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Subject[PATCH v3 3/3] mm: kmemleak: Use the memory pool for early allocations
Date
Currently kmemleak uses a static early_log buffer to trace all memory
allocation/freeing before the slab allocator is initialised. Such early
log is replayed during kmemleak_init() to properly initialise the
kmemleak metadata for objects allocated up that point. With a memory
pool that does not rely on the slab allocator, it is possible to skip
this early log entirely.

In order to remove the early logging, consider kmemleak_enabled == 1 by
default while the kmem_cache availability is checked directly on the
object_cache and scan_area_cache variables. The RCU callback is only
invoked after object_cache has been initialised as we wouldn't have any
concurrent list traversal before this.

In order to reduce the number of callbacks before kmemleak is fully
initialised, move the kmemleak_init() call to mm_init().

Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
---
init/main.c | 2 +-
lib/Kconfig.debug | 11 +-
mm/kmemleak.c | 267 +++++-----------------------------------------
3 files changed, 35 insertions(+), 245 deletions(-)

diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
index 96f8d5af52d6..ca05e3cd7ef7 100644
--- a/init/main.c
+++ b/init/main.c
@@ -556,6 +556,7 @@ static void __init mm_init(void)
report_meminit();
mem_init();
kmem_cache_init();
+ kmemleak_init();
pgtable_init();
debug_objects_mem_init();
vmalloc_init();
@@ -740,7 +741,6 @@ asmlinkage __visible void __init start_kernel(void)
initrd_start = 0;
}
#endif
- kmemleak_init();
setup_per_cpu_pageset();
numa_policy_init();
acpi_early_init();
diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
index 4d39540011e2..39df06ffd9f4 100644
--- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
@@ -592,17 +592,18 @@ config DEBUG_KMEMLEAK
In order to access the kmemleak file, debugfs needs to be
mounted (usually at /sys/kernel/debug).

-config DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_EARLY_LOG_SIZE
- int "Maximum kmemleak early log entries"
+config DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_MEM_POOL_SIZE
+ int "Kmemleak memory pool size"
depends on DEBUG_KMEMLEAK
range 200 40000
default 16000
help
Kmemleak must track all the memory allocations to avoid
reporting false positives. Since memory may be allocated or
- freed before kmemleak is initialised, an early log buffer is
- used to store these actions. If kmemleak reports "early log
- buffer exceeded", please increase this value.
+ freed before kmemleak is fully initialised, use a static pool
+ of metadata objects to track such callbacks. After kmemleak is
+ fully initialised, this memory pool acts as an emergency one
+ if slab allocations fail.

config DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_TEST
tristate "Simple test for the kernel memory leak detector"
diff --git a/mm/kmemleak.c b/mm/kmemleak.c
index 2fb86524d70b..bcb05b9b4eb4 100644
--- a/mm/kmemleak.c
+++ b/mm/kmemleak.c
@@ -180,15 +180,13 @@ struct kmemleak_object {
#define HEX_ASCII 1
/* max number of lines to be printed */
#define HEX_MAX_LINES 2
-/* memory pool size */
-#define MEM_POOL_SIZE 16000

/* the list of all allocated objects */
static LIST_HEAD(object_list);
/* the list of gray-colored objects (see color_gray comment below) */
static LIST_HEAD(gray_list);
/* memory pool allocation */
-static struct kmemleak_object mem_pool[MEM_POOL_SIZE];
+static struct kmemleak_object mem_pool[CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_MEM_POOL_SIZE];
static int mem_pool_free_count = ARRAY_SIZE(mem_pool);
static LIST_HEAD(mem_pool_free_list);
/* search tree for object boundaries */
@@ -201,13 +199,11 @@ static struct kmem_cache *object_cache;
static struct kmem_cache *scan_area_cache;

/* set if tracing memory operations is enabled */
-static int kmemleak_enabled;
+static int kmemleak_enabled = 1;
/* same as above but only for the kmemleak_free() callback */
-static int kmemleak_free_enabled;
+static int kmemleak_free_enabled = 1;
/* set in the late_initcall if there were no errors */
static int kmemleak_initialized;
-/* enables or disables early logging of the memory operations */
-static int kmemleak_early_log = 1;
/* set if a kmemleak warning was issued */
static int kmemleak_warning;
/* set if a fatal kmemleak error has occurred */
@@ -235,49 +231,6 @@ static bool kmemleak_found_leaks;
static bool kmemleak_verbose;
module_param_named(verbose, kmemleak_verbose, bool, 0600);

