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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 3/4] blk-mq: Rerun dispatching in the case of budget contention
On Tue, Apr 07, 2020 at 07:17:49PM -0700, Doug Anderson wrote:
> Hi,
>
> On Tue, Apr 7, 2020 at 7:09 PM Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com> wrote:
> >
> > On Tue, Apr 07, 2020 at 03:00:04PM -0700, Douglas Anderson wrote:
> > > If ever a thread running blk-mq code tries to get budget and fails it
> > > immediately stops doing work and assumes that whenever budget is freed
> > > up that queues will be kicked and whatever work the thread was trying
> > > to do will be tried again.
> > >
> > > One path where budget is freed and queues are kicked in the normal
> > > case can be seen in scsi_finish_command(). Specifically:
> > > - scsi_finish_command()
> > > - scsi_device_unbusy()
> > > - # Decrement "device_busy", AKA release budget
> > > - scsi_io_completion()
> > > - scsi_end_request()
> > > - blk_mq_run_hw_queues()
> > >
> > > The above is all well and good. The problem comes up when a thread
> > > claims the budget but then releases it without actually dispatching
> > > any work. Since we didn't schedule any work we'll never run the path
> > > of finishing work / kicking the queues.
> > >
> > > This isn't often actually a problem which is why this issue has
> > > existed for a while and nobody noticed. Specifically we only get into
> > > this situation when we unexpectedly found that we weren't going to do
> > > any work. Code that later receives new work kicks the queues. All
> > > good, right?
> > >
> > > The problem shows up, however, if timing is just wrong and we hit a
> > > race. To see this race let's think about the case where we only have
> > > a budget of 1 (only one thread can hold budget). Now imagine that a
> > > thread got budget and then decided not to dispatch work. It's about
> > > to call put_budget() but then the thread gets context switched out for
> > > a long, long time. While in this state, any and all kicks of the
> > > queue (like the when we received new work) will be no-ops because
> > > nobody can get budget. Finally the thread holding budget gets to run
> > > again and returns. All the normal kicks will have been no-ops and we
> > > have an I/O stall.
> > >
> > > As you can see from the above, you need just the right timing to see
> > > the race. To start with, the only case it happens if we thought we
> > > had work, actually managed to get the budget, but then actually didn't
> > > have work. That's pretty rare to start with. Even then, there's
> > > usually a very small amount of time between realizing that there's no
> > > work and putting the budget. During this small amount of time new
> > > work has to come in and the queue kick has to make it all the way to
> > > trying to get the budget and fail. It's pretty unlikely.
> > >
> > > One case where this could have failed is illustrated by an example of
> > > threads running blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched():
> > >
> > > * Threads A and B both run has_work() at the same time with the same
> > > "hctx". Imagine has_work() is exact. There's no lock, so it's OK
> > > if Thread A and B both get back true.
> > > * Thread B gets interrupted for a long time right after it decides
> > > that there is work. Maybe its CPU gets an interrupt and the
> > > interrupt handler is slow.
> > > * Thread A runs, get budget, dispatches work.
> > > * Thread A's work finishes and budget is released.
> > > * Thread B finally runs again and gets budget.
> > > * Since Thread A already took care of the work and no new work has
> > > come in, Thread B will get NULL from dispatch_request(). I believe
> > > this is specifically why dispatch_request() is allowed to return
> > > NULL in the first place if has_work() must be exact.
> > > * Thread B will now be holding the budget and is about to call
> > > put_budget(), but hasn't called it yet.
> > > * Thread B gets interrupted for a long time (again). Dang interrupts.
> > > * Now Thread C (maybe with a different "hctx" but the same queue)
> > > comes along and runs blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched().
> > > * Thread C won't do anything because it can't get budget.
> >
> > Thread C will re-run queue in this case:
> >
> > Just thought scsi_mq_get_budget() does handle the case via re-run queue:
> >
> > if (atomic_read(&sdev->device_busy) == 0 && !scsi_device_blocked(sdev))
> > blk_mq_delay_run_hw_queue(hctx, SCSI_QUEUE_DELAY);
> >
> > So looks no such race.
>
> Thread B is holding budget and hasn't released it yet, right? In the
> context of scsi, that means "device_busy >= 1", right? So how can the
> code you point at help us? When Thread C reads "device_busy" it will
> be 1 and that code won't run. What did I miss?

