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SubjectRe: [PATCH 3/3] arm64: tlb: skip tlbi broadcast
On Sun, Feb 23, 2020 at 02:25:20PM -0500, Andrea Arcangeli wrote:
> With multiple NUMA nodes and multiple sockets, the tlbi broadcast
> shall be delivered through the interconnects in turn increasing the
> CPU interconnect traffic and the latency of the tlbi broadcast
> instruction. To avoid the synchronous delivery of the tlbi broadcast
> before the tlbi instruction can be retired, the hardware would need to
> implement a replicated mm_cpumask bitflag for each ASID and every CPU
> would need to tell every other CPU which ASID is being loaded. Exactly
> what x86 does with mm_cpumask in software.
>
> Even within a single NUMA node the latency of the tlbi broadcast
> instruction increases almost linearly with the number of CPUs trying
> to send tlbi broadcasts at the same time.
>
> If a single thread of the process is running and it's also running in
> the CPU issuing the TLB flush, or if no thread of the process are
> running, we can achieve full SMP scalability in the arm64 TLB flushng
> by skipping the tlbi broadcasting.
>
> After the local TLB flush this means the ASID context goes out of sync
> in all CPUs except the local one. This can be tracked on the per-mm
> cpumask: if the bit is set it means the ASID context is stale for that
> CPU. This results in an extra local ASID TLB flush only when threads
> are running in new CPUs after a TLB flush.
>
> Skipping the tlbi instruction broadcasting is already implemented in
> local_flush_tlb_all(), this patch only extends it to flush_tlb_mm(),
> flush_tlb_range() and flush_tlb_page() too.
>
> The below benchmarks are measured on a non-NUMA 32 CPUs system (ARMv8
> Ampere), so it should be far from a worst case scenario: the
> enterprise kernel config allows multiple NUMA nodes with NR_CPUS set
> by default to 4096.
>
> === stock ===
>
> # cat for-each-cpu.sh
> #!/bin/bash
>
> for i in $(seq `nproc`); do
> "$@" &>/dev/null &
> done
> wait
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./for-each-cpu.sh ./mprotect-threaded 10000
> [..]
> 2.1696 +- 0.0122 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.56% )
>
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./for-each-cpu.sh ./gperftools/tcmalloc_large_heap_fragmentation_unittest
> [..]
> 0.99018 +- 0.00360 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.36% )
>
> # cat sort-compute
> #!/bin/bash
>
> for x in `seq 256`; do
> for i in `seq 32`; do /usr/bin/sort </usr/bin/sort >/dev/null; done &
> done
> wait
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./sort-compute
> [..]
> 1.8094 +- 0.0139 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.77% )
>
> === patch applied ===
>
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./for-each-cpu.sh ./mprotect-threaded 10000
> [..]
> 0.13941 +- 0.00449 seconds time elapsed ( +- 3.22% )
>
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./for-each-cpu.sh ./gperftools/tcmalloc_large_heap_fragmentation_unittest
> [..]
> 0.90510 +- 0.00262 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.29% )
>
> # perf stat -r 10 -e dummy ./sort-compute
> [..]
> 1.64025 +- 0.00618 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.38% )
>
> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
> ---
> arch/arm64/include/asm/efi.h | 2 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h | 4 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h | 33 ++++++++--
> arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h | 95 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
> arch/arm64/mm/context.c | 54 ++++++++++++++++
> 5 files changed, 177 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/efi.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/efi.h
> index 44531a69d32b..5d9a1433d918 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/efi.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/efi.h
> @@ -131,7 +131,7 @@ static inline void efifb_setup_from_dmi(struct screen_info *si, const char *opt)
>
> static inline void efi_set_pgd(struct mm_struct *mm)
> {
> - __switch_mm(mm);
> + __switch_mm(mm, smp_processor_id());
>
> if (system_uses_ttbr0_pan()) {
> if (mm != current->active_mm) {
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h
> index e4d862420bb4..9072fd7bc5f8 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu.h
> @@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ typedef struct {
> atomic64_t id;
> void *vdso;
> unsigned long flags;
> + atomic_t nr_active_mm;
> } mm_context_t;
>
> /*
> @@ -27,7 +28,8 @@ typedef struct {
> * ASID change and therefore doesn't need to reload the counter using
> * atomic64_read.
> */
> -#define ASID(mm) ((mm)->context.id.counter & 0xffff)
> +#define __ASID(asid) ((asid) & 0xffff)
