::
+ kernel/sched/sched.h
+ Some places where the enqueue_task and dequeue_task are called for
+ changing task properties are
+ * When migrating a task from one CPU's runqueue to another.
+ * When changing a tasks CPU affinity.
+ * When changing the priority of a task.
+ * When changing the nice value of the task.
+ * When changing the scheduling policy and/or RT priority of a thread.
+ Called by the scheduler to pick the next best task to run. The scheduler
+ iterates through the corresponding functions of the scheduler classes
+ in priority order to pick up the next best task to run. Since tasks
+ belonging to the idle class and fair class are frequent, the scheduler
+ optimizes the picking of next task to call the pick_next_task_fair()
+ if the previous task was of the similar scheduling class.
+ Called by the scheduler when a running task is being taken off a CPU.
+ The behavior of this function depends on individual scheduling classes.
+ In CFS class this function is used to put the currently running task back
+ into the CFS RB tree. When a task is running it is dequeued from the tree.
+ This is to prevent redundant enqueue's and dequeue's for updating its
+ vruntime. vruntime of tasks on the tree needs to be updated by update_curr()
+ to keep the tree in sync. In SCHED_DEADLINE and RT classes additional tree
+ is maintained to push tasks from the current CPU to another CPU where the
+ task can preempt and start executing. Task will be added to this queue
+ if it is present on the scheduling class rq and the task has affinity
+ to more than one CPU.
+ Pairs with the put_prev_task(), this function is called when the next
+ task is set to run on the CPU. This function is called in all the places
+ where put_prev_task is called to complete the 'change pattern'. In case
+ of CFS scheduling class, it will set current scheduling entity to the
+ picked task and accounts bandwidth usage on the cfs_rq. In addition it
+ will also remove the current entity from the CFS runqueue for the vruntime
+ update optimization, opposite to what was done in put_prev_task.
+ For the SCHED_DEADLINE and RT classes it will remove the task from the
+ tree of pushable tasks trigger the balance callback to push another task
+ which is non running on the current CPU for execution on another CPU.
+ * dequeue the picked task from the tree of pushable tasks.
+ * update the load average in case the previous task belonged to another
+ class.
+ * queues the function to push tasks from current runqueue to other CPUs
+ which can preempt and start execution. Balance callback list is used.
+ Called from scheduler_tick(), hrtick() and sched_tick_remote() to update
+ the current task statistics and load averages. Also restarting the high
+ resolution tick timer is done if high resolution timers are enabled.
+ scheduler_tick() runs at 1/HZ and is called from the timer interrupt
+ handler of the Kernel internal timers.
+ hrtick() is called from high resolution timers to deliver an accurate
+ preemption tick as the regular scheduler tick that runs at 1/HZ can be
+ too coarse when nice levels are used.
+ sched_tick_remote() gets called by the offloaded residual 1Hz scheduler
+ tick. In order to reduce interruptions to bare metal tasks, it is possible
+ to outsource these scheduler ticks to the global workqueue so that a
+ housekeeping CPU handles those remotely.
+ Called by scheduler to get the CPU to assign a task to and migrating
+ tasks between CPUs. Flags describe the reason the function was called.
+ Called by try_to_wake_up() with SD_BALANCE_WAKE flag which wakes up a
+ sleeping task.
+ Called by wake_up_new_task() with SD_BALANCE_FORK flag which wakes up a
+ newly forked task.
+ Called by sched_exec() with SD_BALANCE_EXEC which is called from execv
+ syscall.
+ SCHED_DEADLINE class decides the CPU on which the task should be woken
+ up based on the deadline. RT class decides based on the RT priority. Fair
+ scheduling class balances load by selecting the idlest CPU in the
+ idlest group, or under certain conditions an idle sibling CPU if the
+ domain has SD_WAKE_AFFINE set.
+ Called by pick_next_task() from scheduler to enable scheduling classes
+ to pull tasks from runqueues of other CPUs for balancing task execution
+ between the CPUs.
+ Called from sched_fork() of scheduler which assigns a task to a CPU.
+ Fair scheduling class updates runqueue clock, runtime statistics and
+ vruntime for the scheduling entity.
+ Called from SYSCALL sched_yield to yield the CPU to other tasks.
+ SCHED_DEADLINE class forces the runtime of the task to zero using a special
+ flag and dequeues the task from its trees. RT class requeues the task
+ entities to the end of the run list. Fair scheduling class implements
+ the buddy mechanism. This allows skipping onto the next highest priority
+ scheduling entity at every level in the CFS tree, unless doing so would
+ introduce gross unfairness in CPU time distribution.
+ Check whether the task that woke up should preempt the currently
+ running task. Called by scheduler,
+ * when moving queued task to new runqueue
+ * ttwu()
+ * when waking up newly created task for the first time.
+ SCHED_DEADLINE class compares the deadlines of the tasks and calls
+ scheduler function resched_curr() if the preemption is needed. In case
+ the deadlines are equal, migratability of the tasks is used a criteria
+ for preemption.
+ RT class behaves the same except it uses RT priority for comparison.
+ Fair class sets the buddy hints before calling resched_curr() to preempt.
+Scheduler sets the scheduler class for each task based on its priority.
+Tasks assigned with SCHED_NORMAL, SCHED_IDLE and SCHED_BATCH call
+fair_sched_class hooks and tasks assigned with SCHED_RR and
+SCHED_FIFO call rt_sched_class hooks. Tasks assigned with SCHED_DEADLINE
+policy calls dl_sched_class hooks.
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/sched-features.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-features.rst
index 1afbd9cc8d52..e576c7d9e556 100644
--- a/Documentation/scheduler/sched-features.rst
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/sched-features.rst
@@ -17,4 +17,5 @@ Scheduler Features
+ sched-cas
diff --git a/Documentation/scheduler/scheduler-api.rst b/Documentation/scheduler/scheduler-api.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1fc6bd4c2908
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/scheduler/scheduler-api.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+Scheduler related functions
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: __schedule
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: scheduler_tick
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: try_to_wake_up
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: do_task_dead
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: preempt_schedule_irq
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: prepare_task_switch
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/core.c
+ :functions: finish_task_switch
+.. kernel-doc:: kernel/sched/sched.h
+ :functions: rq
diff --git a/kernel/sched/core.c b/kernel/sched/core.c
index 9a2fbf98fd6f..b349ed9b4d92 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -3576,9 +3576,13 @@ void arch_set_thermal_pressure(struct cpumask *cpus,
WRITE_ONCE(per_cpu(thermal_pressure, cpu), th_pressure);

