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SubjectRe: [PATCH v11 02/10] efi: Add embedded peripheral firmware support
On Tue, Jan 14, 2020 at 2:25 PM Hans de Goede <hdegoede@redhat.com> wrote:
>
> Hi Andy,
>
> Thank you for your feedback.

Another Andy is here.
Sorry for the summary at the top of letter, I left below specifically
for Sakari to have a bit of context.

Sakari, do you know if IPU firmware is going to utilize something like
touchscreen devices?

Hans, I am completely in favour of more generic approach with less
quirks applied.
For now the burden on PDx86, from maintenance perspective, is not big,
we may survive.

>
> On 12-01-2020 23:45, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
> > On Sat, Jan 11, 2020 at 6:57 AM Hans de Goede <hdegoede@redhat.com> wrote:
> >>
> >> Just like with PCI options ROMs, which we save in the setup_efi_pci*
> >> functions from arch/x86/boot/compressed/eboot.c, the EFI code / ROM itself
> >> sometimes may contain data which is useful/necessary for peripheral drivers
> >> to have access to.
> >>
> >> Specifically the EFI code may contain an embedded copy of firmware which
> >> needs to be (re)loaded into the peripheral. Normally such firmware would be
> >> part of linux-firmware, but in some cases this is not feasible, for 2
> >> reasons:
> >>
> >> 1) The firmware is customized for a specific use-case of the chipset / use
> >> with a specific hardware model, so we cannot have a single firmware file
> >> for the chipset. E.g. touchscreen controller firmwares are compiled
> >> specifically for the hardware model they are used with, as they are
> >> calibrated for a specific model digitizer.
> >>
> >> 2) Despite repeated attempts we have failed to get permission to
> >> redistribute the firmware. This is especially a problem with customized
> >> firmwares, these get created by the chip vendor for a specific ODM and the
> >> copyright may partially belong with the ODM, so the chip vendor cannot
> >> give a blanket permission to distribute these.
> >>
> >> This commit adds support for finding peripheral firmware embedded in the
> >> EFI code and makes the found firmware available through the new
> >> efi_get_embedded_fw() function.
> >>
> >> Support for loading these firmwares through the standard firmware loading
> >> mechanism is added in a follow-up commit in this patch-series.
> >>
> >> Note we check the EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE for embedded firmware near the end
> >> of start_kernel(), just before calling rest_init(), this is on purpose
> >> because the typical EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE memory-segment is too large for
> >> early_memremap(), so the check must be done after mm_init(). This relies
> >> on EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE not being free-ed until efi_free_boot_services()
> >> is called, which means that this will only work on x86 for now.
> >>
> >
> > A couple general comments:
> >
> > How does this interact with modules? It looks like you're referencing
> > the dmi table from otherwise modular or potentially modular code in
> > early EFI code, which seems like it will either prevent modular builds
> > or will actually fail at compile time depending on config. Perhaps
> > you should have a single collection of EFI firmware references in a
> > separate place in the kernel tree and reference *that* from the EFI
> > code.
>
> You are right that this currently relies on the DMI tables
> added to the embedded_fw_table[] being built in.
>
> There currently really only is one (niche) group of X86 devices which
> benefit from this patch-set. On some cheap X86 tablets and 2-in-1s
> cheap touchscreen controllers are used which do not have their
> (model specific) firmware in (p)ROM instead it needs to be loaded
> by the touchscreen driver. We load the firmware using a model-specific
> firmware filename through the standard firmware loading mechanism.
> This is painful for end users of such devices, since they need to get
> the firmware from somewhere (despite repeated tries we do not
> have redistribution rights to put them in linux-firmware).
>
> Dave Olsthoorn pointed out to me that on his device model the touchscreen
> worked in Refind, so there is an EFI driver for it, so the firmware should
> be somewhere in the EFI firmware addressspace. That resulted in this
> patch-set which will make the touchscreen work OOTB on devices where
> the firmware is embedded in the UEFI code somewhere.
>
> So (for now) this new mechanism is only used by a small niche
> group of devices.
