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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 1/3] block/diskstats: more accurate approximation of io_ticks for slow disks
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On 25/03/2020 09.28, Konstantin Khlebnikov wrote:
>
>
> On 25/03/2020 06.40, Ming Lei wrote:
>> On Tue, Mar 24, 2020 at 10:06:56PM +0800, Ming Lei wrote:
>>> On Tue, Mar 24, 2020 at 09:39:40AM +0300, Konstantin Khlebnikov wrote:
>>>> Currently io_ticks is approximated by adding one at each start and end of
>>>> requests if jiffies counter has changed. This works perfectly for requests
>>>> shorter than a jiffy or if one of requests starts/ends at each jiffy.
>>>>
>>>> If disk executes just one request at a time and they are longer than two
>>>> jiffies then only first and last jiffies will be accounted.
>>>>
>>>> Fix is simple: at the end of request add up into io_ticks jiffies passed
>>>> since last update rather than just one jiffy.
>>>>
>>>> Example: common HDD executes random read 4k requests around 12ms.
>>>>
>>>> fio --name=test --filename=/dev/sdb --rw=randread --direct=1 --runtime=30 &
>>>> iostat -x 10 sdb
>>>>
>>>> Note changes of iostat's "%util" 8,43% -> 99,99% before/after patch:
>>>>
>>>> Before:
>>>>
>>>> Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s    rkB/s    wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
>>>> sdb               0,00     0,00   82,60    0,00   330,40     0,00     8,00     0,96   12,09   12,09    0,00   1,02   8,43
>>>>
>>>> After:
>>>>
>>>> Device:         rrqm/s   wrqm/s     r/s     w/s    rkB/s    wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz   await r_await w_await  svctm  %util
>>>> sdb               0,00     0,00   82,50    0,00   330,00     0,00     8,00     1,00   12,10   12,10    0,00  12,12  99,99
>>>>
>>>> For load estimation "%util" is not as useful as average queue length,
>>>> but it clearly shows how often disk queue is completely empty.
>>>>
>>>> Fixes: 5b18b5a73760 ("block: delete part_round_stats and switch to less precise counting")
>>>> Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <khlebnikov@yandex-team.ru>
>>>> ---
>>>>   Documentation/admin-guide/iostats.rst |    5 ++++-
>>>>   block/bio.c                           |    8 ++++----
>>>>   block/blk-core.c                      |    4 ++--
>>>>   include/linux/genhd.h                 |    2 +-
>>>>   4 files changed, 11 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
>>>>
>>>> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/iostats.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/iostats.rst
>>>> index df5b8345c41d..9b14b0c2c9c4 100644
>>>> --- a/Documentation/admin-guide/iostats.rst
>>>> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/iostats.rst
>>>> @@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ Field 10 -- # of milliseconds spent doing I/Os (unsigned int)
>>>>       Since 5.0 this field counts jiffies when at least one request was
>>>>       started or completed. If request runs more than 2 jiffies then some
>>>> -    I/O time will not be accounted unless there are other requests.
>>>> +    I/O time might be not accounted in case of concurrent requests.
>>>>   Field 11 -- weighted # of milliseconds spent doing I/Os (unsigned int)
>>>>       This field is incremented at each I/O start, I/O completion, I/O
>>>> @@ -143,6 +143,9 @@ are summed (possibly overflowing the unsigned long variable they are
>>>>   summed to) and the result given to the user.  There is no convenient
>>>>   user interface for accessing the per-CPU counters themselves.
>>>> +Since 4.19 request times are measured with nanoseconds precision and
>>>> +truncated to milliseconds before showing in this interface.
>>>> +
>>>>   Disks vs Partitions
>>>>   -------------------
>>>> diff --git a/block/bio.c b/block/bio.c
>>>> index 0985f3422556..b1053eb7af37 100644
>>>> --- a/block/bio.c
>>>> +++ b/block/bio.c
>>>> @@ -1762,14 +1762,14 @@ void bio_check_pages_dirty(struct bio *bio)
>>>>       schedule_work(&bio_dirty_work);
>>>>   }
>>>> -void update_io_ticks(struct hd_struct *part, unsigned long now)
>>>> +void update_io_ticks(struct hd_struct *part, unsigned long now, bool end)
>>>>   {
>>>>       unsigned long stamp;
>>>>   again:
>>>>       stamp = READ_ONCE(part->stamp);
>>>>       if (unlikely(stamp != now)) {
>>>>           if (likely(cmpxchg(&part->stamp, stamp, now) == stamp)) {
>>>> -            __part_stat_add(part, io_ticks, 1);
>>>> +            __part_stat_add(part, io_ticks, end ? now - stamp : 1);
>>>>           }
>>>>       }
>>>>       if (part->partno) {
>>>> @@ -1785,7 +1785,7 @@ void generic_start_io_acct(struct request_queue *q, int op,
>>>>       part_stat_lock();
>>>> -    update_io_ticks(part, jiffies);
>>>> +    update_io_ticks(part, jiffies, false);
>>>>       part_stat_inc(part, ios[sgrp]);
>>>>       part_stat_add(part, sectors[sgrp], sectors);
>>>>       part_inc_in_flight(q, part, op_is_write(op));
>>>> @@ -1803,7 +1803,7 @@ void generic_end_io_acct(struct request_queue *q, int req_op,
>>>>       part_stat_lock();
>>>> -    update_io_ticks(part, now);
>>>> +    update_io_ticks(part, now, true);
>>>>       part_stat_add(part, nsecs[sgrp], jiffies_to_nsecs(duration));
>>>>       part_stat_add(part, time_in_queue, duration);
>>>>       part_dec_in_flight(q, part, op_is_write(req_op));
>>>> diff --git a/block/blk-core.c b/block/blk-core.c
>>>> index abfdcf81a228..4401b30a1751 100644
>>>> --- a/block/blk-core.c
>>>> +++ b/block/blk-core.c
>>>> @@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@ void blk_account_io_done(struct request *req, u64 now)
>>>>           part_stat_lock();
>>>>           part = req->part;
>>>> -        update_io_ticks(part, jiffies);
>>>> +        update_io_ticks(part, jiffies, true);
>>>>           part_stat_inc(part, ios[sgrp]);
>>>>           part_stat_add(part, nsecs[sgrp], now - req->start_time_ns);
>>>>           part_stat_add(part, time_in_queue, nsecs_to_jiffies64(now - req->start_time_ns));
>>>> @@ -1379,7 +1379,7 @@ void blk_account_io_start(struct request *rq, bool new_io)
>>>>           rq->part = part;
>>>>       }
>>>> -    update_io_ticks(part, jiffies);
>>>> +    update_io_ticks(part, jiffies, false);
>>>>       part_stat_unlock();
>>>>   }
>>>> diff --git a/include/linux/genhd.h b/include/linux/genhd.h
>>>> index d5c75df64bba..f1066f10b062 100644
>>>> --- a/include/linux/genhd.h
>>>> +++ b/include/linux/genhd.h
>>>> @@ -467,7 +467,7 @@ static inline void free_part_info(struct hd_struct *part)
>>>>       kfree(part->info);
>>>>   }
>>>> -void update_io_ticks(struct hd_struct *part, unsigned long now);
>>>> +void update_io_ticks(struct hd_struct *part, unsigned long now, bool end);
>>>>   /* block/genhd.c */
>>>>   extern void device_add_disk(struct device *parent, struct gendisk *disk,
>>>>
>>>
>>> Looks fine:
>>>
>>> Reviewed-by: Ming Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
>>
>> BTW, there is still some gap(%65 vs. 99%) between this fix and the original
>> accounting(before applying Mike/Mikulas's 7 patches), and it might be
>> one thing to improve in future.
>>
>> 1) test, sda is single queue virtio-scsi, which is emulated by one HDD
>> image
>>
>> 2) fio test script:
>> fio --direct=1 --size=128G --bsrange=4k-4k \
>>         --runtime=20 --numjobs=1 \
>>         --ioengine=libaio --iodepth=16 \
>>         --iodepth_batch_submit=16 \
>>         --iodepth_batch_complete_min=16 \
>>         --group_reporting=1 --filename=/dev/sda \
>>         --name=seq-test --rw=read
>>
>> 3) result:
>> - v5.6-rc with this patch
>> Run status group 0 (all jobs):
>>     READ: bw=79.4MiB/s (83.3MB/s), 79.4MiB/s-79.4MiB/s (83.3MB/s-83.3MB/s), io=155
>> 88MiB (1665MB), run=20001-20001msec
>>
>> Disk stats (read/write):
>>    sda: ios=25039/0, merge=375596/0, ticks=18823/0, in_queue=4330, util=99.43%
>>
>>
>> - commit 112f158f66cb (which is previous commit of 5b18b5a73760)
>> Run status group 0 (all jobs):
>>     READ: bw=81.4MiB/s (85.3MB/s), 81.4MiB/s-81.4MiB/s (85.3MB/s-85.3MB/s), io=166
>> 28MiB (1707MB), run=20001-20001msec
>>
>> Disk stats (read/write):
>>    sda: ios=25749/0, merge=386236/0, ticks=17963/0, in_queue=12976, util=65.20%
>>