> +#define ASID(mm) __ASID((mm)->context.id.counter)
>
> extern bool arm64_use_ng_mappings;
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> index 3827ff4040a3..9c66fe317e2f 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/mmu_context.h
> @@ -175,7 +175,10 @@ static inline void cpu_replace_ttbr1(pgd_t *pgdp)
> #define destroy_context(mm) do { } while(0)
> void check_and_switch_context(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu);
>
> -#define init_new_context(tsk,mm) ({ atomic64_set(&(mm)->context.id, 0); 0; })
> +#define init_new_context(tsk,mm) \
> + ({ atomic64_set(&(mm)->context.id, 0); \
> + atomic_set(&(mm)->context.nr_active_mm, 0); \
> + 0; })
>
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_SW_TTBR0_PAN
> static inline void update_saved_ttbr0(struct task_struct *tsk,
> @@ -203,6 +206,15 @@ static inline void update_saved_ttbr0(struct task_struct *tsk,
> static inline void
> enter_lazy_tlb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct task_struct *tsk)
> {
> + unsigned int cpu = smp_processor_id();
> + if (per_cpu(cpu_not_lazy_tlb, cpu) &&
> + is_idle_task(tsk)) {
> + per_cpu(cpu_not_lazy_tlb, cpu) = false;
> + if (!system_uses_ttbr0_pan())
> + cpu_set_reserved_ttbr0();
> + atomic_dec(&mm->context.nr_active_mm);
> + }
> + VM_WARN_ON(atomic_read(&mm->context.nr_active_mm) < 0);
> /*
> * We don't actually care about the ttbr0 mapping, so point it at the
> * zero page.
> @@ -210,10 +222,8 @@ enter_lazy_tlb(struct mm_struct *mm, struct task_struct *tsk)
> update_saved_ttbr0(tsk, &init_mm);
> }
>
> -static inline void __switch_mm(struct mm_struct *next)
> +static inline void __switch_mm(struct mm_struct *next, unsigned int cpu)
> {
> - unsigned int cpu = smp_processor_id();
> -
> /*
> * init_mm.pgd does not contain any user mappings and it is always
> * active for kernel addresses in TTBR1. Just set the reserved TTBR0.
> @@ -230,8 +240,19 @@ static inline void
> switch_mm(struct mm_struct *prev, struct mm_struct *next,
> struct task_struct *tsk)
> {
> - if (prev != next)
> - __switch_mm(next);
> + unsigned int cpu = smp_processor_id();
> +
> + if (!per_cpu(cpu_not_lazy_tlb, cpu)) {
> + per_cpu(cpu_not_lazy_tlb, cpu) = true;
> + atomic_inc(&next->context.nr_active_mm);
> + __switch_mm(next, cpu);
> + } else if (prev != next) {
> + atomic_inc(&next->context.nr_active_mm);
> + __switch_mm(next, cpu);
> + atomic_dec(&prev->context.nr_active_mm);
> + }
> + VM_WARN_ON(!atomic_read(&next->context.nr_active_mm));
> + VM_WARN_ON(atomic_read(&prev->context.nr_active_mm) < 0);
>
> /*
> * Update the saved TTBR0_EL1 of the scheduled-in task as the previous
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> index bc3949064725..0bd987ff9cbd 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
> @@ -136,6 +136,15 @@ static inline void local_flush_tlb_all(void)
> isb();
> }
>
> +static inline void local_flush_tlb_asid(unsigned long asid)
> +{
> + asid = __TLBI_VADDR(0, __ASID(asid));
> + dsb(nshst);
> + __tlbi(aside1, asid);
> + __tlbi_user(aside1, asid);
> + dsb(nsh);
> +}
> +
> static inline void flush_tlb_all(void)
> {
> dsb(ishst);
> @@ -144,9 +153,38 @@ static inline void flush_tlb_all(void)
> isb();
> }
>
> +DECLARE_PER_CPU(bool, cpu_not_lazy_tlb);
> +
> +enum tlb_flush_types {
> + TLB_FLUSH_NO,
> + TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL,
> + TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST,
> +};
> +extern enum tlb_flush_types tlb_flush_check(struct mm_struct *mm,
> + unsigned int cpu);
> +
> static inline void flush_tlb_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
> {
> unsigned long asid = __TLBI_VADDR(0, ASID(mm));
> + enum tlb_flush_types flush;
> +
> + flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
> + switch (flush) {
> + case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
> +
> + dsb(nshst);
> + __tlbi(aside1, asid);
> + __tlbi_user(aside1, asid);
> + dsb(nsh);
> +
> + /* fall through */
> + case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
> + put_cpu();
> + return;
> + case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
> + break;
> + }
> + put_cpu();
>
> dsb(ishst);
> __tlbi(aside1is, asid);
> @@ -167,7 +205,31 @@ static inline void flush_tlb_page_nosync(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> static inline void flush_tlb_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> unsigned long uaddr)
> {
> - flush_tlb_page_nosync(vma, uaddr);
> + struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
> + unsigned long addr = __TLBI_VADDR(uaddr, ASID(mm));
> + enum tlb_flush_types flush;
> +
> + flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
> + switch (flush) {
> + case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
> +
> + dsb(nshst);
> + __tlbi(vale1, addr);
