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SubjectRe: [PATCH tip/core/rcu 03/11] rcu/nocb: Provide separate no-CBs grace-period kthreads
On Thu, Aug 01, 2019 at 03:50:20PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> Currently, there is one no-CBs rcuo kthread per CPU, and these kthreads
> are divided into groups. The first rcuo kthread to come online in a
> given group is that group's leader, and the leader both waits for grace
> periods and invokes its CPU's callbacks. The non-leader rcuo kthreads
> only invoke callbacks.
>
> This works well in the real-time/embedded environments for which it was
> intended because such environments tend not to generate all that many
> callbacks. However, given huge floods of callbacks, it is possible for
> the leader kthread to be stuck invoking callbacks while its followers
> wait helplessly while their callbacks pile up. This is a good recipe
> for an OOM, and rcutorture's new callback-flood capability does generate
> such OOMs.
>
> One strategy would be to wait until such OOMs start happening in
> production, but similar OOMs have in fact happened starting in 2018.
> It would therefore be wise to take a more proactive approach.

I haven't looked much into nocbs/nohz_full stuff (yet). In particular, I did
not even know that the rcuo threads do grace period life-cycle management and
waiting, I thought only the RCU GP threads did :-/. however, it seems this is
a completely separate grace-period management state machine outside of the
RCU GP thread right?

I was wondering for this patch, could we also just have the rcuo
leader handle both callback execution and waking other non-leader threads at
the same time? So like, execute few callbacks, then do the wake up of the
non-leaders to execute their callbacks, the get back to executing their own
callbacks, etc. That way we don't need a separate rcuog thread to wait for
grace period, would that not work?

If you don't mind could you share with me a kvm.sh command (which has config,
boot parameters etc) that can produce the OOM without this patch? I'd
like to take a closer look at it.

Is there also a short answer for my the RCU GP thread cannot do the job of
these new rcuog threads?

