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SubjectRe: [PATCH bpf-next] bpf: Make trampolines W^X
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On Wed, 2020-01-08 at 00:41 -0800, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
> > On Jan 7, 2020, at 9:01 AM, Edgecombe, Rick P <rick.p.edgecombe@intel.com>
> > wrote:
> >
> > CC Nadav and Jessica.
> >
> > On Mon, 2020-01-06 at 15:36 -1000, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
> > > > On Jan 6, 2020, at 12:25 PM, Edgecombe, Rick P <
> > > > rick.p.edgecombe@intel.com>
> > > > wrote:
> > > >
> > > > On Sat, 2020-01-04 at 09:49 +0900, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
> > > > > > > > On Jan 4, 2020, at 8:47 AM, KP Singh <kpsingh@chromium.org>
> > > > > > > > wrote:
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > From: KP Singh <kpsingh@google.com>
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > The image for the BPF trampolines is allocated with
> > > > > > > bpf_jit_alloc_exe_page which marks this allocated page executable.
> > > > > > > This
> > > > > > > means that the allocated memory is W and X at the same time making
> > > > > > > it
> > > > > > > susceptible to WX based attacks.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Since the allocated memory is shared between two trampolines (the
> > > > > > > current and the next), 2 pages must be allocated to adhere to W^X
> > > > > > > and
> > > > > > > the following sequence is obeyed where trampolines are modified:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Can we please do better rather than piling garbage on top of
> > > > > > garbage?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > - Mark memory as non executable (set_memory_nx). While
> > > > > > > module_alloc for
> > > > > > > x86 allocates the memory as PAGE_KERNEL and not PAGE_KERNEL_EXEC,
> > > > > > > not
> > > > > > > all implementations of module_alloc do so
> > > > > >
> > > > > > How about fixing this instead?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > > - Mark the memory as read/write (set_memory_rw)
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Probably harmless, but see above about fixing it.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > > - Modify the trampoline
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Seems reasonable. It’s worth noting that this whole approach is
> > > > > > suboptimal:
> > > > > > the “module” allocator should really be returning a list of pages to
> > > > > > be
> > > > > > written (not at the final address!) with the actual executable
> > > > > > mapping to
> > > > > > be
> > > > > > materialized later, but that’s a bigger project that you’re welcome
> > > > > > to
> > > > > > ignore
> > > > > > for now. (Concretely, it should produce a vmap address with backing
> > > > > > pages
> > > > > > but
> > > > > > with the vmap alias either entirely unmapped or read-only. A
> > > > > > subsequent
> > > > > > healer
> > > > > > would, all at once, make the direct map pages RO or not-present and
> > > > > > make
> > > > > > the
> > > > > > vmap alias RX.)
> > > > > > > - Mark the memory as read-only (set_memory_ro)
> > > > > > > - Mark the memory as executable (set_memory_x)
> > > > > >
> > > > > > No, thanks. There’s very little excuse for doing two IPI flushes
> > > > > > when one
> > > > > > would suffice.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > As far as I know, all architectures can do this with a single flush
> > > > > > without
> > > > > > races x86 certainly can. The module freeing code gets this sequence
> > > > > > right.
> > > > > > Please reuse its mechanism or, if needed, export the relevant
> > > > > > interfaces.
> > > >
> > > > So if I understand this right, some trampolines have been added that are
> > > > currently set as RWX at modification time AND left that way during
> > > > runtime?
> > > > The
> > > > discussion on the order of set_memory_() calls in the commit message
> > > > made me
> > > > think that this was just a modification time thing at first.
> > >
> > > I’m not sure what the status quo is.
> > >
> > > We really ought to have a genuinely good API for allocation and
> > > initialization
> > > of text. We can do so much better than set_memory_blahblah.
> > >
> > > FWIW, I have some ideas about making kernel flushes cheaper. It’s
> > > currently
> > > blocked on finding some time and on tglx’s irqtrace work.
> > >
> >
> > Makes sense to me. I guess there are 6 types of text allocations now:
> > - These two BPF trampolines
> > - BPF JITs
> > - Modules
> > - Kprobes
> > - Ftrace
> >
> > All doing (or should be doing) pretty much the same thing. I believe Jessica
> > had
> > said at one point that she didn't like all the other features using
> > module_alloc() as it was supposed to be just for real modules. Where would
> > the
> > API live?
>
> New header? This shouldn’t matter that much.
>
> Here are two strawman proposals. All of this is very rough -- the
> actual data structures and signatures are likely problematic for
> multiple reasons.
>
> --- First proposal ---
>
> struct text_allocation {
> void *final_addr;
> struct page *pages;
> int npages;
> };
>
> int text_alloc(struct text_allocation *out, size_t size);
>
> /* now final_addr is not accessible and pages is writable. */
>
> int text_freeze(struct text_allocation *alloc);
>
> /* now pages are not accessible and final_addr is RO. Alternatively,
> pages are RO and final_addr is unmapped. */
>
> int text_finish(struct text_allocation *alloc);
>
> /* now final_addr is RX. All done. */
>
> This gets it with just one flush and gives a chance to double-check in
> case of race attacks from other CPUs. Double-checking is annoying,
> though.
>
> --- Second proposal ---
>
> struct text_allocation {
> void *final_addr;
> /* lots of opaque stuff including an mm_struct */
> /* optional: list of struct page, but this isn't obviously useful */
> };
>
> int text_alloc(struct text_allocation *out, size_t size);
>
> /* Memory is allocated. There is no way to access it at all right
> now. The memory is RO or not present in the direct map. */
>
> void __user *text_activate_mapping(struct text_allocation *out);
>
> /* Now the text is RW at *user* address given by return value.
> Preemption is off if required by use_temporary_mm(). Real user memory
> cannot be accessed. */
>
> void text_deactivate_mapping(struct text_allocation *alloc);
>
> /* Now the memory is inaccessible again. */
>
> void text_finalize(struct text_allocation *alloc);
>
> /* Now it's RX or XO at the final address. */
>
>
> Pros of second approach:
>
> - Inherently immune to cross-CPU attack. No double-check.
>
> - If we ever implement a cache of non-direct-mapped, unaliased pages,
> then it works with no flushes at all. We could even relax it a bit to
> allow non-direct-mapped pages that may have RX / XO aliases but no W
> aliases.
>
> - Can easily access without worrying about page boundaries.
>
> Cons:
>
> - The use of a temporary mm is annoying -- you can't copy from user
> memory, for example.