+ * scheduler_tick - sched tick timer handler
+ *
* This function gets called by the timer code, with HZ frequency.
* We call it with interrupts disabled.
+ *
+ * Return: 0.
void scheduler_tick(void)
@@ -3959,8 +3963,10 @@ pick_next_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)

- * __schedule() is the main scheduler function.
+ * __schedule() - the main scheduler function.
+ *
+ * @preempt: preemption enabled/disabled
* The main means of driving the scheduler and thus entering this function are:
@@ -4089,6 +4095,12 @@ static void __sched notrace __schedule(bool preempt)

+ * do_task_dead - handle task exit
+ *
+ * Changes the the task state to TASK_DEAD and calls
+ * schedule to pick next task to run.
+ */
void __noreturn do_task_dead(void)
/* Causes final put_task_struct in finish_task_switch(): */
@@ -4320,7 +4332,8 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(preempt_schedule_notrace);


+ * preempt_schedule_irq - schedule from irq context
* This is the entry point to schedule() from kernel preemption
* off of irq context.
* Note, that this is called and return with irqs disabled. This will
@@ -5618,6 +5631,13 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE0(sched_yield)

+ * _cond_resched - explicit rescheduling
+ *
+ * gives the scheduler a chance to run a higher-priority process
+ *
+ * Return: 1 if reschedule was done, 0 if reschedule not done.
+ */
int __sched _cond_resched(void)
if (should_resched(0)) {
diff --git a/kernel/sched/sched.h b/kernel/sched/sched.h
index db3a57675ccf..21f2953b72c7 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/sched.h
+++ b/kernel/sched/sched.h
@@ -865,12 +865,175 @@ struct uclamp_rq {