thanks a lot,

- Joel


> This commit therefore features per-CPU rcuo kthreads that do nothing
> but invoke callbacks. Instead of having one of these kthreads act as
> leader, each group has a separate rcog kthread that handles grace periods
> for its group. Because these rcuog kthreads do not invoke callbacks,
> callback floods on one CPU no longer block callbacks from reaching the
> rcuc callback-invocation kthreads on other CPUs.
>
> This change does introduce additional kthreads, however:
>
> 1. The number of additional kthreads is about the square root of
> the number of CPUs, so that a 4096-CPU system would have only
> about 64 additional kthreads. Note that recent changes
> decreased the number of rcuo kthreads by a factor of two
> (CONFIG_PREEMPT=n) or even three (CONFIG_PREEMPT=y), so
> this still represents a significant improvement on most systems.
>
> 2. The leading "rcuo" of the rcuog kthreads should allow existing
> scripting to affinity these additional kthreads as needed, the
> same as for the rcuop and rcuos kthreads. (There are no longer
> any rcuob kthreads.)
>
> 3. A state-machine approach was considered and rejected. Although
> this would allow the rcuo kthreads to continue their dual
> leader/follower roles, it complicates callback invocation
> and makes it more difficult to consolidate rcuo callback
> invocation with existing softirq callback invocation.
>
> The introduction of rcuog kthreads should thus be acceptable.
>
> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> ---
> kernel/rcu/tree.h | 6 +-
> kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h | 115 +++++++++++++++++++--------------------
> 2 files changed, 61 insertions(+), 60 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree.h b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> index 32b3348d3a4d..dc3c53cb9608 100644
> --- a/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree.h
> @@ -200,8 +200,8 @@ struct rcu_data {
> atomic_long_t nocb_q_count_lazy; /* invocation (all stages). */
> struct rcu_head *nocb_cb_head; /* CBs ready to invoke. */
> struct rcu_head **nocb_cb_tail;
> - struct swait_queue_head nocb_wq; /* For nocb kthreads to sleep on. */
> - struct task_struct *nocb_cb_kthread;
> + struct swait_queue_head nocb_cb_wq; /* For nocb kthreads to sleep on. */
> + struct task_struct *nocb_gp_kthread;
> raw_spinlock_t nocb_lock; /* Guard following pair of fields. */
> int nocb_defer_wakeup; /* Defer wakeup of nocb_kthread. */
> struct timer_list nocb_timer; /* Enforce finite deferral. */
> @@ -211,6 +211,8 @@ struct rcu_data {
> /* CBs waiting for GP. */
> struct rcu_head **nocb_gp_tail;
> bool nocb_gp_sleep; /* Is the nocb GP thread asleep? */
> + struct swait_queue_head nocb_gp_wq; /* For nocb kthreads to sleep on. */
> + struct task_struct *nocb_cb_kthread;
> struct rcu_data *nocb_next_cb_rdp;
> /* Next rcu_data in wakeup chain. */
>
> diff --git a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> index 5a72700c3a32..c3b6493313ab 100644
> --- a/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> +++ b/kernel/rcu/tree_plugin.h
> @@ -1531,7 +1531,7 @@ static void __wake_nocb_leader(struct rcu_data *rdp, bool force,
> struct rcu_data *rdp_leader = rdp->nocb_gp_rdp;
>
> lockdep_assert_held(&rdp->nocb_lock);
> - if (!READ_ONCE(rdp_leader->nocb_cb_kthread)) {
> + if (!READ_ONCE(rdp_leader->nocb_gp_kthread)) {
> raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> return;
> }
> @@ -1541,7 +1541,7 @@ static void __wake_nocb_leader(struct rcu_data *rdp, bool force,
> del_timer(&rdp->nocb_timer);
> raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> smp_mb(); /* ->nocb_gp_sleep before swake_up_one(). */
> - swake_up_one(&rdp_leader->nocb_wq);
> + swake_up_one(&rdp_leader->nocb_gp_wq);
> } else {
> raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> }
> @@ -1646,7 +1646,7 @@ static void __call_rcu_nocb_enqueue(struct rcu_data *rdp,