>
> The X86 devices which these touchscreens already need a bunch of
> device model specific metadata, like the model specific firmware
> filename and also the resolution of the touchscreen, orientation, etc.
>
> We already have a "driver" which adds this info to the device
> during enumeration using device-properties:
> drivers/platform/x86/touchscreen_dmi.c
>
> This code already is builtin as it needs to add a bus-notifier
> before i2c bus enumeration to be able to add the device-properties
> before the devices are proped (it uses an arch_initcall).
>
> So here we already have a dmi_system_id table with matches for
> all devices in our small niche group. The current mechanism
> where a driver "registers" its dmi_system_id table in the
> embedded_fw_table[] table is based on this use-case.
>
> This avoids needing to duplicate the dmi-match strings in 2
> places and allows us keeping all the info related to a
> touchscreen in a single place, e.g. the entry for the Cube
> iWorks 8 air looks like this:
>
> static const struct property_entry cube_iwork8_air_props[] = {
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_U32("touchscreen-min-x", 1),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_U32("touchscreen-min-y", 3),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_U32("touchscreen-size-x", 1664),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_U32("touchscreen-size-y", 896),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_BOOL("touchscreen-swapped-x-y"),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_STRING("firmware-name", "gsl3670-cube-iwork8-air.fw"),
> PROPERTY_ENTRY_U32("silead,max-fingers", 10),
> { }
> };
>
> static const struct ts_dmi_data cube_iwork8_air_data = {
> .embedded_fw = {
> .name = "silead/gsl3670-cube-iwork8-air.fw",
> .prefix = { 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 },
> .length = 38808,
> .sha256 = { 0xff, 0x62, 0x2d, 0xd1, 0x8a, 0x78, 0x04, 0x7b,
> 0x33, 0x06, 0xb0, 0x4f, 0x7f, 0x02, 0x08, 0x9c,
> 0x96, 0xd4, 0x9f, 0x04, 0xe1, 0x47, 0x25, 0x25,
> 0x60, 0x77, 0x41, 0x33, 0xeb, 0x12, 0x82, 0xfc },
> },
> .acpi_name = "MSSL1680:00",
> .properties = cube_iwork8_air_props,
> };
>
> And then the driver_data for the DMI match for this device
> points to cube_iwork8_air_data.
>
> For now doing it this way makes more sense IMHO then duplicating the
> DMI matches inside drivers/firmware/efi/embedded-firmware.c and
> putting the embedded_fw info there, where the rest of the info
> lives in drivers/platform/x86/touchscreen_dmi.c.
>
> This is all internal kernel API (not even exported to modules) so
> if more users of the EFI-embedded-fw mechanism show up and this is a
> poor fit for them, then we can re-evaluate this.
>
> Also note that the drivers/platform/x86/touchscreen_dmi.c sees a number
> of commits each kernel cycle, keeping the churn for adding touchscreen
> info for new device models located to 1 file also is a good thing
> about the current approach. So far the drivers/platform/x86 maintainers
> have not complained about the churn being concentrated there...
>
> > In the event you have many DMI matches (e.g. if anyone ends up using
> > this in a case where the DMI match has to match very broad things),
> > you'll iterate over the EFI code and data multiple times and
> > performance will suck. It would be much better to iterate once and
> > search for everything.
>
> As I said this is targeting a small niche group of X86 device models,
> so this is very much optimized for there being zero DMI matches and
> since all the touchscreen info is model specific we use narrow DMI
> matches up to matching the exact BIOS version and/or date when the
> other DMI info is too generic.
>
> And since ATM touchscreen drivers are the only user there should
> never be more then 1 DMI match. Note this is also assumed in
> the code, it only calls dmi_first_match() once on each registered
> dmi_system_id table and ATM we only have 0 or 1 registered
> dmi_system_id tables.
>
> Even if we get more use of this the chances of 1 device model using
> more then 1 embedded fw are small. Where as if we first map the
> EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE segment before doing the DMI match then we
> do this for all EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE segments on all hardware.