- * This is the main, per-CPU runqueue data structure.
+ * struct rq - This is the main, per-CPU runqueue data structure.
* Locking rule: those places that want to lock multiple runqueues
* (such as the load balancing or the thread migration code), lock
* acquire operations must be ordered by ascending &runqueue.
+ *
+ * @lock:
+ * lock to be acquired while modifying the runqueue
+ * @nr_running:
+ * number of runnable tasks on this queue
+ * @nr_numa_running:
+ * number of tasks running that care about their placement
+ * @nr_preferred_running:
+ * number of tasks that are optimally NUMA placed
+ * @numa_migrate_on:
+ * per run-queue variable to check if NUMA-balance is
+ * active on the run-queue
+ * @last_blocked_load_update_tick:
+ * tick stamp for decay of blocked load
+ * @has_blocked_load:
+ * idle CPU has blocked load
+ * @nohz_tick_stopped:
+ * CPU is going idle with tick stopped
+ * @nohz_flags:
+ * flags indicating NOHZ idle balancer actions
+ * @nr_load_updates:
+ * unused
+ * @nr_switches:
+ * number of context switches
+ * @uclamp:
+ * utilization clamp values based on CPU's RUNNABLE tasks
+ * @uclamp_flags:
+ * flags for uclamp actions, currently one flag for idle.
+ * @cfs:
+ * fair scheduling class runqueue
+ * @rt:
+ * rt scheduling class runqueue
+ * @dl:
+ * dl scheduing class runqueue
+ * @leaf_cfs_rq_list:
+ * list of leaf cfs_rq on this CPU
+ * @tmp_alone_branch:
+ * reference to add child before its parent in leaf_cfs_rq_list
+ * @nr_uninterruptible:
+ * global counter where the total sum over all CPUs matters. A task
+ * can increase this counter on one CPU and if it got migrated
+ * afterwards it may decrease it on another CPU. Always updated under
+ * the runqueue lock
+ * @curr:
+ * points to the currently running task of this rq.
+ * @idle:
+ * points to the idle task of this rq
+ * @stop:
+ * points to the stop task of this rq
+ * @next_balance:
+ * shortest next balance before updating nohz.next_balance
+ * @prev_mm:
+ * real address space of the previous task
+ * @clock_update_flags:
+ * RQCF clock_update_flags bits
+ * @clock:
+ * sched_clock() value for the queue
+ * @clock_task:
+ * clock value minus irq handling time
+ * @clock_pelt:
+ * clock which scales with current capacity when something is
+ * running on rq and synchronizes with clock_task when rq is idle
+ * @lost_idle_time:
+ * idle time lost when utilization of a rq has reached the
+ * maximum value
+ * @nr_iowait:
+ * account the idle time that we could have spend running if it
+ * were not for IO
+ * @membarrier_state:
+ * copy of membarrier_state from the mm_struct
+ * @rd:
+ * root domain, each exclusive cpuset essentially defines an island
+ * domain by fully partitioning the member CPUs from any other cpuset
+ * @sd:
+ * a domain heirarchy of CPU groups to balance process load among them
+ * @cpu_capacity:
+ * information about CPUs heterogeneity used for CPU performance
+ * scaling
+ * @cpu_capacity_orig:
+ * original capacity of a CPU before being altered by
+ * rt tasks and/or IRQ
+ * @balance_callback:
+ * queue to hold load balancing push and pull operations
+ * @idle_balance:
+ * flag to do the nohz idle load balance
+ * @misfit_task_load:
+ * set whenever the current running task has a utilization
+ * greater than 80% of rq->cpu_capacity. A non-zero value
+ * in this field enables misfit load balancing
+ * @active_balance:
+ * synchronizes accesses to ->active_balance_work
+ * @push_cpu:
+ * idle cpu to push the running task on to during active load
+ * balancing.
+ * @active_balance_work:
+ * callback scheduled to run on one or multiple cpus
+ * with maximum priority monopolozing those cpus.
+ * @cpu:
+ * CPU of this runqueue
+ * @online:
+ * Used by scheduling classes to support CPU hotplug
+ * @cfs_tasks:
+ * an MRU list used for load balancing, sorted (except
+ * woken tasks) starting from recently given CPU time tasks
+ * toward tasks with max wait time in a run-queue
+ * @avg_rt:
+ * track the utilization of RT tasks for a more accurate
+ * view of the utilization of the CPU when overloaded by CFS and
+ * RT tasks
+ * @avg_dl:
+ * track the utilization of DL tasks as CFS tasks can be preempted
+ * by DL tasks and the CFS's utilization might no longer describe
+ * the real utilization level
+ * @avg_irq:
+ * track the the utilization of interrupt to give a more accurate
+ * level of utilization of CPU taking into account the time spent
+ * under interrupt context when rqs' clock is updated
+ * @avg_thermal:
+ * tracks thermal pressure which is the reduction in maximum
+ * possible capacity due to thermal events
+ * @idle_stamp:
+ * time stamp at which idle load balance started for this rq.
+ * Used to find the idlest CPU, when multiple idle CPUs are in
+ * the same state
+ * @avg_idle:
+ * average idle time for this rq
+ * @max_idle_balance_cost:
+ * used to determine avg_idle's max value
+ * @prev_irq_time:
+ * updated to account time consumed when a previous
+ * update_rq_clock() happened inside a {soft,}irq region
+ * @prev_steal_time:
+ * to account how much elapsed time was spent in steal
+ * @prev_steal_time_rq:
+ * for fine granularity task steal time accounting by
+ * making update_rq_clock() aware of steal time
+ * @calc_load_update:
+ * sample window for global load-average calculations
+ * @calc_load_active:
+ * fold any nr_active delta into a global accumulate
+ * @hrtick_csd:
+ * call_single_data used to set hrtick timer state on a specific CPU
+ * @hrtick_timer:
+ * HR-timer to deliver an accurate preemption tick
+ * @rq_sched_info:
+ * runqueue specific latency stats
+ * @rq_cpu_time:
+ * runqueue specific accumulated per-task cpu runtime
+ * @yld_count:
+ * runqueue specific sys_sched_yield() stats
+ * @sched_count:
+ * runqueue specific __schedule() stats
+ * @sched_goidle:
+ * runqueue specific idle scheduling class stats
+ * @ttwu_count:
+ * runqueue specific idle ttwu stats , both remote and local
+ * @ttwu_local:
+ * ttwu count for the CPU of the rq
+ * @wake_list:
+ * list which stores tasks being woken up remotely by ttwu
+ * @idle_state:
+ * cpuidle state pointer of the CPU of this rq used to make a
+ * better decision when balancing tasks
struct rq {
/* runqueue lock: */
@@ -1136,7 +1299,7 @@ static inline u64 rq_clock_task(struct rq *rq)
return rq->clock_task;

* By default the decay is the default pelt decay period.
* The decay shift can change the decay period in
* multiples of 32.
 \ /
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