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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3] tracing: Function stack size and its name mismatch in arm64
On Fri, Aug 02, 2019 at 11:22:59AM -0400, Steven Rostedt wrote:
[snip]
> > There is not PC in ARM64 stack, LR is used to for walk_stackframe in
> > ARM64. Tere is no the issue in ARM32 because there is PC in ARM32 stack.
> > PC is used to calculate the stack size in trace_stack.c, so the
> > function name and its stack size appear to be off-by-one.
> > ARM64 stack layout:
> > LR
> > FP
> > ......
> > LR
> > FP
> > ......
>
> I think you are not explaining the issue correctly. From looking at the
> document, I think what you want to say is that the LR is saved *after*
> the data for the function. Is that correct? If so, then yes, it would
> cause the stack tracing algorithm to be incorrect.
>
> Most archs do this:
>
> On entry to a function:
>
> save return address
> reserve local variables and such for current function
>
> I think you are saying that arm64 does this backwards.
>
> reserve local variables and such for current function
> save return address (LR)

Actually for arm64 it is like what you said about 'Most archs'. It saves FP
and LR first onto the current stack frame, then assigns the top of the stack
to FP (marking the new frame). Then executes branch-link, and then allocates
space to variables on stack in the callee.

Disassembly of prog:

int foo(int x, int y) {
int a[32];
return (x + y + a[31]);
}

int bar(void) {
foo(1, 2);
}

confirms it:

000000000000073c <bar>:
73c: a9bf7bfd stp x29, x30, [sp, #-16]! <-- save FP and LR
740: 910003fd mov x29, sp <-- create new FP
744: 52800041 mov w1, #0x2 <-- pass arguments
748: 52800020 mov w0, #0x1
74c: 97fffff4 bl 71c <foo> <-- branch (sets LR)
750: d503201f nop
754: a8c17bfd ldp x29, x30, [sp], #16 <-- restore FP, LR
758: d65f03c0 ret

000000000000071c <foo>:
71c: d10243ff sub sp, sp, #0x90 <-- space for local var
720: b9000fe0 str w0, [sp, #12]
724: b9000be1 str w1, [sp, #8]
728: b9400fe1 ldr w1, [sp, #12]
72c: b9400be0 ldr w0, [sp, #8]
730: 0b000021 add w1, w1, w0
734: b9408fe0 ldr w0, [sp, #140]
738: 0b000020 add w0, w1, w0
73c: 910243ff add sp, sp, #0x90 <-- restore sp before ret
740: d65f03c0 ret

