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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2 1/4] arm64: kprobes: Recover pstate.D in single-step exception handler
On Tue, 23 Jul 2019 17:03:47 +0100
James Morse <james.morse@arm.com> wrote:

> Hi!
>
> On 22/07/2019 08:48, Masami Hiramatsu wrote:
> > On arm64, if a nested kprobes hit, it can crash the kernel with below
> > error message.
> >
> > [ 152.118921] Unexpected kernel single-step exception at EL1
> >
> > This is because commit 7419333fa15e ("arm64: kprobe: Always clear
> > pstate.D in breakpoint exception handler") unmask pstate.D for
> > doing single step but does not recover it after single step in
> > the nested kprobes.
>
> > That is correct *unless* any nested kprobes
> > (single-stepping) runs inside other kprobes user handler.
>
> (I don't think this is correct, its just usually invisible as PSTATE.D is normally clear)

Ah, right.

>
>
> > When the 1st kprobe hits, do_debug_exception() will be called. At this
> > point, debug exception (= pstate.D) must be masked (=1). When the 2nd
> > (nested) kprobe is hit before single-step of the first kprobe, it
> > unmask debug exception (pstate.D = 0) and return.
> > Then, when the 1st kprobe setting up single-step, it saves current
> > DAIF, mask DAIF, enable single-step, and restore DAIF.
> > However, since "D" flag in DAIF is cleared by the 2nd kprobe, the
> > single-step exception happens soon after restoring DAIF.
>
> This is pretty complicated. Just to check I've understood this properly:
> Stepping on a kprobe in a kprobe-user's pre_handler will cause the remainder of the
> handler (the first one) to run with PSTATE.D clear. Once we enable single-step, we start
> stepping the debug handler, and will never step the original kprobe'd instruction.

Yes, that's correct. I saw the single stepping happens on right after recover
the saved daif.

>
> This is describing the most complicated way that this problem shows up! (I agree its also
> the worst)
>
> I can get this to show up with just one kprobe. (function/file names here are meaningless):
>
> | static int wibble(struct seq_file *m, void *discard)
> | {
> | unsigned long d, flags;
> |
> | flags = local_daif_save();
> |
> | kprobe_me();
> | d = read_sysreg(daif);
> | local_daif_restore(flags);
> |
> | seq_printf(m, "%lx\n", d);
> |
> | return 0;
> | }
>
> plumbed into debugfs, then kicked using the kprobe_example module:
> | root@adam:/sys/kernel/debug# cat wibble
> | 3c0
>
> | root@adam:/sys/kernel/debug# insmod ~morse/kprobe_example.ko symbol=kprobe_me
> | [ 69.478098] Planted kprobe at [..]
> | root@adam:/sys/kernel/debug# cat wibble
> | [ 71.478935] <kprobe_me> pre_handler: p->addr = [..], pc = [..], pstate = 0x600003c5
> | [ 71.488942] <kprobe_me> post_handler: p->addr = [..], pstate = 0x600001c5
> | 1c0
> | root@adam:/sys/kernel/debug#
>
> This is problem for any code that had debug masked, not just kprobes.

Agreed.

>
> Can we start the commit-message with the simplest description of the problem: kprobes
> manipulates the interrupted PSTATE for single step, and doesn't restore it.

Thanks for making it clearer :)

>
> (trying to understand this bug through kprobe's interaction with itself is hard!)
>
>
> > To solve this issue, this stores all DAIF bits and restore it
> > after single stepping.
>
>
> > diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
> > index bd5dfffca272..348e02b799a2 100644
> > --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
> > +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/probes/kprobes.c
> > @@ -29,6 +29,8 @@
> >
> > #include "decode-insn.h"
> >
> > +#define PSR_DAIF_MASK (PSR_D_BIT | PSR_A_BIT | PSR_I_BIT | PSR_F_BIT)
>
> We should probably move this to daifflags.h. Its going to be useful to other series too.

OK.

>
>
> Patch looks good!
> Reviewed-by: James Morse <james.morse@arm.com>
> Tested-by: James Morse <james.morse@arm.com>
>
> (I haven't tried to test the nested kprobes case...)

OK, I'll update and resend it.

Thank you!

>
>
> Thanks,
>
> James


--
Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@kernel.org>

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