> smp_mb__after_atomic(); /* Store *old_rhpp before _wake test. */
>
> /* If we are not being polled and there is a kthread, awaken it ... */
> - t = READ_ONCE(rdp->nocb_cb_kthread);
> + t = READ_ONCE(rdp->nocb_gp_kthread);
> if (rcu_nocb_poll || !t) {
> trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, rdp->cpu,
> TPS("WakeNotPoll"));
> @@ -1786,7 +1786,7 @@ static void rcu_nocb_wait_gp(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> * No-CBs GP kthreads come here to wait for additional callbacks to show up.
> * This function does not return until callbacks appear.
> */
> -static void nocb_leader_wait(struct rcu_data *my_rdp)
> +static void nocb_gp_wait(struct rcu_data *my_rdp)
> {
> bool firsttime = true;
> unsigned long flags;
> @@ -1794,12 +1794,10 @@ static void nocb_leader_wait(struct rcu_data *my_rdp)
> struct rcu_data *rdp;
> struct rcu_head **tail;
>
> -wait_again:
> -
> /* Wait for callbacks to appear. */
> if (!rcu_nocb_poll) {
> trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, my_rdp->cpu, TPS("Sleep"));
> - swait_event_interruptible_exclusive(my_rdp->nocb_wq,
> + swait_event_interruptible_exclusive(my_rdp->nocb_gp_wq,
> !READ_ONCE(my_rdp->nocb_gp_sleep));
> raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&my_rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> my_rdp->nocb_gp_sleep = true;
> @@ -1838,7 +1836,7 @@ static void nocb_leader_wait(struct rcu_data *my_rdp)
> trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, my_rdp->cpu,
> TPS("WokeEmpty"));
> }
> - goto wait_again;
> + return;
> }
>
> /* Wait for one grace period. */
> @@ -1862,34 +1860,47 @@ static void nocb_leader_wait(struct rcu_data *my_rdp)
> rdp->nocb_cb_tail = rdp->nocb_gp_tail;
> *tail = rdp->nocb_gp_head;
> raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> - if (rdp != my_rdp && tail == &rdp->nocb_cb_head) {
> + if (tail == &rdp->nocb_cb_head) {
> /* List was empty, so wake up the kthread. */
> - swake_up_one(&rdp->nocb_wq);
> + swake_up_one(&rdp->nocb_cb_wq);
> }
> }
> +}
>
> - /* If we (the GP kthreads) don't have CBs, go wait some more. */
> - if (!my_rdp->nocb_cb_head)
> - goto wait_again;
> +/*
> + * No-CBs grace-period-wait kthread. There is one of these per group
> + * of CPUs, but only once at least one CPU in that group has come online
> + * at least once since boot. This kthread checks for newly posted
> + * callbacks from any of the CPUs it is responsible for, waits for a
> + * grace period, then awakens all of the rcu_nocb_cb_kthread() instances
> + * that then have callback-invocation work to do.
> + */
> +static int rcu_nocb_gp_kthread(void *arg)
> +{
> + struct rcu_data *rdp = arg;
> +
> + for (;;)
> + nocb_gp_wait(rdp);
> + return 0;
> }
>
> /*
> * No-CBs CB kthreads come here to wait for additional callbacks to show up.
> - * This function does not return until callbacks appear.
> + * This function returns true ("keep waiting") until callbacks appear and
> + * then false ("stop waiting") when callbacks finally do appear.
> */
> -static void nocb_follower_wait(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> +static bool nocb_follower_wait(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> {
> - for (;;) {
> - trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, rdp->cpu, TPS("FollowerSleep"));
> - swait_event_interruptible_exclusive(rdp->nocb_wq,
> - READ_ONCE(rdp->nocb_cb_head));
> - if (smp_load_acquire(&rdp->nocb_cb_head)) {
> - /* ^^^ Ensure CB invocation follows _head test. */
> - return;
> - }
> - WARN_ON(signal_pending(current));
> - trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, rdp->cpu, TPS("WokeEmpty"));
> + trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, rdp->cpu, TPS("FollowerSleep"));
> + swait_event_interruptible_exclusive(rdp->nocb_cb_wq,
> + READ_ONCE(rdp->nocb_cb_head));
> + if (smp_load_acquire(&rdp->nocb_cb_head)) { /* VVV */
> + /* ^^^ Ensure CB invocation follows _head test. */
> + return false;
> }