-/*
- * Early object allocation/freeing logging. Kmemleak is initialized after the
- * kernel allocator. However, both the kernel allocator and kmemleak may
- * allocate memory blocks which need to be tracked. Kmemleak defines an
- * arbitrary buffer to hold the allocation/freeing information before it is
- * fully initialized.
- */
-
-/* kmemleak operation type for early logging */
-enum {
- KMEMLEAK_ALLOC,
- KMEMLEAK_ALLOC_PERCPU,
- KMEMLEAK_FREE,
- KMEMLEAK_FREE_PART,
- KMEMLEAK_FREE_PERCPU,
- KMEMLEAK_NOT_LEAK,
- KMEMLEAK_IGNORE,
- KMEMLEAK_SCAN_AREA,
- KMEMLEAK_NO_SCAN,
- KMEMLEAK_SET_EXCESS_REF
-};
-
-/*
- * Structure holding the information passed to kmemleak callbacks during the
- * early logging.
- */
-struct early_log {
- int op_type; /* kmemleak operation type */
- int min_count; /* minimum reference count */
- const void *ptr; /* allocated/freed memory block */
- union {
- size_t size; /* memory block size */
- unsigned long excess_ref; /* surplus reference passing */
- };
- unsigned long trace[MAX_TRACE]; /* stack trace */
- unsigned int trace_len; /* stack trace length */
-};
-
-/* early logging buffer and current position */
-static struct early_log
- early_log[CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_EARLY_LOG_SIZE] __initdata;
-static int crt_early_log __initdata;
-
static void kmemleak_disable(void);

/*
@@ -466,9 +419,13 @@ static struct kmemleak_object *mem_pool_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
struct kmemleak_object *object;

/* try the slab allocator first */
- object = kmem_cache_alloc(object_cache, gfp_kmemleak_mask(gfp));
- if (object)
- return object;
+ if (object_cache) {
+ object = kmem_cache_alloc(object_cache, gfp_kmemleak_mask(gfp));
+ if (object)
+ return object;
+ else
+ WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+ }

/* slab allocation failed, try the memory pool */
write_lock_irqsave(&kmemleak_lock, flags);
@@ -478,6 +435,8 @@ static struct kmemleak_object *mem_pool_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
list_del(&object->object_list);
else if (mem_pool_free_count)
object = &mem_pool[--mem_pool_free_count];
+ else
+ pr_warn_once("Memory pool empty, consider increasing CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_MEM_POOL_SIZE\n");
write_unlock_irqrestore(&kmemleak_lock, flags);

return object;
@@ -537,7 +496,15 @@ static void put_object(struct kmemleak_object *object)
/* should only get here after delete_object was called */
WARN_ON(object->flags & OBJECT_ALLOCATED);

- call_rcu(&object->rcu, free_object_rcu);
+ /*
+ * It may be too early for the RCU callbacks, however, there is no
+ * concurrent object_list traversal when !object_cache and all objects
+ * came from the memory pool. Free the object directly.
+ */
+ if (object_cache)
+ call_rcu(&object->rcu, free_object_rcu);
+ else
+ free_object_rcu(&object->rcu);
}

/*
@@ -741,9 +708,7 @@ static void delete_object_part(unsigned long ptr, size_t size)
/*
* Create one or two objects that may result from the memory block
* split. Note that partial freeing is only done by free_bootmem() and
- * this happens before kmemleak_init() is called. The path below is
- * only executed during early log recording in kmemleak_init(), so
- * GFP_KERNEL is enough.
+ * this happens before kmemleak_init() is called.
*/
start = object->pointer;
end = object->pointer + object->size;
@@ -815,7 +780,7 @@ static void add_scan_area(unsigned long ptr, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
{
unsigned long flags;
struct kmemleak_object *object;
- struct kmemleak_scan_area *area;
+ struct kmemleak_scan_area *area = NULL;

object = find_and_get_object(ptr, 1);
if (!object) {
@@ -824,7 +789,8 @@ static void add_scan_area(unsigned long ptr, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
return;
}

- area = kmem_cache_alloc(scan_area_cache, gfp_kmemleak_mask(gfp));
+ if (scan_area_cache)
+ area = kmem_cache_alloc(scan_area_cache, gfp_kmemleak_mask(gfp));

spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
if (!area) {
@@ -898,86 +864,6 @@ static void object_no_scan(unsigned long ptr)
put_object(object);
}

