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Subject[PATCH v8 07/16] init: lto: ensure initcall ordering
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With LTO, the compiler doesn't necessarily obey the link order for
initcalls, and initcall variables need globally unique names to avoid
collisions at link time.

This change exports __KBUILD_MODNAME and adds the initcall_id() macro,
which uses it together with __COUNTER__ and __LINE__ to help ensure
these variables have unique names, and moves each variable to its own
section when LTO is enabled, so the correct order can be specified using
a linker script.

The generate_initcall_ordering.pl script uses nm to find initcalls from
the object files passed to the linker, and generates a linker script
that specifies the same order for initcalls that we would have without
LTO. With LTO enabled, the script is called in link-vmlinux.sh through
jobserver-exec to limit the number of jobs spawned.

Signed-off-by: Sami Tolvanen <samitolvanen@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
---
include/linux/init.h | 52 +++++-
scripts/Makefile.lib | 6 +-
scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl | 270 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
scripts/link-vmlinux.sh | 15 ++
4 files changed, 334 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
create mode 100755 scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl

diff --git a/include/linux/init.h b/include/linux/init.h
index 7b53cb3092ee..d466bea7ecba 100644
--- a/include/linux/init.h
+++ b/include/linux/init.h
@@ -184,19 +184,57 @@ extern bool initcall_debug;
* as KEEP() in the linker script.
*/

+/* Format: <modname>__<counter>_<line>_<fn> */
+#define __initcall_id(fn) \
+ __PASTE(__KBUILD_MODNAME, \
+ __PASTE(__, \
+ __PASTE(__COUNTER__, \
+ __PASTE(_, \
+ __PASTE(__LINE__, \
+ __PASTE(_, fn))))))
+
+/* Format: __<prefix>__<iid><id> */
+#define __initcall_name(prefix, __iid, id) \
+ __PASTE(__, \
+ __PASTE(prefix, \
+ __PASTE(__, \
+ __PASTE(__iid, id))))
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_LTO_CLANG
+/*
+ * With LTO, the compiler doesn't necessarily obey link order for
+ * initcalls. In order to preserve the correct order, we add each
+ * variable into its own section and generate a linker script (in
+ * scripts/link-vmlinux.sh) to specify the order of the sections.
+ */
+#define __initcall_section(__sec, __iid) \
+ #__sec ".init.." #__iid
+#else
+#define __initcall_section(__sec, __iid) \
+ #__sec ".init"
+#endif
+
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_PREL32_RELOCATIONS
-#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
+#define ____define_initcall(fn, __name, __sec) \
__ADDRESSABLE(fn) \
- asm(".section \"" #__sec ".init\", \"a\" \n" \
- "__initcall_" #fn #id ": \n" \
+ asm(".section \"" __sec "\", \"a\" \n" \
+ __stringify(__name) ": \n" \
".long " #fn " - . \n" \
".previous \n");
#else
-#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
- static initcall_t __initcall_##fn##id __used \
- __attribute__((__section__(#__sec ".init"))) = fn;
+#define ____define_initcall(fn, __name, __sec) \
+ static initcall_t __name __used \
+ __attribute__((__section__(__sec))) = fn;
#endif

+#define __unique_initcall(fn, id, __sec, __iid) \
+ ____define_initcall(fn, \
+ __initcall_name(initcall, __iid, id), \
+ __initcall_section(__sec, __iid))
+
+#define ___define_initcall(fn, id, __sec) \
+ __unique_initcall(fn, id, __sec, __initcall_id(fn))
+
#define __define_initcall(fn, id) ___define_initcall(fn, id, .initcall##id)

/*
@@ -236,7 +274,7 @@ extern bool initcall_debug;
#define __exitcall(fn) \
static exitcall_t __exitcall_##fn __exit_call = fn

-#define console_initcall(fn) ___define_initcall(fn,, .con_initcall)
+#define console_initcall(fn) ___define_initcall(fn, con, .con_initcall)

struct obs_kernel_param {
const char *str;
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
index 94133708889d..53aa3e18ce8a 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
@@ -117,9 +117,11 @@ target-stem = $(basename $(patsubst $(obj)/%,%,$@))
# These flags are needed for modversions and compiling, so we define them here
# $(modname_flags) defines KBUILD_MODNAME as the name of the module it will
# end up in (or would, if it gets compiled in)
-name-fix = $(call stringify,$(subst $(comma),_,$(subst -,_,$1)))
+name-fix-token = $(subst $(comma),_,$(subst -,_,$1))
+name-fix = $(call stringify,$(call name-fix-token,$1))
basename_flags = -DKBUILD_BASENAME=$(call name-fix,$(basetarget))
-modname_flags = -DKBUILD_MODNAME=$(call name-fix,$(modname))
+modname_flags = -DKBUILD_MODNAME=$(call name-fix,$(modname)) \
+ -D__KBUILD_MODNAME=kmod_$(call name-fix-token,$(modname))
modfile_flags = -DKBUILD_MODFILE=$(call stringify,$(modfile))

