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SubjectRe: [PATCHv2] exec: Fix a deadlock in ptrace
Bernd Edlinger <bernd.edlinger@hotmail.de> writes:

> This fixes a deadlock in the tracer when tracing a multi-threaded
> application that calls execve while more than one thread are running.
>
> I observed that when running strace on the gcc test suite, it always
> blocks after a while, when expect calls execve, because other threads
> have to be terminated. They send ptrace events, but the strace is no
> longer able to respond, since it is blocked in vm_access.
>
> The deadlock is always happening when strace needs to access the
> tracees process mmap, while another thread in the tracee starts to
> execve a child process, but that cannot continue until the
> PTRACE_EVENT_EXIT is handled and the WIFEXITED event is received:

I think your patch works, but I don't think to solve your case another
mutex is necessary. Possibly it is justified, but I hesitate to
introduce yet another concept in the code.

Having read elsewhere in the thread that this does not solve the problem
Oleg has mentioned I am really hesitant to add more complexity to the
situation.


For your case there is a straight forward and local workaround.

When the current task is ptracing the target task don't bother with
cred_gaurd_mutex and ptrace_may_access in access_mm as those tests
have already passed. Instead just confirm the ptrace status. AKA
the permission check in ptraces_access_vm.

I think something like this is all we need.

diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index cee89229606a..b0ab98c84589 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -1224,6 +1224,16 @@ struct mm_struct *mm_access(struct task_struct *task, unsigned int mode)
struct mm_struct *mm;
int err;

+ if (task->ptrace && (current == task->parent)) {
+ mm = get_task_mm(task);
+ if ((get_dumpable(mm) != SUID_DUMP_USER) &&
+ !ptracer_capable(task, mm->user_ns)) {
+ mmput(mm);
+ mm = ERR_PTR(-EACCESS);
+ }
+ return mm;
+ }
+
err = mutex_lock_killable(&task->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
if (err)
return ERR_PTR(err);
Does this solve your test case?

The patch above is short the approriate locking for the ptrace attached
check. (tasklist_lock I think). But is enough to illustrate the idea,
and it is probably a check we want in any event so that if the tracer
starts dropping privileges process_vm_readv and process_vm_writev will
still be usable by the tracer.