thanks,

- Joel


> For normal archs, we usually have something like this:
>
> sys_call_entry:
> [save regs and crap on stack ]
> bl sys_finit_module
> sys_call_entry+x:
> [ here's the address put into the lr regsister ]
>
> sys_finit_module:
> save lr on stack [syscall_entry+x]
> save more stuff on stack
> [..]
> bl load_module
> sys_finit_module+y:
>
> load_module:
> save lr on stack [sys_finit_module+y]
> save more stuff on stack
> [..]
> bl do_init_module
> load_module+z:
>
> do_init_module:
> save lr on stack [load_module+z]
> [ let's say we do the stack trace here! ]
>
> On the stack we have:
>
> data for kernel entry
> sys_call_entry+x [ lr saved in sys_finit_module ]
> data for sys_finit_module
> sys_finit_module+y [ lr saved in load_module ]
> data for load_module
> load_module+z [ lr saved in do_init_module
>
> When we call stack_trace_save() we get:
>
> sys_call_entry+x
> sys_finit_module+y
> load_module+z
>
> We then find those locations on the stack. Let's add some numbers here:
>
> 0: top of stack
> data for kernel entry
> 504: sys_call_entry+x
> data for sys_finit_module
> 856: sys_finit_module+y
> data for sys_load_module
> 904: load_module+z
> 1048: BOTTOM OF STACK HERE
>
> To do the work, we start from the bottom of the stack, looking for what
> was returned from the stack_trace_save
>
> start = 1048
> *p == load_module+z
> stack size = 1048 - 904
>
> Then we say load_module stack size is 144.
>
> What you are describing doesn't make any sense. Yes, we all add LR to
> the stack, not the PC! But if the issue is that the LR is saved *after*
> the function data, then that *will* make a difference. We then have:
>
>
> sys_call_entry:
> [save regs and crap on stack ]
> bl sys_finit_module
> sys_call_entry+x:
> [ here's the address put into the lr regsister ]
>
> sys_finit_module:
> save sys_finit_module stuff on stack
> save lr on stack [syscall_entry+x] <-- reversed order from before!
> [..]
> bl load_module
> sys_finit_module+y:
>
> load_module:
> save load_module stuff on stack
> save lr on stack [sys_finit_module+y]
> [..]
> bl do_init_module
> load_module+z:
>
> do_init_module:
> [ let's say we do the stack trace here! ]
>
> On the stack we have:
>
> data for sys_call_entry
> data for sys_finit_module
> sys_call_entry+x [ lr saved in sys_finit_module ]
> data for load_module
> sys_finit_module+y [ lr saved in load_module ]
> data for do_init_module
> load_module+z [ lr saved in do_init_module
>
> This also brings up the question of when the mcount is called?
>
> We get the same data from stack_trace_save():
>
> sys_call_entry+x
> sys_finit_module+y
> load_module+z
>
> But this time, the stack is different!
>
> 0: top of stack
> data from kernel entry
> data for sys_call_entry
> data for sys_finit_module
> 504: sys_call_entry+x
> data for sys_finit_module
> 856: sys_finit_module+y
> data for load_module
> 904: load_module+z
> data for do_init_module?
> 1048: BOTTOM OF STACK HERE
>
> So yes, the same algorithm is will come up with the wrong result,
> because...
>
> start = 1048
> *p == load_module+z
> stack size = 1048 - 904
>
> We just calculated the size of data for do_init_module, and not for
> load_module!
>
> Can someone confirm that this is the real issue?
>
> -- Steve
>
>
> >
> > Wrong info:
> > Depth Size Location (16 entries)
> > ----- ---- --------
> > 0) 5400 16 __update_load_avg_se.isra.2+0x28/0x220
> > 1) 5384 96 put_prev_entity+0x250/0x338
> > 2) 5288 80 pick_next_task_fair+0x4c4/0x508
> > 3) 5208 72 __schedule+0x100/0x600
> > 4) 5136 184 preempt_schedule_common+0x28/0x48
> > 5) 4952 32 preempt_schedule+0x28/0x30
> > 6) 4920 16 vprintk_emit+0x170/0x1f8
> > 7) 4904 128 vprintk_default+0x48/0x58
> > 8) 4776 64 vprintk_func+0xf8/0x1c8
> > 9) 4712 112 printk+0x70/0x90
> > 10) 4600 176 occupy_stack_init+0x64/0xc0 [kernel_stack]
> > 11) 4424 3376 do_one_initcall+0x68/0x248
> > 12) 1048 144 do_init_module+0x60/0x1f0
> > 13) 904 48 load_module+0x1d50/0x2340
> > 14) 856 352 sys_finit_module+0xd0/0xe8
> > 15) 504 504 el0_svc_naked+0x30/0x34
> >
> > Correct info:
> > Depth Size Location (18 entries)
> > ----- ---- --------
> > 0) 5464 48 cgroup_rstat_updated+0x20/0x100
> > 1) 5416 32 cgroup_base_stat_cputime_account_end.isra.0+0x30/0x60
> > 2) 5384 32 __cgroup_account_cputime+0x3c/0x48
> > 3) 5352 64 update_curr+0xc4/0x1d0
> > 4) 5288 72 pick_next_task_fair+0x444/0x508
> > 5) 5216 184 __schedule+0x100/0x600
> > 6) 5032 32 preempt_schedule_common+0x28/0x48
> > 7) 5000 16 preempt_schedule+0x28/0x30
> > 8) 4984 128 vprintk_emit+0x170/0x1f8
> > 9) 4856 64 vprintk_default+0x48/0x58
> > 10) 4792 112 vprintk_func+0xf8/0x1c8
> > 11) 4680 176 printk+0x70/0x90
> > 12) 4504 80 func_test+0x7c/0xb8 [kernel_stack]
> > 13) 4424 3376 occupy_stack_init+0x7c/0xc0 [kernel_stack]
> > 14) 1048 144 do_one_initcall+0x68/0x248
> > 15) 904 48 do_init_module+0x60/0x1f0
> > 16) 856 352 load_module+0x1d50/0x2340
> > 17) 504 504 sys_finit_module+0xd0/0xe8
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Jiping Ma <jiping.ma2@windriver.com>

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