> The current implementation is very much optimized to do as little
> work as possible when there is no DMI match, which will be true
> on almost all devices out there.
>
> > I suspect that a rolling hash would be better than the prefix you're
> > using, but this could be changed later, assuming someone can actually
> > find all the firmware needed.
> >
> >> +static int __init efi_check_md_for_embedded_firmware(
> >> + efi_memory_desc_t *md, const struct efi_embedded_fw_desc *desc)
> >> +{
> >> + const u64 prefix = *((u64 *)desc->prefix);
> >> + struct sha256_state sctx;
> >> + struct efi_embedded_fw *fw;
> >> + u8 sha256[32];
> >> + u64 i, size;
> >> + void *map;
> >> +
> >> + size = md->num_pages << EFI_PAGE_SHIFT;
> >> + map = memremap(md->phys_addr, size, MEMREMAP_WB);
> >> + if (!map) {
> >> + pr_err("Error mapping EFI mem at %#llx\n", md->phys_addr);
> >> + return -ENOMEM;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + for (i = 0; (i + desc->length) <= size; i += 8) {
> >> + u64 *mem = map + i;
> >> +
> >> + if (*mem != prefix)
> >> + continue;
> >
> > This is very ugly. You're casting a pointer to a bunch of bytes to
> > u64* and then dereferencing it like it's an integer. This has major
> > endian issues with are offset by the similar endianness issues when
> > you type-pun prefix to u64. You should instead just memcmp the
> > pointer with the data. This will get rid of all the type punning in
> > this function.
>
> Ok, I will switch to memcmp for the next version.
>
> > You will also fail to detect firmware that isn't
> > 8-byte-aligned.
>
> This is by design, currently being 8 byte aligned holds true for
> all devices on which this is used, also see the kdoc added in
> "[PATCH v11 04/10] firmware: Add new platform fallback mechanism and firmware_request_platform()"
>
> Specifically:
>
> +EFI embedded firmware fallback mechanism
> +========================================
> +
> +On some devices the system's EFI code / ROM may contain an embedded copy
> +of firmware for some of the system's integrated peripheral devices and
> +the peripheral's Linux device-driver needs to access this firmware.
> +
> +Device drivers which need such firmware can use the
> +firmware_request_platform() function for this, note that this is a
> +separate fallback mechanism from the other fallback mechanisms and
> +this does not use the sysfs interface.
> +
> +A device driver which needs this can describe the firmware it needs
> +using an efi_embedded_fw_desc struct:
> +
> +.. kernel-doc:: include/linux/efi_embedded_fw.h
> + :functions: efi_embedded_fw_desc
> +
> +The EFI embedded-fw code works by scanning all EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE memory
> +segments for an eight byte sequence matching prefix; if the prefix is found it
> +then does a sha256 over length bytes and if that matches makes a copy of length
> +bytes and adds that to its list with found firmwares.
> +
> +To avoid doing this somewhat expensive scan on all systems, dmi matching is
> +used. Drivers are expected to export a dmi_system_id array, with each entries'
> +driver_data pointing to an efi_embedded_fw_desc.
> +
> +To register this array with the efi-embedded-fw code, a driver needs to:
> +
> +1. Always be builtin to the kernel or store the dmi_system_id array in a
> + separate object file which always gets builtin.
> +
> +2. Add an extern declaration for the dmi_system_id array to
> + include/linux/efi_embedded_fw.h.
> +
> +3. Add the dmi_system_id array to the embedded_fw_table in
> + drivers/firmware/efi/embedded-firmware.c wrapped in a #ifdef testing that
> + the driver is being builtin.
> +
> +4. Add "select EFI_EMBEDDED_FIRMWARE if EFI_STUB" to its Kconfig entry.
> +
> +The firmware_request_platform() function will always first try to load firmware
> +with the specified name directly from the disk, so the EFI embedded-fw can
> +always be overridden by placing a file under /lib/firmware.