_c_flags = $(filter-out $(CFLAGS_REMOVE_$(target-stem).o), \
diff --git a/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl b/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl
new file mode 100755
index 000000000000..1a88d3f1b913
--- /dev/null
+++ b/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl
@@ -0,0 +1,270 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env perl
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+#
+# Generates a linker script that specifies the correct initcall order.
+#
+# Copyright (C) 2019 Google LLC
+
+use strict;
+use warnings;
+use IO::Handle;
+use IO::Select;
+use POSIX ":sys_wait_h";
+
+my $nm = $ENV{'NM'} || die "$0: ERROR: NM not set?";
+my $objtree = $ENV{'objtree'} || '.';
+
+## currently active child processes
+my $jobs = {}; # child process pid -> file handle
+## results from child processes
+my $results = {}; # object index -> [ { level, secname }, ... ]
+
+## reads _NPROCESSORS_ONLN to determine the maximum number of processes to
+## start
+sub get_online_processors {
+ open(my $fh, "getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN 2>/dev/null |")
+ or die "$0: ERROR: failed to execute getconf: $!";
+ my $procs = <$fh>;
+ close($fh);
+
+ if (!($procs =~ /^\d+$/)) {
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ return int($procs);
+}
+
+## writes results to the parent process
+## format: <file index> <initcall level> <base initcall section name>
+sub write_results {
+ my ($index, $initcalls) = @_;
+
+ # sort by the counter value to ensure the order of initcalls within
+ # each object file is correct
+ foreach my $counter (sort { $a <=> $b } keys(%{$initcalls})) {
+ my $level = $initcalls->{$counter}->{'level'};
+
+ # section name for the initcall function
+ my $secname = $initcalls->{$counter}->{'module'} . '__' .
+ $counter . '_' .
+ $initcalls->{$counter}->{'line'} . '_' .
+ $initcalls->{$counter}->{'function'};
+
+ print "$index $level $secname\n";
+ }
+}
+
+## reads a result line from a child process and adds it to the $results array
+sub read_results{
+ my ($fh) = @_;
+
+ # each child prints out a full line w/ autoflush and exits after the
+ # last line, so even if buffered I/O blocks here, it shouldn't block
+ # very long
+ my $data = <$fh>;
+
+ if (!defined($data)) {
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ chomp($data);
+
+ my ($index, $level, $secname) = $data =~
+ /^(\d+)\ ([^\ ]+)\ (.*)$/;
+
+ if (!defined($index) ||
+ !defined($level) ||
+ !defined($secname)) {
+ die "$0: ERROR: child process returned invalid data: $data\n";
+ }
+
+ $index = int($index);
+
+ if (!exists($results->{$index})) {
+ $results->{$index} = [];
+ }
+
+ push (@{$results->{$index}}, {
+ 'level' => $level,
+ 'secname' => $secname
+ });
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+## finds initcalls from an object file or all object files in an archive, and
+## writes results back to the parent process
+sub find_initcalls {
+ my ($index, $file) = @_;
+
+ die "$0: ERROR: file $file doesn't exist?" if (! -f $file);
+
+ open(my $fh, "\"$nm\" --defined-only \"$file\" 2>/dev/null |")
+ or die "$0: ERROR: failed to execute \"$nm\": $!";
+
+ my $initcalls = {};
+
+ while (<$fh>) {
+ chomp;
+
+ # check for the start of a new object file (if processing an
+ # archive)
+ my ($path)= $_ =~ /^(.+)\:$/;
+
+ if (defined($path)) {
+ write_results($index, $initcalls);
+ $initcalls = {};
+ next;
+ }
+
+ # look for an initcall
+ my ($module, $counter, $line, $symbol) = $_ =~
+ /[a-z]\s+__initcall__(\S*)__(\d+)_(\d+)_(.*)$/;
+
+ if (!defined($module)) {
+ $module = ''
+ }
+
+ if (!defined($counter) ||
+ !defined($line) ||
+ !defined($symbol)) {
+ next;
+ }
+
+ # parse initcall level
+ my ($function, $level) = $symbol =~
+ /^(.*)((early|rootfs|con|[0-9])s?)$/;
+
+ die "$0: ERROR: invalid initcall name $symbol in $file($path)"
+ if (!defined($function) || !defined($level));
+
+ $initcalls->{$counter} = {
+ 'module' => $module,
+ 'line' => $line,
+ 'function' => $function,
+ 'level' => $level,
+ };
+ }
+
+ close($fh);
+ write_results($index, $initcalls);
+}
+
+## waits for any child process to complete, reads the results, and adds them to
+## the $results array for later processing
+sub wait_for_results {
+ my ($select) = @_;
+
+ my $pid = 0;
+ do {
+ # unblock children that may have a full write buffer
+ foreach my $fh ($select->can_read(0)) {
+ read_results($fh);
+ }
+
+ # check for children that have exited, read the remaining data
+ # from them, and clean up
+ $pid = waitpid(-1, WNOHANG);
+ if ($pid > 0) {
+ if (!exists($jobs->{$pid})) {
+ next;
+ }
+
+ my $fh = $jobs->{$pid};
+ $select->remove($fh);
+
+ while (read_results($fh)) {
+ # until eof
+ }
+
+ close($fh);
+ delete($jobs->{$pid});
+ }
+ } while ($pid > 0);
+}
+
+## forks a child to process each file passed in the command line and collects
+## the results
+sub process_files {
+ my $index = 0;
+ my $njobs = $ENV{'PARALLELISM'} || get_online_processors();
+ my $select = IO::Select->new();
+
+ while (my $file = shift(@ARGV)) {
+ # fork a child process and read it's stdout
+ my $pid = open(my $fh, '-|');
+
+ if (!defined($pid)) {
+ die "$0: ERROR: failed to fork: $!";
+ } elsif ($pid) {
+ # save the child process pid and the file handle
+ $select->add($fh);
+ $jobs->{$pid} = $fh;
+ } else {
+ # in the child process
+ STDOUT->autoflush(1);
+ find_initcalls($index, "$objtree/$file");
+ exit;
+ }
+
+ $index++;
+
+ # limit the number of children to $njobs
+ if (scalar(keys(%{$jobs})) >= $njobs) {
+ wait_for_results($select);
+ }
+ }
+
+ # wait for the remaining children to complete
+ while (scalar(keys(%{$jobs})) > 0) {
+ wait_for_results($select);
+ }
+}
+
+sub generate_initcall_lds() {
+ process_files();
+
+ my $sections = {}; # level -> [ secname, ...]
+
+ # sort results to retain link order and split to sections per
+ # initcall level
+ foreach my $index (sort { $a <=> $b } keys(%{$results})) {
+ foreach my $result (@{$results->{$index}}) {
+ my $level = $result->{'level'};
+
+ if (!exists($sections->{$level})) {
+ $sections->{$level} = [];
+ }
+
+ push(@{$sections->{$level}}, $result->{'secname'});
+ }
+ }
+
+ die "$0: ERROR: no initcalls?" if (!keys(%{$sections}));
+
+ # print out a linker script that defines the order of initcalls for
+ # each level
+ print "SECTIONS {\n";
+
+ foreach my $level (sort(keys(%{$sections}))) {
+ my $section;
+
+ if ($level eq 'con') {
+ $section = '.con_initcall.init';
+ } else {
+ $section = ".initcall${level}.init";
+ }
+
+ print "\t${section} : {\n";
+
+ foreach my $secname (@{$sections->{$level}}) {
+ print "\t\t*(${section}..${secname}) ;\n";
+ }
+
+ print "\t}\n";
+ }
+
+ print "}\n";
+}
+
+generate_initcall_lds();
diff --git a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
index 78e55fe7210b..c5919d5a0b4f 100755
--- a/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
+++ b/scripts/link-vmlinux.sh
@@ -43,6 +43,17 @@ info()
fi
}

