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Subject[PATCH v2 1/7] locking: Introduce local_lock()
Date
From: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>

preempt_disable() and local_irq_disable/save() are in principle per CPU big
kernel locks. This has several downsides:

- The protection scope is unknown

- Violation of protection rules is hard to detect by instrumentation

- For PREEMPT_RT such sections, unless in low level critical code, can
violate the preemptability constraints.

To address this PREEMPT_RT introduced the concept of local_locks which are
strictly per CPU.

The lock operations map to preempt_disable(), local_irq_disable/save() and
the enabling counterparts on non RT enabled kernels.

If lockdep is enabled local locks gain a lock map which tracks the usage
context. This will catch cases where an area is protected by
preempt_disable() but the access also happens from interrupt context. local
locks have identified quite a few such issues over the years, the most
recent example is:

b7d5dc21072cd ("random: add a spinlock_t to struct batched_entropy")

Aside of the lockdep coverage this also improves code readability as it
precisely annotates the protection scope.

PREEMPT_RT substitutes these local locks with 'sleeping' spinlocks to
protect such sections while maintaining preemtability and CPU locality.

local locks can replace:

- preempt_enable()/disable() pairs
- local_irq_disable/enable() pairs
- local_irq_save/restore() pairs

They are also used to replace code which implicitly disables preemption
like:

- get_cpu()/put_cpu()
- get_cpu_var()/put_cpu_var()

with PREEMPT_RT friendly constructs.

Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Signed-off-by: Sebastian Andrzej Siewior <bigeasy@linutronix.de>
---
Documentation/locking/locktypes.rst | 215 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
include/linux/locallock.h | 54 +++++++
include/linux/locallock_internal.h | 90 ++++++++++++
3 files changed, 348 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 include/linux/locallock.h
create mode 100644 include/linux/locallock_internal.h

diff --git a/Documentation/locking/locktypes.rst b/Documentation/locking/locktypes.rst
index 09f45ce38d262..1b577a8bf9829 100644
--- a/Documentation/locking/locktypes.rst
+++ b/Documentation/locking/locktypes.rst
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ The kernel provides a variety of locking primitives which can be divided
into two categories:

- Sleeping locks
+ - CPU local locks
- Spinning locks

This document conceptually describes these lock types and provides rules
@@ -44,9 +45,23 @@ other contexts unless there is no other option.

On PREEMPT_RT kernels, these lock types are converted to sleeping locks:

+ - local_lock
- spinlock_t
- rwlock_t

+
+CPU local locks
+---------------
+
+ - local_lock
+
+On non-PREEMPT_RT kernels, local_lock functions are wrappers around
+preemption and interrupt disabling primitives. Contrary to other locking
+mechanisms, disabling preemption or interrupts are pure CPU local
+concurrency control mechanisms and not suited for inter-CPU concurrency
+control.
+
+
Spinning locks
--------------

@@ -67,6 +82,7 @@ Spinning locks implicitly disable preemption and the lock / unlock functions
_irqsave/restore() Save and disable / restore interrupt disabled state
=================== ====================================================

+
Owner semantics
===============

@@ -139,6 +155,56 @@ PREEMPT_RT kernels map rw_semaphore to a separate rt_mutex-based
writer from starving readers.