Oh, no. Your result is opposite.

Well, 99.43% with this patch is actually more correct result:
every millisecond there is at least one request in disk.

Old code sampled in-flight at start and end of each request, not regularly every jiffy.
And accounted whole jiffy as inactive if in-flight currently is zero.
This way statistics was biased to samples where queue is empty.

>
> Yep, my patch guarantees correct time only for queue-depth=1
> it accounts jiffies between start -> end (and end -> end).
> For queue-depth > 1 jiffies between start -> start are still lost.
>
> Without exact counter for in-flight requests we cannot distinguish
> cases start -> start and end -> start
>
> All  we could could is smoothing statistics even more and
> account all short gaps as activity:
>
> --- a/block/bio.c
> +++ b/block/bio.c
> @@ -1769,6 +1769,7 @@ void update_io_ticks(struct hd_struct *part, unsigned long now, bool end)
>         stamp = READ_ONCE(part->stamp);
>         if (unlikely(stamp != now)) {
>                 if (likely(cmpxchg(&part->stamp, stamp, now) == stamp)) {
> +                       end |= time_before(now, stamp + HZ / 100);
>                         __part_stat_add(part, io_ticks, end ? now - stamp : 1);
>                 }
>         }
>
>
>>
>> Thanks,
>> Ming
>>

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