Probably the first proposal is better for usages where there is a signature that
can be checked like modules, because you could more easily check the signature
after the text is RO. I guess leaving the direct map as RO could work for the
second option too. Both would probably require significant changes to module
signature verification though.

Just a minor point/clarification, but outside of an enhanced signed module case,
I think the cross-CPU attack mitigation can't be full. For example, attacking
the verified BPF byte code (which is apparently planned to no longer be RO), or
the pointers being loaded into these trampolines. There is always going to be
some writable source or pointer to the source, and unless there is a way to
verify the end RO result, it's an un-winnable game of whack-a-mole to do it in
full. Still the less exposed surfaces the better since the writes we are
worrying about in this case are probably not fully arbitrary.

I don't see why it would be so bad to require copying data to the kernel before
sending it through this process. Nothing copies to final allocation directly
from userspace today, and from a perf perspective, how bad is an extra copy when
we are saving TLB shootdowns? Are you thinking to protect the data that's being
loaded from other CPUs?

Otherwise, could we lazily clone/sync the original mm into the temporary one to
allow this? (possibly totally misguided idea)

FWIW, I really like the idea of a cache of unmapped or RO pages. Potentially
several optimizations we could do there.

If this API should be cross platform, we might want to abstract the copy itself
as well, since other arch's might have non __user solutions for copying data in.

Unless someone else wants to, I can probably take a look at a first cut of this
after I get the current thing I'm working on out. Probably better to let the
dust settle on the ftrace changes as well.
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