+local_lock
+==========
+
+local_lock provides a named scope to critical sections which are protected
+by disabling preemption or interrupts.
+
+On non-PREEMPT_RT kernels local_lock operations map to the preemption and
+interrupt disabling and enabling primitives:
+
+ =========================== ======================
+ local_lock(&llock) preempt_disable()
+ local_unlock(&llock) preempt_enable()
+ local_lock_irq(&llock) local_irq_disable()
+ local_unlock_irq(&llock) local_irq_enable()
+ local_lock_save(&llock) local_irq_save()
+ local_lock_restore(&llock) local_irq_save()
+ =========================== ======================
+
+The named scope of local_lock has two advantages over the regular
+primitives:
+
+ - The lock name allows static analysis and is also a clear documentation
+ of the protection scope while the regular primitives are scopeless and
+ opaque.
+
+ - If lockdep is enabled the local_lock gains a lockmap which allows to
+ validate the correctness of the protection. This can detect cases where
+ e.g. a function using preempt_disable() as protection mechanism is
+ invoked from interrupt or soft-interrupt context. Aside of that
+ lockdep_assert_held(&llock) works as with any other locking primitive.
+
+local_lock and PREEMPT_RT
+-------------------------
+
+PREEMPT_RT kernels map local_lock to a per-CPU spinlock_t, thus changing
+semantics:
+
+ - All spinlock_t changes also apply to local_lock.
+
+local_lock usage
+----------------
+
+local_lock should be used in situations where disabling preemption or
+interrupts is the appropriate form of concurrency control to protect
+per-CPU data structures on a non PREEMPT_RT kernel.
+
+local_lock is not suitable to protect against preemption or interrupts on a
+PREEMPT_RT kernel due to the PREEMPT_RT specific spinlock_t semantics.
+
+
raw_spinlock_t and spinlock_t
=============================

@@ -258,10 +324,82 @@ PREEMPT_RT kernels map rwlock_t to a separate rt_mutex-based
PREEMPT_RT caveats
==================

+local_lock on RT
+----------------
+
+The mapping of local_lock to spinlock_t on PREEMPT_RT kernels has a few
+implications. For example, on a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel the following code
+sequence works as expected::
+
+ local_lock_irq(&local_lock);
+ raw_spin_lock(&lock);
+
+and is fully equivalent to::
+
+ raw_spin_lock_irq(&lock);
+
+On a PREEMPT_RT kernel this code sequence breaks because local_lock_irq()
+is mapped to a per-CPU spinlock_t which neither disables interrupts nor
+preemption. The following code sequence works perfectly correct on both
+PREEMPT_RT and non-PREEMPT_RT kernels::
+
+ local_lock_irq(&local_lock);
+ spin_lock(&lock);
+
+Another caveat with local locks is that each local_lock has a specific
+protection scope. So the following substitution is wrong::
+
+ func1()
+ {
+ local_irq_save(flags); -> local_lock_irqsave(&local_lock_1, flags);
+ func3();
+ local_irq_restore(flags); -> local_lock_irqrestore(&local_lock_1, flags);
+ }
+
+ func2()
+ {
+ local_irq_save(flags); -> local_lock_irqsave(&local_lock_2, flags);
+ func3();
+ local_irq_restore(flags); -> local_lock_irqrestore(&local_lock_2, flags);
+ }
+
+ func3()
+ {
+ lockdep_assert_irqs_disabled();
+ access_protected_data();
+ }
+
+On a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel this works correctly, but on a PREEMPT_RT kernel
+local_lock_1 and local_lock_2 are distinct and cannot serialize the callers
+of func3(). Also the lockdep assert will trigger on a PREEMPT_RT kernel
+because local_lock_irqsave() does not disable interrupts due to the
+PREEMPT_RT-specific semantics of spinlock_t. The correct substitution is::
+
+ func1()
+ {
+ local_irq_save(flags); -> local_lock_irqsave(&local_lock, flags);
+ func3();
+ local_irq_restore(flags); -> local_lock_irqrestore(&local_lock, flags);
+ }
+
+ func2()
+ {
+ local_irq_save(flags); -> local_lock_irqsave(&local_lock, flags);
+ func3();
+ local_irq_restore(flags); -> local_lock_irqrestore(&local_lock, flags);
+ }
+
+ func3()
+ {
+ lockdep_assert_held(&local_lock);
+ access_protected_data();
+ }
+
+
spinlock_t and rwlock_t
-----------------------

-These changes in spinlock_t and rwlock_t semantics on PREEMPT_RT kernels
+The changes in spinlock_t and rwlock_t semantics on PREEMPT_RT kernels
have a few implications. For example, on a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel the
following code sequence works as expected::

@@ -282,9 +420,61 @@ local_lock mechanism. Acquiring the local_lock pins the task to a CPU,
allowing things like per-CPU interrupt disabled locks to be acquired.
However, this approach should be used only where absolutely necessary.