> + __tlbi_user(vale1, addr);
> + dsb(nsh);
> +
> + /* fall through */
> + case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
> + put_cpu();
> + return;
> + case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
> + break;
> + }
> + put_cpu();
> +
> + dsb(ishst);
> + __tlbi(vale1is, addr);
> + __tlbi_user(vale1is, addr);
> dsb(ish);
> }
>
> @@ -181,14 +243,16 @@ static inline void __flush_tlb_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> unsigned long start, unsigned long end,
> unsigned long stride, bool last_level)
> {
> - unsigned long asid = ASID(vma->vm_mm);
> + struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
> + unsigned long asid = ASID(mm);
> unsigned long addr;
> + enum tlb_flush_types flush;
>
> start = round_down(start, stride);
> end = round_up(end, stride);
>
> if ((end - start) >= (MAX_TLBI_OPS * stride)) {
> - flush_tlb_mm(vma->vm_mm);
> + flush_tlb_mm(mm);
> return;
> }
>
> @@ -198,6 +262,31 @@ static inline void __flush_tlb_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
> start = __TLBI_VADDR(start, asid);
> end = __TLBI_VADDR(end, asid);
>
> + flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
> + switch (flush) {
> + case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
> +
> + dsb(nshst);
> + for (addr = start; addr < end; addr += stride) {
> + if (last_level) {
> + __tlbi(vale1, addr);
> + __tlbi_user(vale1, addr);
> + } else {
> + __tlbi(vae1, addr);
> + __tlbi_user(vae1, addr);
> + }
> + }
> + dsb(nsh);
> +
> + /* fall through */
> + case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
> + put_cpu();
> + return;
> + case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
> + break;
> + }
> + put_cpu();
> +
> dsb(ishst);
> for (addr = start; addr < end; addr += stride) {
> if (last_level) {
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/mm/context.c b/arch/arm64/mm/context.c
> index 8ef73e89d514..3152b7f7da12 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/mm/context.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/mm/context.c
> @@ -25,6 +25,7 @@ static unsigned long *asid_map;
> static DEFINE_PER_CPU(atomic64_t, active_asids);
> static DEFINE_PER_CPU(u64, reserved_asids);
> static cpumask_t tlb_flush_pending;
> +DEFINE_PER_CPU(bool, cpu_not_lazy_tlb);
>
> #define ASID_MASK (~GENMASK(asid_bits - 1, 0))
> #define ASID_FIRST_VERSION (1UL << asid_bits)
> @@ -191,6 +192,12 @@ static u64 new_context(struct mm_struct *mm)
> set_asid:
> __set_bit(asid, asid_map);
> cur_idx = asid;
> + /*
> + * check_and_switch_context() will change the ASID of this mm
> + * so no need of extra ASID local TLB flushes: the new ASID
> + * isn't stale anymore after the tlb_flush_pending was set.
> + */
> + cpumask_clear(mm_cpumask(mm));
> return idx2asid(asid) | generation;
> }
>
> @@ -240,6 +247,15 @@ void check_and_switch_context(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cpu_asid_lock, flags);
>
> switch_mm_fastpath:
> + /*
> + * Enforce CPU ordering between the atomic_inc(nr_active_mm)
> + * in switch_mm() and the below cpumask_test_cpu(mm_cpumask).
> + */
> + smp_mb();
> + if (cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(mm))) {
> + cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, mm_cpumask(mm));
> + local_flush_tlb_asid(asid);
> + }
>
> arm64_apply_bp_hardening();
>
> @@ -251,6 +267,44 @@ void check_and_switch_context(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> cpu_switch_mm(mm->pgd, mm);
> }
>
> +enum tlb_flush_types tlb_flush_check(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned int cpu)
> +{
> + if (atomic_read(&mm->context.nr_active_mm) <= 1) {
> + bool is_local = current->active_mm == mm &&
> + per_cpu(cpu_not_lazy_tlb, cpu);
> + cpumask_t *stale_cpumask = mm_cpumask(mm);
> + unsigned int next_zero = cpumask_next_zero(-1, stale_cpumask);
> + bool local_is_clear = false;
> + if (next_zero < nr_cpu_ids &&
> + (is_local && next_zero == cpu)) {
> + next_zero = cpumask_next_zero(next_zero, stale_cpumask);
> + local_is_clear = true;
> + }
> + if (next_zero < nr_cpu_ids) {
> + cpumask_setall(stale_cpumask);
> + local_is_clear = false;
> + }
> +
> + /*
> + * Enforce CPU ordering between the above
> + * cpumask_setall(mm_cpumask) and the below
> + * atomic_read(nr_active_mm).
> + */
> + smp_mb();
> +
> + if (likely(atomic_read(&mm->context.nr_active_mm)) <= 1) {
> + if (is_local) {
> + if (!local_is_clear)
> + cpumask_clear_cpu(cpu, stale_cpumask);
> + return TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL;
> + }
> + if (atomic_read(&mm->context.nr_active_mm) == 0)
> + return TLB_FLUSH_NO;
> + }
> + }
> + return TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST;
> +}
> +
> /* Errata workaround post TTBRx_EL1 update. */
> asmlinkage void post_ttbr_update_workaround(void)
> {


