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SubjectRe: [PATCH 01/16] docs: Add documentation for MHI bus
On Thu, Jan 23, 2020 at 09:41:42AM -0700, Jeffrey Hugo wrote:
> On 1/23/2020 4:18 AM, Manivannan Sadhasivam wrote:
> > MHI (Modem Host Interface) is a communication protocol used by the
> > host processors to control and communicate with modems over a high
> > speed peripheral bus or shared memory. The MHI protocol has been
> > designed and developed by Qualcomm Innovation Center, Inc., for use
> > in their modems. This commit adds the documentation for the bus and
> > the implementation in Linux kernel.
> >
> > This is based on the patch submitted by Sujeev Dias:
> > https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/7/9/987
> >
> > Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
> > Cc: linux-doc@vger.kernel.org
> > Signed-off-by: Sujeev Dias <sdias@codeaurora.org>
> > Signed-off-by: Siddartha Mohanadoss <smohanad@codeaurora.org>
> > [mani: converted to .rst and splitted the patch]
> > Signed-off-by: Manivannan Sadhasivam <manivannan.sadhasivam@linaro.org>
> > ---
> > Documentation/index.rst | 1 +
> > Documentation/mhi/index.rst | 18 +++
> > Documentation/mhi/mhi.rst | 218 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> > Documentation/mhi/topology.rst | 60 +++++++++
> > 4 files changed, 297 insertions(+)
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/mhi/index.rst
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/mhi/mhi.rst
> > create mode 100644 Documentation/mhi/topology.rst
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
> > index e99d0bd2589d..edc9b211bbff 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/index.rst
> > +++ b/Documentation/index.rst
> > @@ -133,6 +133,7 @@ needed).
> > misc-devices/index
> > mic/index
> > scheduler/index
> > + mhi/index
> > Architecture-agnostic documentation
> > -----------------------------------
> > diff --git a/Documentation/mhi/index.rst b/Documentation/mhi/index.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..1d8dec302780
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/mhi/index.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +
> > +===
> > +MHI
> > +===
> > +
> > +.. toctree::
> > + :maxdepth: 1
> > +
> > + mhi
> > + topology
> > +
> > +.. only:: subproject and html
> > +
> > + Indices
> > + =======
> > +
> > + * :ref:`genindex`
> > diff --git a/Documentation/mhi/mhi.rst b/Documentation/mhi/mhi.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..718dbbdc7a04
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/mhi/mhi.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,218 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +
> > +==========================
> > +MHI (Modem Host Interface)
> > +==========================
> > +
> > +This document provides information about the MHI protocol.
> > +
> > +Overview
> > +========
> > +
> > +MHI is a protocol developed by Qualcomm Innovation Center, Inc., It is used
>
> The "," suggests the sentence is going to continue, yet "it" has a capitol
> "I" like its the start of a new sentence. This seems wrong to me. Perhaps
> drop that final comma?
>

Interesting find... Yes, the comma needs to be dropped :)