> + WARN_ON(signal_pending(current));
> + trace_rcu_nocb_wake(rcu_state.name, rdp->cpu, TPS("WokeEmpty"));
> + return true;
> }
>
> /*
> @@ -1899,7 +1910,7 @@ static void nocb_follower_wait(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> * have to do quite so many wakeups (as in they only need to wake the
> * no-CBs GP kthreads, not the CB kthreads).
> */
> -static int rcu_nocb_kthread(void *arg)
> +static int rcu_nocb_cb_kthread(void *arg)
> {
> int c, cl;
> unsigned long flags;
> @@ -1911,10 +1922,8 @@ static int rcu_nocb_kthread(void *arg)
> /* Each pass through this loop invokes one batch of callbacks */
> for (;;) {
> /* Wait for callbacks. */
> - if (rdp->nocb_gp_rdp == rdp)
> - nocb_leader_wait(rdp);
> - else
> - nocb_follower_wait(rdp);
> + while (nocb_follower_wait(rdp))
> + continue;
>
> /* Pull the ready-to-invoke callbacks onto local list. */
> raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&rdp->nocb_lock, flags);
> @@ -2048,7 +2057,8 @@ void __init rcu_init_nohz(void)
> static void __init rcu_boot_init_nocb_percpu_data(struct rcu_data *rdp)
> {
> rdp->nocb_tail = &rdp->nocb_head;
> - init_swait_queue_head(&rdp->nocb_wq);
> + init_swait_queue_head(&rdp->nocb_cb_wq);
> + init_swait_queue_head(&rdp->nocb_gp_wq);
> rdp->nocb_cb_tail = &rdp->nocb_cb_head;
> raw_spin_lock_init(&rdp->nocb_lock);
> timer_setup(&rdp->nocb_timer, do_nocb_deferred_wakeup_timer, 0);
> @@ -2056,50 +2066,39 @@ static void __init rcu_boot_init_nocb_percpu_data(struct rcu_data *rdp)
>
> /*
> * If the specified CPU is a no-CBs CPU that does not already have its
> - * rcuo kthread, spawn it. If the CPUs are brought online out of order,
> - * this can require re-organizing the GP-CB relationships.
> + * rcuo CB kthread, spawn it. Additionally, if the rcuo GP kthread
> + * for this CPU's group has not yet been created, spawn it as well.
> */
> static void rcu_spawn_one_nocb_kthread(int cpu)
> {
> - struct rcu_data *rdp;
> - struct rcu_data *rdp_last;
> - struct rcu_data *rdp_old_leader;
> - struct rcu_data *rdp_spawn = per_cpu_ptr(&rcu_data, cpu);
> + struct rcu_data *rdp = per_cpu_ptr(&rcu_data, cpu);
> + struct rcu_data *rdp_gp;
> struct task_struct *t;
>
> /*
> * If this isn't a no-CBs CPU or if it already has an rcuo kthread,
> * then nothing to do.
> */
> - if (!rcu_is_nocb_cpu(cpu) || rdp_spawn->nocb_cb_kthread)
> + if (!rcu_is_nocb_cpu(cpu) || rdp->nocb_cb_kthread)
> return;
>
> /* If we didn't spawn the GP kthread first, reorganize! */
> - rdp_old_leader = rdp_spawn->nocb_gp_rdp;
> - if (rdp_old_leader != rdp_spawn && !rdp_old_leader->nocb_cb_kthread) {
> - rdp_last = NULL;
> - rdp = rdp_old_leader;
> - do {
> - rdp->nocb_gp_rdp = rdp_spawn;
> - if (rdp_last && rdp != rdp_spawn)
> - rdp_last->nocb_next_cb_rdp = rdp;
> - if (rdp == rdp_spawn) {
> - rdp = rdp->nocb_next_cb_rdp;
> - } else {
> - rdp_last = rdp;
> - rdp = rdp->nocb_next_cb_rdp;
> - rdp_last->nocb_next_cb_rdp = NULL;
> - }
> - } while (rdp);
> - rdp_spawn->nocb_next_cb_rdp = rdp_old_leader;
> + rdp_gp = rdp->nocb_gp_rdp;
> + if (!rdp_gp->nocb_gp_kthread) {
> + t = kthread_run(rcu_nocb_gp_kthread, rdp_gp,
> + "rcuog/%d", rdp_gp->cpu);
> + if (WARN_ONCE(IS_ERR(t), "%s: Could not start rcuo GP kthread, OOM is now expected behavior\n", __func__))
> + return;
> + WRITE_ONCE(rdp_gp->nocb_gp_kthread, t);
> }
>
> /* Spawn the kthread for this CPU. */
> - t = kthread_run(rcu_nocb_kthread, rdp_spawn,
> + t = kthread_run(rcu_nocb_cb_kthread, rdp,
> "rcuo%c/%d", rcu_state.abbr, cpu);
> - if (WARN_ONCE(IS_ERR(t), "%s: Could not start rcuo kthread, OOM is now expected behavior\n", __func__))
> + if (WARN_ONCE(IS_ERR(t), "%s: Could not start rcuo CB kthread, OOM is now expected behavior\n", __func__))
> return;
> - WRITE_ONCE(rdp_spawn->nocb_cb_kthread, t);
> + WRITE_ONCE(rdp->nocb_cb_kthread, t);
> + WRITE_ONCE(rdp->nocb_gp_kthread, rdp_gp->nocb_gp_kthread);
> }
>
> /*
> --
> 2.17.1
>

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