+A typical scenario is protection of per-CPU variables in thread context::

-raw_spinlock_t
---------------
+ struct foo *p = get_cpu_ptr(&var1);
+
+ spin_lock(&p->lock);
+ p->count += this_cpu_read(var2);
+
+This is correct code on a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel, but on a PREEMPT_RT kernel
+this breaks. The PREEMPT_RT-specific change of spinlock_t semantics does
+not allow to acquire p->lock because get_cpu_ptr() implicitly disables
+preemption. The following substitution works on both kernels::
+
+ struct foo *p;
+
+ migrate_disable();
+ p = this_cpu_ptr(&var1);
+ spin_lock(&p->lock);
+ p->count += this_cpu_read(var2);
+
+On a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel migrate_disable() maps to preempt_disable()
+which makes the above code fully equivalent. On a PREEMPT_RT kernel
+migrate_disable() ensures that the task is pinned on the current CPU which
+in turn guarantees that the per-CPU access to var1 and var2 are staying on
+the same CPU.
+
+The migrate_disable() substitution is not valid for the following
+scenario::
+
+ func()
+ {
+ struct foo *p;
+
+ migrate_disable();
+ p = this_cpu_ptr(&var1);
+ p->val = func2();
+
+While correct on a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel, this breaks on PREEMPT_RT because
+here migrate_disable() does not protect against reentrancy from a
+preempting task. A correct substitution for this case is::
+
+ func()
+ {
+ struct foo *p;
+
+ local_lock(&foo_lock);
+ p = this_cpu_ptr(&var1);
+ p->val = func2();
+
+On a non-PREEMPT_RT kernel this protects against reentrancy by disabling
+preemption. On a PREEMPT_RT kernel this is achieved by acquiring the
+underlying per-CPU spinlock.
+
+
+raw_spinlock_t on RT
+--------------------

Acquiring a raw_spinlock_t disables preemption and possibly also
interrupts, so the critical section must avoid acquiring a regular
@@ -325,22 +515,25 @@ Lock type nesting rules

The most basic rules are:

- - Lock types of the same lock category (sleeping, spinning) can nest
- arbitrarily as long as they respect the general lock ordering rules to
- prevent deadlocks.
+ - Lock types of the same lock category (sleeping, CPU local, spinning)
+ can nest arbitrarily as long as they respect the general lock ordering
+ rules to prevent deadlocks.

- - Sleeping lock types cannot nest inside spinning lock types.
+ - Sleeping lock types cannot nest inside CPU local and spinning lock types.

- - Spinning lock types can nest inside sleeping lock types.
+ - CPU local and spinning lock types can nest inside sleeping lock types.
+
+ - Spinning lock types can nest inside all lock types

These constraints apply both in PREEMPT_RT and otherwise.

The fact that PREEMPT_RT changes the lock category of spinlock_t and
-rwlock_t from spinning to sleeping means that they cannot be acquired while
-holding a raw spinlock. This results in the following nesting ordering:
+rwlock_t from spinning to sleeping and substitutes local_lock with a
+per-CPU spinlock_t means that they cannot be acquired while holding a raw
+spinlock. This results in the following nesting ordering:

1) Sleeping locks
- 2) spinlock_t and rwlock_t
+ 2) spinlock_t, rwlock_t, local_lock
3) raw_spinlock_t and bit spinlocks