May I suggest the following (cosmetic) changes to this
patch?

I'm testing these changes against RHEL integration + regression
tests, and I'll also run them against a specially crafted test
to measure the impact on task-switching, if any. (I'll report back,
soon)

Cheers!
Rafael
--


diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
index bb73f02bef28..14eceba302bc 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
+++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/tlbflush.h
@@ -182,25 +182,21 @@ static inline void flush_tlb_mm(struct mm_struct *mm)
flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
switch (flush) {
case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
-
dsb(nshst);
__tlbi(aside1, asid);
__tlbi_user(aside1, asid);
dsb(nsh);
-
/* fall through */
case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
- put_cpu();
- return;
+ break;
case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
+ dsb(ishst);
+ __tlbi(aside1is, asid);
+ __tlbi_user(aside1is, asid);
+ dsb(ish);
break;
}
put_cpu();
-
- dsb(ishst);
- __tlbi(aside1is, asid);
- __tlbi_user(aside1is, asid);
- dsb(ish);
}

static inline void flush_tlb_page_nosync(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
@@ -223,25 +219,21 @@ static inline void flush_tlb_page(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
switch (flush) {
case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
-
dsb(nshst);
__tlbi(vale1, addr);
__tlbi_user(vale1, addr);
dsb(nsh);
-
/* fall through */
case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
- put_cpu();
- return;
+ break;
case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
+ dsb(ishst);
+ __tlbi(vale1is, addr);
+ __tlbi_user(vale1is, addr);
+ dsb(ish);
break;
}
put_cpu();
-
- dsb(ishst);
- __tlbi(vale1is, addr);
- __tlbi_user(vale1is, addr);
- dsb(ish);
}

/*
@@ -276,7 +268,6 @@ static inline void __flush_tlb_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
flush = tlb_flush_check(mm, get_cpu());
switch (flush) {
case TLB_FLUSH_LOCAL:
-
dsb(nshst);
for (addr = start; addr < end; addr += stride) {
if (last_level) {
@@ -288,27 +279,24 @@ static inline void __flush_tlb_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
}
}
dsb(nsh);
-
/* fall through */
case TLB_FLUSH_NO:
- put_cpu();
- return;
+ break;
case TLB_FLUSH_BROADCAST:
+ dsb(ishst);
+ for (addr = start; addr < end; addr += stride) {
+ if (last_level) {
+ __tlbi(vale1is, addr);
+ __tlbi_user(vale1is, addr);
+ } else {
+ __tlbi(vae1is, addr);
+ __tlbi_user(vae1is, addr);
+ }
+ }
+ dsb(ish);
break;
}
put_cpu();
-
- dsb(ishst);
- for (addr = start; addr < end; addr += stride) {
- if (last_level) {
- __tlbi(vale1is, addr);
- __tlbi_user(vale1is, addr);
- } else {
- __tlbi(vae1is, addr);
- __tlbi_user(vae1is, addr);
- }
- }
- dsb(ish);
}

static inline void flush_tlb_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
\
 
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