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SubjectRe: [PATCH 0/4] x86/boot: Remove runtime relocations from compressed kernel
On 2020-05-24, Arvind Sankar wrote:
>The compressed kernel currently contains bogus runtime relocations in
>the startup code in head_{32,64}.S, which are generated by the linker,
>but must not actually be processed at runtime.
>This generates warnings when linking with the BFD linker, and errors
>with LLD, which defaults to erroring on runtime relocations in read-only
>sections. It also requires the -z noreloc-overflow hack for the 64-bit
>kernel, which prevents us from linking it as -pie on an older BFD linker
>(<= 2.26) or on LLD, because the locations that are to be apparently
>relocated are only 32-bits in size and so cannot normally have
>R_X86_64_RELATIVE relocations.
>This series aims to get rid of these relocations. It is based on
>efi/next (efi-changes-for-v5.8), where the latest patches touch the
>head code to eliminate the global offset table.
>The first patch is an independent fix for LLD, to avoid an orphan
>section in arch/x86/boot/setup.elf [0].
>The second patch gets rid of almost all the relocations. It uses
>standard PIC addressing technique for 32-bit, i.e. loading a register
>with the address of _GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_ and then using GOTOFF
>references to access variables. For 64-bit, there is 32-bit code that
>cannot use RIP-relative addressing, and also cannot use the 32-bit
>method, since GOTOFF references are 64-bit only. This is instead handled
>using a macro to replace a reference like gdt with (gdt-startup_32)
>instead. The assembler will generate a PC32 relocation entry, with
>addend set to (.-startup_32), and these will be replaced with constants
>at link time. This works as long as all the code using such references
>lives in the same section as startup_32, i.e. in .head.text.
>The third patch addresses a remaining issue with the BFD linker, which
>insists on generating runtime relocations for absolute symbols. We use
>z_input_len and z_output_len, defined in the generated piggy.S file, as
>symbols whose absolute "addresses" are actually the size of the
>compressed payload and the size of the decompressed kernel image
>respectively. LLD does not generate relocations for these two symbols,
>but the BFD linker does. To get around this, piggy.S is extended to also
>define two u32 variables (in .rodata) with the lengths, and the head
>code is modified to use those instead of the symbol addresses.
>An alternative way to handle z_input_len/z_output_len would be to just
>include piggy.S in head_{32,64}.S instead of as a separate object file,
>since the GNU assembler doesn't generate relocations for symbols set to
>The last patch adds a check in the linker script to ensure that no
>runtime relocations get reintroduced. Since the GOT has been eliminated
>as well, the compressed kernel has no runtime relocations whatsoever any
>Arvind Sankar (4):
> x86/boot: Add .text.startup to setup.ld
> x86/boot: Remove runtime relocations from .head.text code
> x86/boot: Remove runtime relocations from head_{32,64}.S
> x86/boot: Check that there are no runtime relocations
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile | 36 +---------
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_32.S | 59 +++++++--------
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S | 99 +++++++++++++++-----------
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/mkpiggy.c | 6 ++
> arch/x86/boot/compressed/ | 11 +++
> arch/x86/boot/setup.ld | 2 +-
> 6 files changed, 109 insertions(+), 104 deletions(-)

All 4 commits look good.

Reviewed-by: Fangrui Song <>

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