Lockdep will complain if these constraints are violated, both in
diff --git a/include/linux/locallock.h b/include/linux/locallock.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000000..eec88a8225883
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/locallock.h
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#ifndef _LINUX_LOCALLOCK_H
+#define _LINUX_LOCALLOCK_H
+
+#include <linux/locallock_internal.h>
+
+/**
+ * local_lock_init - Runtime initialize a lock instance
+ */
+#define local_lock_init(lock) __local_lock_init(lock)
+
+/**
+ * local_lock - Acquire a per CPU local lock
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ */
+#define local_lock(lock) __local_lock(lock)
+
+/**
+ * local_lock_irq - Acquire a per CPU local lock and disable interrupts
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ */
+#define local_lock_irq(lock) __local_lock_irq(lock)
+
+/**
+ * local_lock_irqsave - Acquire a per CPU local lock, save and disable
+ * interrupts
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ * @flags: Storage for interrupt flags
+ */
+#define local_lock_irqsave(lock, flags) \
+ __local_lock_irqsave(lock, flags)
+
+/**
+ * local_unlock - Release a per CPU local lock
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ */
+#define local_unlock(lock) __local_unlock(lock)
+
+/**
+ * local_unlock_irq - Release a per CPU local lock and enable interrupts
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ */
+#define local_unlock_irq(lock) __local_unlock_irq(lock)
+
+/**
+ * local_unlock_irqrestore - Release a per CPU local lock and restore
+ * interrupt flags
+ * @lock: The lock variable
+ * @flags: Interrupt flags to restore
+ */
+#define local_unlock_irqrestore(lock, flags) \
+ __local_unlock_irqrestore(lock, flags)
+
+#endif
diff --git a/include/linux/locallock_internal.h b/include/linux/locallock_internal.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000000..5332680b92d66
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/locallock_internal.h
@@ -0,0 +1,90 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#ifndef _LINUX_LOCALLOCK_H
+# error "Do not include directly, include linux/locallock.h"
+#endif
+
+#include <linux/percpu-defs.h>
+#include <linux/lockdep.h>
+
+struct local_lock {
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC
+ struct lockdep_map dep_map;
+ struct task_struct *owner;
+#endif
+};
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC
+# define LL_DEP_MAP_INIT(lockname) \
+ .dep_map = { \
+ .name = #lockname, \
+ .wait_type_inner = LD_WAIT_CONFIG, \
+ }
+#else
+# define LL_DEP_MAP_INIT(lockname)
+#endif
+
+#define INIT_LOCAL_LOCK(lockname) { LL_DEP_MAP_INIT(lockname) }
+
+#define __local_lock_init(lock) \
+do { \
+ static struct lock_class_key __key; \
+ \
+ debug_check_no_locks_freed((void *)lock, sizeof(*lock));\
+ lockdep_init_map_wait(&(lock)->dep_map, #lock, &__key, 0, LD_WAIT_CONFIG);\
+} while (0)
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC
+static inline void local_lock_acquire(struct local_lock *l)
+{
+ lock_map_acquire(&l->dep_map);
+ DEBUG_LOCKS_WARN_ON(l->owner);
+ l->owner = current;
+}
+
+static inline void local_lock_release(struct local_lock *l)
+{
+ DEBUG_LOCKS_WARN_ON(l->owner != current);
+ l->owner = NULL;
+ lock_map_release(&l->dep_map);
+}
+
+#else /* CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC */
+static inline void local_lock_acquire(struct local_lock *l) { }
+static inline void local_lock_release(struct local_lock *l) { }
+#endif /* !CONFIG_DEBUG_LOCK_ALLOC */
+
+#define __local_lock(lock) \
+ do { \
+ preempt_disable(); \
+ local_lock_acquire(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define __local_lock_irq(lock) \
+ do { \
+ local_irq_disable(); \
+ local_lock_acquire(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define __local_lock_irqsave(lock, flags) \
+ do { \
+ local_irq_save(flags); \
+ local_lock_acquire(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define __local_unlock(lock) \
+ do { \
+ local_lock_release(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ preempt_enable(); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define __local_unlock_irq(lock) \
+ do { \
+ local_lock_release(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ local_irq_enable(); \
+ } while (0)
+
+#define __local_unlock_irqrestore(lock, flags) \
+ do { \
+ local_lock_release(this_cpu_ptr(lock)); \
+ local_irq_restore(flags); \
+ } while (0)
--
2.27.0.rc0
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