> > +by the host processors to control and communicate with modem devices over high
> > +speed peripheral buses or shared memory. Even though MHI can be easily adapted
> > +to any peripheral buses, it is primarily used with PCIe based devices. MHI
> > +provides logical channels over the physical buses and allows transporting the
> > +modem protocols, such as IP data packets, modem control messages, and
> > +diagnostics over at least one of those logical channels. Also, the MHI
> > +protocol provides data acknowledgment feature and manages the power state of the
> > +modems via one or more logical channels.
> > +
> > +MHI Internals
> > +=============
> > +
> > +MMIO
> > +----
> > +
> > +MMIO (Memory mapped IO) consists of a set of registers in the device hardware,
> > +which are mapped to the host memory space by the peripheral buses like PCIe.
> > +Following are the major components of MMIO register space:
> > +
> > +MHI control registers: Access to MHI configurations registers
> > +
> > +MHI BHI registers: BHI (Boot Host Interface) registers are used by the host
> > +for downloading the firmware to the device before MHI initialization.
> > +
> > +Channel Doorbell array: Channel Doorbell (DB) registers used by the host to
> > +notify the device when there is new work to do.
> > +
> > +Event Doorbell array: Associated with event context array, the Event Doorbell
> > +(DB) registers are used by the host to notify the device when new events are
> > +available.
> > +
> > +Debug registers: A set of registers and counters used by the device to expose
> > +debugging information like performance, functional, and stability to the host.
> > +
> > +Data structures
> > +---------------
> > +
> > +All data structures used by MHI are in the host system memory. Using the
> > +physical interface, the device accesses those data structures. MHI data
> > +structures and data buffers in the host system memory regions are mapped for
> > +the device.
> > +
> > +Channel context array: All channel configurations are organized in channel
> > +context data array.
> > +
> > +Transfer rings: Used by the host to schedule work items for a channel. The
> > +transfer rings are organized as a circular queue of Transfer Descriptors (TD).
> > +
> > +Event context array: All event configurations are organized in the event context
> > +data array.
> > +
> > +Event rings: Used by the device to send completion and state transition messages
> > +to the host
> > +
> > +Command context array: All command configurations are organized in command
> > +context data array.
> > +
> > +Command rings: Used by the host to send MHI commands to the device. The command
> > +rings are organized as a circular queue of Command Descriptors (CD).
> > +
> > +Channels
> > +--------
> > +
> > +MHI channels are logical, unidirectional data pipes between a host and a device.
> > +The concept of channels in MHI is similar to endpoints in USB. MHI supports up
> > +to 256 channels. However, specific device implementations may support less than
> > +the maximum number of channels allowed.
> > +
> > +Two unidirectional channels with their associated transfer rings form a
> > +bidirectional data pipe, which can be used by the upper-layer protocols to
> > +transport application data packets (such as IP packets, modem control messages,
> > +diagnostics messages, and so on). Each channel is associated with a single
> > +transfer ring.
> > +
> > +Transfer rings
> > +--------------
> > +
> > +Transfers between the host and device are organized by channels and defined by
> > +Transfer Descriptors (TD). TDs are managed through transfer rings, which are
> > +defined for each channel between the device and host and reside in the host
> > +memory. TDs consist of one or more ring elements (or transfer blocks)::
> > +
> > + [Read Pointer (RP)] ----------->[Ring Element] } TD
> > + [Write Pointer (WP)]- [Ring Element]
> > + - [Ring Element]
> > + --------->[Ring Element]
> > + [Ring Element]
> > +
> > +Below is the basic usage of transfer rings:
> > +
> > +* Host allocates memory for transfer ring.
> > +* Host sets the base pointer, read pointer, and write pointer in corresponding
> > + channel context.
> > +* Ring is considered empty when RP == WP.
> > +* Ring is considered full when WP + 1 == RP.
> > +* RP indicates the next element to be serviced by the device.
> > +* When the host has a new buffer to send, it updates the ring element with
> > + buffer information, increments the WP to the next element and rings the
> > + associated channel DB.
> > +
> > +Event rings
> > +-----------
> > +
> > +Events from the device to host are organized in event rings and defined by Event
> > +Descriptors (ED). Event rings are used by the device to report events such as
> > +data transfer completion status, command completion status, and state changes
> > +to the host. Event rings are the array of EDs that resides in the host
> > +memory. EDs consist of one or more ring elements (or transfer blocks)::
> > +
> > + [Read Pointer (RP)] ----------->[Ring Element] } ED
> > + [Write Pointer (WP)]- [Ring Element]
> > + - [Ring Element]
> > + --------->[Ring Element]
> > + [Ring Element]
> > +
> > +Below is the basic usage of event rings:
> > +
> > +* Host allocates memory for event ring.
> > +* Host sets the base pointer, read pointer, and write pointer in corresponding
> > + channel context.
> > +* Both host and device has a local copy of RP, WP.
> > +* Ring is considered empty (no events to service) when WP + 1 == RP.
> > +* Ring is considered full of events when RP == WP.
> > +* When there is a new event the device needs to send, the device updates ED
> > + pointed by RP, increments the RP to the next element and triggers the
> > + interrupt.
> > +
> > +Ring Element
> > +------------
> > +
> > +A Ring Element is a data structure used to transfer a single block
> > +of data between the host and the device. Transfer ring element types contain a
> > +single buffer pointer, the size of the buffer, and additional control
> > +information. Other ring element types may only contain control and status
> > +information. For single buffer operations, a ring descriptor is composed of a
> > +single element. For large multi-buffer operations (such as scatter and gather),
> > +elements can be chained to form a longer descriptor.
> > +
> > +MHI Operations
> > +==============
> > +
> > +MHI States
> > +----------
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_RESET
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI is in reset state after power-up or hardware reset. The host is not allowed
> > +to access device MMIO register space.
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_READY
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI is ready for initialization. The host can start MHI initialization by
> > +programming MMIO registers.
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_M0
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI is running and operational in the device. The host can start channels by
> > +issuing channel start command.
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_M1
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI operation is suspended by the device. This state is entered when the
> > +device detects inactivity at the physical interface within a preset time.
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_M2
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI is in low power state. MHI operation is suspended and the device may
> > +enter lower power mode.
> > +
> > +MHI_STATE_M3
> > +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > +MHI operation stopped by the host. This state is entered when the host suspends
> > +MHI operation.
> > +
> > +MHI Initialization
> > +------------------
> > +
> > +After system boots, the device is enumerated over the physical interface.
> > +In the case of PCIe, the device is enumerated and assigned BAR-0 for
> > +the device's MMIO register space. To initialize the MHI in a device,
> > +the host performs the following operations:
> > +
> > +* Allocates the MHI context for event, channel and command arrays.
> > +* Initializes the context array, and prepares interrupts.
> > +* Waits until the device enters READY state.
> > +* Programs MHI MMIO registers and sets device into MHI_M0 state.
> > +* Waits for the device to enter M0 state.
> > +
> > +MHI Data Transfer
> > +-----------------
> > +
> > +MHI data transfer is initiated by the host to transfer data to the device.
> > +Following are the sequence of operations performed by the host to transfer
> > +data to device:
> > +
> > +* Host prepares TD with buffer information.
> > +* Host increments the WP of the corresponding channel transfer ring.
> > +* Host rings the channel DB register.
> > +* Device wakes up to process the TD.
> > +* Device generates a completion event for the processed TD by updating ED.
> > +* Device increments the RP of the corresponding event ring.
> > +* Device triggers IRQ to wake up the host.
> > +* Host wakes up and checks the event ring for completion event.
> > +* Host updates the WP of the corresponding event ring to indicate that the
> > + data transfer has been completed successfully.
> > +
> > diff --git a/Documentation/mhi/topology.rst b/Documentation/mhi/topology.rst
> > new file mode 100644
> > index 000000000000..90d80a7f116d
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/Documentation/mhi/topology.rst
> > @@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
> > +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> > +
> > +============
> > +MHI Topology
> > +============
> > +
> > +This document provides information about the MHI topology modeling and
> > +representation in the kernel.
> > +
> > +MHI Controller
> > +--------------
> > +
> > +MHI controller driver manages the interaction with the MHI client devices
> > +such as the external modems and WiFi chipsets. It is also the MHI bus master
> > +which is in charge of managing the physical link between the host and device.
> > +It is however not involved in the actual data transfer as the data transfer
> > +is taken care by the physical bus such as PCIe. Each controller driver exposes
> > +channels and events based on the client device type.
> > +
> > +Below are the roles of the MHI controller driver:
> > +
> > +* Turns on the physical bus and establishes the link to the device
> > +* Configures IRQs, SMMU, and IOMEM
>
> I'd recommend changing SMMU to IOMMU. SMMU tends to be an ARM specific
> term, while IOMMU is the generic term, in my experience.
>