Eric


> strace D 0 30614 30584 0x00000000
> Call Trace:
> __schedule+0x3ce/0x6e0
> schedule+0x5c/0xd0
> schedule_preempt_disabled+0x15/0x20
> __mutex_lock.isra.13+0x1ec/0x520
> __mutex_lock_killable_slowpath+0x13/0x20
> mutex_lock_killable+0x28/0x30
> mm_access+0x27/0xa0
> process_vm_rw_core.isra.3+0xff/0x550
> process_vm_rw+0xdd/0xf0
> __x64_sys_process_vm_readv+0x31/0x40
> do_syscall_64+0x64/0x220
> entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44/0xa9
>
> expect D 0 31933 30876 0x80004003
> Call Trace:
> __schedule+0x3ce/0x6e0
> schedule+0x5c/0xd0
> flush_old_exec+0xc4/0x770
> load_elf_binary+0x35a/0x16c0
> search_binary_handler+0x97/0x1d0
> __do_execve_file.isra.40+0x5d4/0x8a0
> __x64_sys_execve+0x49/0x60
> do_syscall_64+0x64/0x220
> entry_SYSCALL_64_after_hwframe+0x44/0xa9
>
> The proposed solution is to have a second mutex that is
> used in mm_access, so it is allowed to continue while the
> dying threads are not yet terminated.
>
> I also took the opportunity to improve the documentation
> of prepare_creds, which is obviously out of sync.
>
> Signed-off-by: Bernd Edlinger <bernd.edlinger@hotmail.de>
> ---
> Documentation/security/credentials.rst | 18 ++++++------
> fs/exec.c | 9 ++++++
> include/linux/binfmts.h | 6 +++-
> include/linux/sched/signal.h | 1 +
> init/init_task.c | 1 +
> kernel/cred.c | 2 +-
> kernel/fork.c | 5 ++--
> mm/process_vm_access.c | 2 +-
> tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/Makefile | 4 +--
> tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/vmaccess.c | 46 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 10 files changed, 79 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/vmaccess.c
>
> v2: adds a test case which passes when this patch is applied.
>
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/security/credentials.rst b/Documentation/security/credentials.rst
> index 282e79f..c98e0a8 100644
> --- a/Documentation/security/credentials.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/security/credentials.rst
> @@ -437,9 +437,13 @@ new set of credentials by calling::
>
> struct cred *prepare_creds(void);
>
> -this locks current->cred_replace_mutex and then allocates and constructs a
> -duplicate of the current process's credentials, returning with the mutex still
> -held if successful. It returns NULL if not successful (out of memory).
> +this allocates and constructs a duplicate of the current process's credentials.
> +It returns NULL if not successful (out of memory).
> +
> +If called from __do_execve_file, the mutex current->signal->cred_guard_mutex
> +is acquired before this function gets called, and the mutex
> +current->signal->cred_change_mutex is acquired later, while the credentials
> +and the process mmap are actually changed.
>
> The mutex prevents ``ptrace()`` from altering the ptrace state of a process
> while security checks on credentials construction and changing is taking place
> @@ -466,9 +470,8 @@ by calling::
>
> This will alter various aspects of the credentials and the process, giving the
> LSM a chance to do likewise, then it will use ``rcu_assign_pointer()`` to
> -actually commit the new credentials to ``current->cred``, it will release
> -``current->cred_replace_mutex`` to allow ``ptrace()`` to take place, and it
> -will notify the scheduler and others of the changes.
> +actually commit the new credentials to ``current->cred``, and it will notify
> +the scheduler and others of the changes.
>
> This function is guaranteed to return 0, so that it can be tail-called at the
> end of such functions as ``sys_setresuid()``.
> @@ -486,8 +489,7 @@ invoked::
>
> void abort_creds(struct cred *new);
>
> -This releases the lock on ``current->cred_replace_mutex`` that
> -``prepare_creds()`` got and then releases the new credentials.
> +This releases the new credentials.
>
>
> A typical credentials alteration function would look something like this::
> diff --git a/fs/exec.c b/fs/exec.c
> index 74d88da..a6884e4 100644
> --- a/fs/exec.c
> +++ b/fs/exec.c
> @@ -1266,6 +1266,12 @@ int flush_old_exec(struct linux_binprm * bprm)
> if (retval)
> goto out;
>
> + retval = mutex_lock_killable(&current->signal->cred_change_mutex);
> + if (retval)
> + goto out;
> +
> + bprm->called_flush_old_exec = 1;
> +
> /*
> * Must be called _before_ exec_mmap() as bprm->mm is
> * not visibile until then. This also enables the update
> @@ -1420,6 +1426,8 @@ static void free_bprm(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
> {
> free_arg_pages(bprm);
> if (bprm->cred) {
> + if (bprm->called_flush_old_exec)
> + mutex_unlock(&current->signal->cred_change_mutex);
> mutex_unlock(&current->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
> abort_creds(bprm->cred);
> }
> @@ -1469,6 +1477,7 @@ void install_exec_creds(struct linux_binprm *bprm)
> * credentials; any time after this it may be unlocked.
> */
> security_bprm_committed_creds(bprm);
> + mutex_unlock(&current->signal->cred_change_mutex);
> mutex_unlock(&current->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
> }
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(install_exec_creds);
> diff --git a/include/linux/binfmts.h b/include/linux/binfmts.h
> index b40fc63..2e1318b 100644
> --- a/include/linux/binfmts.h
> +++ b/include/linux/binfmts.h
> @@ -44,7 +44,11 @@ struct linux_binprm {
> * exec has happened. Used to sanitize execution environment