-/*
- * Log an early kmemleak_* call to the early_log buffer. These calls will be
- * processed later once kmemleak is fully initialized.
- */
-static void __init log_early(int op_type, const void *ptr, size_t size,
- int min_count)
-{
- unsigned long flags;
- struct early_log *log;
-
- if (kmemleak_error) {
- /* kmemleak stopped recording, just count the requests */
- crt_early_log++;
- return;
- }
-
- if (crt_early_log >= ARRAY_SIZE(early_log)) {
- crt_early_log++;
- kmemleak_disable();
- return;
- }
-
- /*
- * There is no need for locking since the kernel is still in UP mode
- * at this stage. Disabling the IRQs is enough.
- */
- local_irq_save(flags);
- log = &early_log[crt_early_log];
- log->op_type = op_type;
- log->ptr = ptr;
- log->size = size;
- log->min_count = min_count;
- log->trace_len = __save_stack_trace(log->trace);
- crt_early_log++;
- local_irq_restore(flags);
-}
-
-/*
- * Log an early allocated block and populate the stack trace.
- */
-static void early_alloc(struct early_log *log)
-{
- struct kmemleak_object *object;
- unsigned long flags;
- int i;
-
- if (!kmemleak_enabled || !log->ptr || IS_ERR(log->ptr))
- return;
-
- /*
- * RCU locking needed to ensure object is not freed via put_object().
- */
- rcu_read_lock();
- object = create_object((unsigned long)log->ptr, log->size,
- log->min_count, GFP_ATOMIC);
- if (!object)
- goto out;
- spin_lock_irqsave(&object->lock, flags);
- for (i = 0; i < log->trace_len; i++)
- object->trace[i] = log->trace[i];
- object->trace_len = log->trace_len;
- spin_unlock_irqrestore(&object->lock, flags);
-out:
- rcu_read_unlock();
-}
-
-/*
- * Log an early allocated block and populate the stack trace.
- */
-static void early_alloc_percpu(struct early_log *log)
-{
- unsigned int cpu;
- const void __percpu *ptr = log->ptr;
-
- for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
- log->ptr = per_cpu_ptr(ptr, cpu);
- early_alloc(log);
- }
-}
-
/**
* kmemleak_alloc - register a newly allocated object
* @ptr: pointer to beginning of the object
@@ -999,8 +885,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_alloc(const void *ptr, size_t size, int min_count,

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
create_object((unsigned long)ptr, size, min_count, gfp);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_ALLOC, ptr, size, min_count);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_alloc);

@@ -1028,8 +912,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_alloc_percpu(const void __percpu *ptr, size_t size,
for_each_possible_cpu(cpu)
create_object((unsigned long)per_cpu_ptr(ptr, cpu),
size, 0, gfp);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_ALLOC_PERCPU, ptr, size, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_alloc_percpu);

@@ -1054,11 +936,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_vmalloc(const struct vm_struct *area, size_t size, gfp_t gfp
create_object((unsigned long)area->addr, size, 2, gfp);
object_set_excess_ref((unsigned long)area,
(unsigned long)area->addr);
- } else if (kmemleak_early_log) {
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_ALLOC, area->addr, size, 2);
- /* reusing early_log.size for storing area->addr */
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_SET_EXCESS_REF,
- area, (unsigned long)area->addr, 0);
}
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_vmalloc);
@@ -1076,8 +953,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_free(const void *ptr)

if (kmemleak_free_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
delete_object_full((unsigned long)ptr);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_FREE, ptr, 0, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_free);

@@ -1096,8 +971,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_free_part(const void *ptr, size_t size)

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
delete_object_part((unsigned long)ptr, size);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_FREE_PART, ptr, size, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_free_part);

@@ -1118,8 +991,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_free_percpu(const void __percpu *ptr)
for_each_possible_cpu(cpu)
delete_object_full((unsigned long)per_cpu_ptr(ptr,
cpu));
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_FREE_PERCPU, ptr, 0, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(kmemleak_free_percpu);

@@ -1170,8 +1041,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_not_leak(const void *ptr)

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
make_gray_object((unsigned long)ptr);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_NOT_LEAK, ptr, 0, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kmemleak_not_leak);

@@ -1190,8 +1059,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_ignore(const void *ptr)

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
make_black_object((unsigned long)ptr);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_IGNORE, ptr, 0, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kmemleak_ignore);