> +
> +Note that:
> +
> +1. The code scanning for EFI embedded-firmware runs near the end
> + of start_kernel(), just before calling rest_init(). For normal drivers and
> + subsystems using subsys_initcall() to register themselves this does not
> + matter. This means that code running earlier cannot use EFI
> + embedded-firmware.
> +
> +2. At the moment the EFI embedded-fw code assumes that firmwares always start at
> + an offset which is a multiple of 8 bytes, if this is not true for your case
> + send in a patch to fix this.
>
>
> Note this also documents your concern about the dmi_system_id
> table needing to be builtin.
>
> > So perhaps just use memmem() to replace this whole mess?
>
> If we hit firmware which is not 8 byte aligned, then yes that would be
> a good idea, but for now I feel that that would just cause a slowdown
> in the scanning without any benefits.
>
> >> +
> >> + sha256_init(&sctx);
> >> + sha256_update(&sctx, map + i, desc->length);
> >> + sha256_final(&sctx, sha256);
> >> + if (memcmp(sha256, desc->sha256, 32) == 0)
> >> + break;
> >> + }
> >> + if ((i + desc->length) > size) {
> >> + memunmap(map);
> >> + return -ENOENT;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + pr_info("Found EFI embedded fw '%s'\n", desc->name);
> >> +
> >
> > It might be nice to also log which EFI section it was in?
>
> The EFI sections do not have names, so all I could is log
> the section number which does not really feel useful?
>
> >> + fw = kmalloc(sizeof(*fw), GFP_KERNEL);
> >> + if (!fw) {
> >> + memunmap(map);
> >> + return -ENOMEM;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + fw->data = kmemdup(map + i, desc->length, GFP_KERNEL);
> >> + memunmap(map);
> >> + if (!fw->data) {
> >> + kfree(fw);
> >> + return -ENOMEM;
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + fw->name = desc->name;
> >> + fw->length = desc->length;
> >> + list_add(&fw->list, &efi_embedded_fw_list);
> >> +
> >
> > If you actually copy the firmware name instead of just a pointer to
> > it, then you could potentially free the list of EFI firmwares.
>
> If we move to having a separate dmi_system_id table for this then
> that would be true. ATM the dmi_system_id from
> drivers/platform/x86/touchscreen_dmi.c
> is not freed as it is referenced from a bus-notifier.
>
> > Why are you copying the firmware into linear (kmemdup) memory here
>
> The kmemdup is because the EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE section is
> free-ed almost immediately after we run.
>
> > just to copy it to vmalloc space down below...
>
> The vmalloc is because the efi_get_embedded_fw() function is
> a helper for later implementing firmware_Request_platform
> which returns a struct firmware *fw and release_firmware()
> uses vfree() to free the firmware contents.
>
> I guess we could have efi_get_embedded_fw() return an const u8 *
> and have the firmware code do the vmalloc + memcpy but it boils
> down to the same thing.
>
>
> >
> >> + return 0;
> >> +}
> >> +
> >> +void __init efi_check_for_embedded_firmwares(void)
> >> +{
> >> + const struct efi_embedded_fw_desc *fw_desc;
> >> + const struct dmi_system_id *dmi_id;
> >> + efi_memory_desc_t *md;
> >> + int i, r;
> >> +
> >> + for (i = 0; embedded_fw_table[i]; i++) {
> >> + dmi_id = dmi_first_match(embedded_fw_table[i]);
> >> + if (!dmi_id)
> >> + continue;
> >> +
> >> + fw_desc = dmi_id->driver_data;
> >> +
> >> + /*
> >> + * In some drivers the struct driver_data contains may contain
> >> + * other driver specific data after the fw_desc struct; and
> >> + * the fw_desc struct itself may be empty, skip these.
> >> + */
> >> + if (!fw_desc->name)
> >> + continue;
> >> +
> >> + for_each_efi_memory_desc(md) {
> >> + if (md->type != EFI_BOOT_SERVICES_CODE)
> >> + continue;
> >> +
> >> + r = efi_check_md_for_embedded_firmware(md, fw_desc);
> >> + if (r == 0)
> >> + break;
> >> + }
> >> + }
> >> +
> >> + checked_for_fw = true;
> >> +}
> >
> > Have you measured how long this takes on a typical system per matching DMI id?