Oh, this is my fault, sorry for the noise.

>
>
> > > * Finally Thread B will run again and put the budget without kicking
> > > any queues.
> > >
> > > Even though the example above is with blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched() I
> > > believe the race is possible any time someone is holding budget but
> > > doesn't do work.
> > >
> > > Unfortunately, the unlikely has become more likely if you happen to be
> > > using the BFQ I/O scheduler. BFQ, by design, sometimes returns "true"
> > > for has_work() but then NULL for dispatch_request() and stays in this
> > > state for a while (currently up to 9 ms). Suddenly you only need one
> > > race to hit, not two races in a row. With my current setup this is
> > > easy to reproduce in reboot tests and traces have actually shown that
> > > we hit a race similar to the one describe above.
> > >
> > > In theory we could choose to just fix blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched() to
> > > kick the queues when it puts budget. That would fix the BFQ case and
> > > one could argue that all the other cases are just theoretical. While
> > > that is true, for all the other cases it should be very uncommon to
> > > run into the case where we need put_budget(). Having an extra queue
> > > kick for safety there shouldn't affect much and keeps the race at bay.
> > >
> > > One last note is that (at least in the SCSI case) budget is shared by
> > > all "hctx"s that have the same queue. Thus we need to make sure to
> > > kick the whole queue, not just re-run dispatching on a single "hctx".
> > >
> > > Signed-off-by: Douglas Anderson <dianders@chromium.org>
> > > ---
> > >
> > > Changes in v3:
> > > - Always kick when putting the budget.
> > > - Delay blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched() kick by 3 ms for inexact has_work().
> > > - Totally rewrote commit message.
> > >
> > > Changes in v2:
> > > - Replace ("scsi: core: Fix stall...") w/ ("blk-mq: Rerun dispatch...")
> > >
> > > block/blk-mq.h | 14 +++++++++++++-
> > > 1 file changed, 13 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
> > >
> > > diff --git a/block/blk-mq.h b/block/blk-mq.h
> > > index 10bfdfb494fa..1270505367ab 100644
> > > --- a/block/blk-mq.h
> > > +++ b/block/blk-mq.h
> > > @@ -180,12 +180,24 @@ unsigned int blk_mq_in_flight(struct request_queue *q, struct hd_struct *part);
> > > void blk_mq_in_flight_rw(struct request_queue *q, struct hd_struct *part,
> > > unsigned int inflight[2]);
> > >
> > > +#define BLK_MQ_BUDGET_DELAY 3 /* ms units */
> > > +
> > > static inline void blk_mq_put_dispatch_budget(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx)
> > > {
> > > struct request_queue *q = hctx->queue;
> > >
> > > - if (q->mq_ops->put_budget)
> > > + if (q->mq_ops->put_budget) {
> > > q->mq_ops->put_budget(hctx);
> > > +
> > > + /*
> > > + * The only time we call blk_mq_put_dispatch_budget() is if
> > > + * we released the budget without dispatching. Holding the
> > > + * budget could have blocked any "hctx"s with the same queue
> > > + * and if we didn't dispatch then there's no guarantee anyone
> > > + * will kick the queue. Kick it ourselves.
> > > + */
> > > + blk_mq_delay_run_hw_queues(q, BLK_MQ_BUDGET_DELAY);
> >
> > No, please don't do that un-conditionally we just need to re-run queue
> > when there has work to do.
>
> ...what function would you like me to call to check? The code you

At least we only need to call it in blk_mq_do_dispatch_sched() and
blk_mq_do_dispatch_ctx(), in which no request is dequeued yet. Other
callers can handle the run queue cause request has been there.

> wrote in response to v2 only checked work for the given "hctx". What
> about other "hctx" that are part of the same "queue". Are we
> guaranteed that has_work() returns the same value for all "hctx"s on
> the same "queue"?

In theory has_work() should return ture when there is work associated with
this hctx. However, some schedulers put all requests in global scheduler
queue instead of per-hctx, then this scheduler's
has_work() returns true when there is any request in scheduler queue.

> If so, why doesn't has_work() take the "queue" as a
> parameter?

In theory has_work() needs to be checked before run queue, however this
code path should be called very unusually, so it is fine to just run all
hctxs.

Thanks,
Ming

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