Ack.

Thanks a lot for the review!

Regards,
Mani

> > +* Allocates struct mhi_controller and registers with the MHI bus framework
> > + with channel and event configurations using mhi_register_controller.
> > +* Initiates power on and shutdown sequence
> > +* Initiates suspend and resume power management operations of the device.
> > +
> > +MHI Device
> > +----------
> > +
> > +MHI device is the logical device which binds to a maximum of two MHI channels
> > +for bi-directional communication. Once MHI is in powered on state, the MHI
> > +core will create MHI devices based on the channel configuration exposed
> > +by the controller. There can be a single MHI device for each channel or for a
> > +couple of channels.
> > +
> > +Each supported device is enumerated in::
> > +
> > + /sys/bus/mhi/devices/
> > +
> > +MHI Driver
> > +----------
> > +
> > +MHI driver is the client driver which binds to one or more MHI devices. The MHI
> > +driver sends and receives the upper-layer protocol packets like IP packets,
> > +modem control messages, and diagnostics messages over MHI. The MHI core will
> > +bind the MHI devices to the MHI driver.
> > +
> > +Each supported driver is enumerated in::
> > +
> > + /sys/bus/mhi/drivers/
> > +
> > +Below are the roles of the MHI driver:
> > +
> > +* Registers the driver with the MHI bus framework using mhi_driver_register.
> > +* Prepares the device for transfer by calling mhi_prepare_for_transfer.
> > +* Initiates data transfer by calling mhi_queue_transfer.
> > +* Once the data transfer is finished, calls mhi_unprepare_from_transfer to
> > + end data transfer.
> >
>
>
> --
> Jeffrey Hugo
> Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. is a member of the
> Code Aurora Forum, a Linux Foundation Collaborative Project.

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