+# Generate a linker script to ensure correct ordering of initcalls.
+gen_initcalls()
+{
+ info GEN .tmp_initcalls.lds
+
+ ${PYTHON} ${srctree}/scripts/jobserver-exec \
+ ${PERL} ${srctree}/scripts/generate_initcall_order.pl \
+ ${KBUILD_VMLINUX_OBJS} ${KBUILD_VMLINUX_LIBS} \
+ > .tmp_initcalls.lds
+}
+
# If CONFIG_LTO_CLANG is selected, collect generated symbol versions into
# .tmp_symversions.lds
gen_symversions()
@@ -72,6 +83,9 @@ modpost_link()
--end-group"

if [ -n "${CONFIG_LTO_CLANG}" ]; then
+ gen_initcalls
+ lds="-T .tmp_initcalls.lds"
+
if [ -n "${CONFIG_MODVERSIONS}" ]; then
gen_symversions
lds="${lds} -T .tmp_symversions.lds"
@@ -262,6 +276,7 @@ cleanup()
{
rm -f .btf.*
rm -f .tmp_System.map
+ rm -f .tmp_initcalls.lds
rm -f .tmp_symversions.lds
rm -f .tmp_vmlinux*
rm -f System.map
--
2.29.2.576.ga3fc446d84-goog
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