> * and to set AT_SECURE auxv for glibc.
> */
> - secureexec:1;
> + secureexec:1,
> + /*
> + * Set by flush_old_exec, when the cred_change_mutex is taken.
> + */
> + called_flush_old_exec:1;
> #ifdef __alpha__
> unsigned int taso:1;
> #endif
> diff --git a/include/linux/sched/signal.h b/include/linux/sched/signal.h
> index 8805025..37eeabe 100644
> --- a/include/linux/sched/signal.h
> +++ b/include/linux/sched/signal.h
> @@ -225,6 +225,7 @@ struct signal_struct {
> struct mutex cred_guard_mutex; /* guard against foreign influences on
> * credential calculations
> * (notably. ptrace) */
> + struct mutex cred_change_mutex; /* guard against credentials change */
> } __randomize_layout;
>
> /*
> diff --git a/init/init_task.c b/init/init_task.c
> index 9e5cbe5..6cd9a0f 100644
> --- a/init/init_task.c
> +++ b/init/init_task.c
> @@ -26,6 +26,7 @@
> .multiprocess = HLIST_HEAD_INIT,
> .rlim = INIT_RLIMITS,
> .cred_guard_mutex = __MUTEX_INITIALIZER(init_signals.cred_guard_mutex),
> + .cred_change_mutex = __MUTEX_INITIALIZER(init_signals.cred_change_mutex),
> #ifdef CONFIG_POSIX_TIMERS
> .posix_timers = LIST_HEAD_INIT(init_signals.posix_timers),
> .cputimer = {
> diff --git a/kernel/cred.c b/kernel/cred.c
> index 809a985..e4c78de 100644
> --- a/kernel/cred.c
> +++ b/kernel/cred.c
> @@ -676,7 +676,7 @@ void __init cred_init(void)
> *
> * Returns the new credentials or NULL if out of memory.
> *
> - * Does not take, and does not return holding current->cred_replace_mutex.
> + * Does not take, and does not return holding ->cred_guard_mutex.
> */
> struct cred *prepare_kernel_cred(struct task_struct *daemon)
> {
> diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
> index 0808095..0395154 100644
> --- a/kernel/fork.c
> +++ b/kernel/fork.c
> @@ -1224,7 +1224,7 @@ struct mm_struct *mm_access(struct task_struct *task, unsigned int mode)
> struct mm_struct *mm;
> int err;
>
> - err = mutex_lock_killable(&task->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
> + err = mutex_lock_killable(&task->signal->cred_change_mutex);
> if (err)
> return ERR_PTR(err);
>
> @@ -1234,7 +1234,7 @@ struct mm_struct *mm_access(struct task_struct *task, unsigned int mode)
> mmput(mm);
> mm = ERR_PTR(-EACCES);
> }
> - mutex_unlock(&task->signal->cred_guard_mutex);
> + mutex_unlock(&task->signal->cred_change_mutex);
>
> return mm;
> }
> @@ -1594,6 +1594,7 @@ static int copy_signal(unsigned long clone_flags, struct task_struct *tsk)
> sig->oom_score_adj_min = current->signal->oom_score_adj_min;
>
> mutex_init(&sig->cred_guard_mutex);
> + mutex_init(&sig->cred_change_mutex);
>
> return 0;
> }
> diff --git a/mm/process_vm_access.c b/mm/process_vm_access.c
> index 357aa7b..b3e6eb5 100644
> --- a/mm/process_vm_access.c
> +++ b/mm/process_vm_access.c
> @@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ static ssize_t process_vm_rw_core(pid_t pid, struct iov_iter *iter,
> if (!mm || IS_ERR(mm)) {
> rc = IS_ERR(mm) ? PTR_ERR(mm) : -ESRCH;
> /*
> - * Explicitly map EACCES to EPERM as EPERM is a more a
> + * Explicitly map EACCES to EPERM as EPERM is a more
> * appropriate error code for process_vw_readv/writev
> */
> if (rc == -EACCES)
> diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/Makefile b/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/Makefile
> index c0b7f89..2f1f532 100644
> --- a/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/Makefile
> +++ b/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/Makefile
> @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
> # SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-only
> -CFLAGS += -iquote../../../../include/uapi -Wall
> +CFLAGS += -std=c99 -pthread -iquote../../../../include/uapi -Wall
>
> -TEST_GEN_PROGS := get_syscall_info peeksiginfo
> +TEST_GEN_PROGS := get_syscall_info peeksiginfo vmaccess
>
> include ../lib.mk
> diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/vmaccess.c b/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/vmaccess.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..ef08c9f
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/tools/testing/selftests/ptrace/vmaccess.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
> +// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
> +/*
> + * Copyright (c) 2020 Bernd Edlinger <bernd.edlinger@hotmail.de>
> + * All rights reserved.
> + *
> + * Check whether /proc/$pid/mem can be accessed without causing deadlocks
> + * when de_thread is blocked with ->cred_guard_mutex held.
> + */
> +
> +#include "../kselftest_harness.h"
> +#include <stdio.h>
> +#include <fcntl.h>
> +#include <pthread.h>
> +#include <signal.h>
> +#include <unistd.h>
> +#include <sys/ptrace.h>
> +
> +static void *thread(void *arg)
> +{
> + ptrace(PTRACE_TRACEME, 0, 0, 0);
> + return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +TEST(vmaccess)
> +{
> + int f, pid = fork();
> + char mm[64];
> +
> + if (!pid) {
> + pthread_t pt;
> + pthread_create(&pt, NULL, thread, NULL);
> + pthread_join(pt, NULL);
> + execlp("true", "true", NULL);
> + }
> +
> + sleep(1);
> + sprintf(mm, "/proc/%d/mem", pid);
> + f = open(mm, O_RDONLY);
> + ASSERT_LE(0, f)
> + close(f);
> + /* this is not fixed! ptrace(PTRACE_ATTACH, pid, 0,0); */
> + f = kill(pid, SIGCONT);
> + ASSERT_EQ(0, f);
> +}
> +
> +TEST_HARNESS_MAIN

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