>
> I originally wrote this approx. 18 months ago, it has been on hold for a while
> since it needed a sha256 method which would work before subsys_initcall-s
> run so I couldn't use the standard crypto_alloc_shash() stuff. In the end
> I ended up merging the duplicate purgatory and crypto/sha256_generic.c
> generic C SHA256 implementation into a set of new directly callable lib
> functions in lib/crypto/sha256.c, just so that I could move forward with
> this...
>
> Anyways the reason for this background info is that because this is a while
> ago I do not remember exactly how, but yes I did measure this (but not
> very scientifically) and there was no discernible difference in boot
> to init (from the initrd) with this in place vs without this.
>
> >> +
> >> +int efi_get_embedded_fw(const char *name, void **data, size_t *size)
> >> +{
> >> + struct efi_embedded_fw *iter, *fw = NULL;
> >> + void *buf = *data;
> >> +
> >> + if (!checked_for_fw) {
> >
> > WARN_ON_ONCE? A stack dump would be quite nice here.
>
> As discussed when this check was added (discussion in v7 of
> the set I guess, check added in v8) we can also hit this without
> it being a bug, e.g. when booted through kexec the whole
> efi_check_for_embedded_firmwares() call we be skipped, hence the
> pr_warn.
>
>
> >> + buf = vmalloc(fw->length);
> >> + if (!buf)
> >> + return -ENOMEM;
> >> +
> >> + memcpy(buf, fw->data, fw->length);
> >> + *size = fw->length;
> >> + *data = buf;
> >
> > See above. What's vmalloc() for? Where's the vfree()?
>
> See above for my answer. I'm fine with moving this into the
> firmware code, since that is where the matching vfree is, please
> let me know how you want to proceed with this.
>
> > BTW, it would be very nice to have a straightforward way
> > (/sys/kernel/debug/efi_firmware/[name]?) to dump all found firmwares.
>
> That is an interesting idea, we could add a subsys_init call or
> some such to add this to debugfs (efi_check_for_embedded_firmwares runs
> too early).
>
> But given how long this patch-set has been in the making I would really
> like to get this (or at least the first 2 patches as a start) upstream,
> so for now I would like to keep the changes to a minimum. Are you ok
> with me adding the debugfs support with a follow-up patch ?
>
> Let me also reply to your summary comment elsewhere in the thread here:
>
> > Early in boot, you check a bunch of firmware descriptors, bundled with
> > drivers, to search EFI code and data for firmware before you free said
> > code and data. You catalogue it by name. Later on, you use this list
> > as a fallback, again catalogued by name. I think it would be rather
> > nicer if you simply had a list in a single file containing all these
> > descriptors rather than commingling it with the driver's internal dmi
> > data. This gets rid of all the ifdeffery and module issues. It also
> > avoids any potential nastiness when you have a dmi entry that contains
> > driver_data that points into the driver when the driver is a module.
> >
> > And you can mark the entire list __initdata. And you can easily (now
> > or later on) invert the code flow so you map each EFI region exactly
> > once and then search for all the firmware in it.
>
> I believe we have mostly discussed this above. At least for the
> X86 touchscreen case, which is the only user of this for now, I
> believe that re-using the table from drivers/platform/x86/touchscreen_dmi.c
> is better as it avoids duplication of DMI strings and it keeps all
> the info in one place (also avoiding churn in 2 files / 2 different
> trees when new models are added).
>
> I agree that when looking at this as a generic mechanism which may be
> used elsewhere, your suggestion makes a lot of sense. But even though
> this is very much written so that it can be used as a generic mechanism
> I'm not sure if other users will appear. So for now, with only the X86
> touchscreen use-case actually using this I believe the current
> implementation is best, but I'm definitely open to changing this around
> if more users show up.
>
> Regards,
>
> Hans
>


--
With Best Regards,
Andy Shevchenko

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