@@ -1212,8 +1079,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_scan_area(const void *ptr, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && size && !IS_ERR(ptr))
add_scan_area((unsigned long)ptr, size, gfp);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_SCAN_AREA, ptr, size, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kmemleak_scan_area);

@@ -1232,8 +1097,6 @@ void __ref kmemleak_no_scan(const void *ptr)

if (kmemleak_enabled && ptr && !IS_ERR(ptr))
object_no_scan((unsigned long)ptr);
- else if (kmemleak_early_log)
- log_early(KMEMLEAK_NO_SCAN, ptr, 0, 0);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(kmemleak_no_scan);

@@ -2020,7 +1883,6 @@ static void kmemleak_disable(void)

/* stop any memory operation tracing */
kmemleak_enabled = 0;
- kmemleak_early_log = 0;

/* check whether it is too early for a kernel thread */
if (kmemleak_initialized)
@@ -2048,20 +1910,11 @@ static int __init kmemleak_boot_config(char *str)
}
early_param("kmemleak", kmemleak_boot_config);

-static void __init print_log_trace(struct early_log *log)
-{
- pr_notice("Early log backtrace:\n");
- stack_trace_print(log->trace, log->trace_len, 2);
-}
-
/*
* Kmemleak initialization.
*/
void __init kmemleak_init(void)
{
- int i;
- unsigned long flags;
-
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_DEFAULT_OFF
if (!kmemleak_skip_disable) {
kmemleak_disable();
@@ -2069,28 +1922,15 @@ void __init kmemleak_init(void)
}
#endif

+ if (kmemleak_error)
+ return;
+
jiffies_min_age = msecs_to_jiffies(MSECS_MIN_AGE);
jiffies_scan_wait = msecs_to_jiffies(SECS_SCAN_WAIT * 1000);

object_cache = KMEM_CACHE(kmemleak_object, SLAB_NOLEAKTRACE);
scan_area_cache = KMEM_CACHE(kmemleak_scan_area, SLAB_NOLEAKTRACE);

- if (crt_early_log > ARRAY_SIZE(early_log))
- pr_warn("Early log buffer exceeded (%d), please increase DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_EARLY_LOG_SIZE\n",
- crt_early_log);
-
- /* the kernel is still in UP mode, so disabling the IRQs is enough */
- local_irq_save(flags);
- kmemleak_early_log = 0;
- if (kmemleak_error) {
- local_irq_restore(flags);
- return;
- } else {
- kmemleak_enabled = 1;
- kmemleak_free_enabled = 1;
- }
- local_irq_restore(flags);
-
/* register the data/bss sections */
create_object((unsigned long)_sdata, _edata - _sdata,
KMEMLEAK_GREY, GFP_ATOMIC);
@@ -2101,57 +1941,6 @@ void __init kmemleak_init(void)
create_object((unsigned long)__start_ro_after_init,
__end_ro_after_init - __start_ro_after_init,
KMEMLEAK_GREY, GFP_ATOMIC);
-
- /*
- * This is the point where tracking allocations is safe. Automatic
- * scanning is started during the late initcall. Add the early logged
- * callbacks to the kmemleak infrastructure.
- */
- for (i = 0; i < crt_early_log; i++) {
- struct early_log *log = &early_log[i];
-
- switch (log->op_type) {
- case KMEMLEAK_ALLOC:
- early_alloc(log);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_ALLOC_PERCPU:
- early_alloc_percpu(log);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_FREE:
- kmemleak_free(log->ptr);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_FREE_PART:
- kmemleak_free_part(log->ptr, log->size);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_FREE_PERCPU:
- kmemleak_free_percpu(log->ptr);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_NOT_LEAK:
- kmemleak_not_leak(log->ptr);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_IGNORE:
- kmemleak_ignore(log->ptr);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_SCAN_AREA:
- kmemleak_scan_area(log->ptr, log->size, GFP_KERNEL);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_NO_SCAN:
- kmemleak_no_scan(log->ptr);
- break;
- case KMEMLEAK_SET_EXCESS_REF:
- object_set_excess_ref((unsigned long)log->ptr,
- log->excess_ref);
- break;
- default:
- kmemleak_warn("Unknown early log operation: %d\n",
- log->op_type);
- }
-
- if (kmemleak_warning) {
- print_log_trace(log);
- kmemleak_warning = 0;
- }
- }
}

/*
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