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SubjectRe: Linux 5.1.2
diff --git a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-devices-system-cpu b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-devices-system-cpu
index 9605dbd4b5b5..141a7bb58b80 100644
--- a/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-devices-system-cpu
+++ b/Documentation/ABI/testing/sysfs-devices-system-cpu
@@ -484,6 +484,7 @@ What: /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities
/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spectre_v2
/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spec_store_bypass
/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/l1tf
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/mds
Date: January 2018
Contact: Linux kernel mailing list <linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org>
Description: Information about CPU vulnerabilities
@@ -496,8 +497,7 @@ Description: Information about CPU vulnerabilities
"Vulnerable" CPU is affected and no mitigation in effect
"Mitigation: $M" CPU is affected and mitigation $M is in effect

- Details about the l1tf file can be found in
- Documentation/admin-guide/l1tf.rst
+ See also: Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst

What: /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt
/sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/active
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ffc064c1ec68
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+========================
+Hardware vulnerabilities
+========================
+
+This section describes CPU vulnerabilities and provides an overview of the
+possible mitigations along with guidance for selecting mitigations if they
+are configurable at compile, boot or run time.
+
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 1
+
+ l1tf
+ mds
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..31653a9f0e1b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,615 @@
+L1TF - L1 Terminal Fault
+========================
+
+L1 Terminal Fault is a hardware vulnerability which allows unprivileged
+speculative access to data which is available in the Level 1 Data Cache
+when the page table entry controlling the virtual address, which is used
+for the access, has the Present bit cleared or other reserved bits set.
+
+Affected processors
+-------------------
+
+This vulnerability affects a wide range of Intel processors. The
+vulnerability is not present on:
+
+ - Processors from AMD, Centaur and other non Intel vendors
+
+ - Older processor models, where the CPU family is < 6
+
+ - A range of Intel ATOM processors (Cedarview, Cloverview, Lincroft,
+ Penwell, Pineview, Silvermont, Airmont, Merrifield)
+
+ - The Intel XEON PHI family
+
+ - Intel processors which have the ARCH_CAP_RDCL_NO bit set in the
+ IA32_ARCH_CAPABILITIES MSR. If the bit is set the CPU is not affected
+ by the Meltdown vulnerability either. These CPUs should become
+ available by end of 2018.
+
+Whether a processor is affected or not can be read out from the L1TF
+vulnerability file in sysfs. See :ref:`l1tf_sys_info`.
+
+Related CVEs
+------------
+
+The following CVE entries are related to the L1TF vulnerability:
+
+ ============= ================= ==============================
+ CVE-2018-3615 L1 Terminal Fault SGX related aspects
+ CVE-2018-3620 L1 Terminal Fault OS, SMM related aspects
+ CVE-2018-3646 L1 Terminal Fault Virtualization related aspects
+ ============= ================= ==============================
+
+Problem
+-------
+
+If an instruction accesses a virtual address for which the relevant page
+table entry (PTE) has the Present bit cleared or other reserved bits set,
+then speculative execution ignores the invalid PTE and loads the referenced
+data if it is present in the Level 1 Data Cache, as if the page referenced
+by the address bits in the PTE was still present and accessible.
+
+While this is a purely speculative mechanism and the instruction will raise
+a page fault when it is retired eventually, the pure act of loading the
+data and making it available to other speculative instructions opens up the
+opportunity for side channel attacks to unprivileged malicious code,
+similar to the Meltdown attack.
+
+While Meltdown breaks the user space to kernel space protection, L1TF
+allows to attack any physical memory address in the system and the attack
+works across all protection domains. It allows an attack of SGX and also
+works from inside virtual machines because the speculation bypasses the
+extended page table (EPT) protection mechanism.
+
+
+Attack scenarios
+----------------
+
+1. Malicious user space
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ Operating Systems store arbitrary information in the address bits of a
+ PTE which is marked non present. This allows a malicious user space
+ application to attack the physical memory to which these PTEs resolve.
+ In some cases user-space can maliciously influence the information
+ encoded in the address bits of the PTE, thus making attacks more
+ deterministic and more practical.
+
+ The Linux kernel contains a mitigation for this attack vector, PTE
+ inversion, which is permanently enabled and has no performance
+ impact. The kernel ensures that the address bits of PTEs, which are not
+ marked present, never point to cacheable physical memory space.
+
+ A system with an up to date kernel is protected against attacks from
+ malicious user space applications.
+
+2. Malicious guest in a virtual machine
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The fact that L1TF breaks all domain protections allows malicious guest
+ OSes, which can control the PTEs directly, and malicious guest user
+ space applications, which run on an unprotected guest kernel lacking the
+ PTE inversion mitigation for L1TF, to attack physical host memory.
+
+ A special aspect of L1TF in the context of virtualization is symmetric
+ multi threading (SMT). The Intel implementation of SMT is called
+ HyperThreading. The fact that Hyperthreads on the affected processors
+ share the L1 Data Cache (L1D) is important for this. As the flaw allows
+ only to attack data which is present in L1D, a malicious guest running
+ on one Hyperthread can attack the data which is brought into the L1D by
+ the context which runs on the sibling Hyperthread of the same physical
+ core. This context can be host OS, host user space or a different guest.
+
+ If the processor does not support Extended Page Tables, the attack is
+ only possible, when the hypervisor does not sanitize the content of the
+ effective (shadow) page tables.
+
+ While solutions exist to mitigate these attack vectors fully, these
+ mitigations are not enabled by default in the Linux kernel because they
+ can affect performance significantly. The kernel provides several
+ mechanisms which can be utilized to address the problem depending on the
+ deployment scenario. The mitigations, their protection scope and impact
+ are described in the next sections.
+
+ The default mitigations and the rationale for choosing them are explained
+ at the end of this document. See :ref:`default_mitigations`.
+
+.. _l1tf_sys_info:
+
+L1TF system information
+-----------------------
+
+The Linux kernel provides a sysfs interface to enumerate the current L1TF
+status of the system: whether the system is vulnerable, and which
+mitigations are active. The relevant sysfs file is:
+
+/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/l1tf
+
+The possible values in this file are:
+
+ =========================== ===============================
+ 'Not affected' The processor is not vulnerable
+ 'Mitigation: PTE Inversion' The host protection is active
+ =========================== ===============================
+
+If KVM/VMX is enabled and the processor is vulnerable then the following
+information is appended to the 'Mitigation: PTE Inversion' part:
+
+ - SMT status:
+
+ ===================== ================
+ 'VMX: SMT vulnerable' SMT is enabled
+ 'VMX: SMT disabled' SMT is disabled
+ ===================== ================
+
+ - L1D Flush mode:
+
+ ================================ ====================================
+ 'L1D vulnerable' L1D flushing is disabled
+
+ 'L1D conditional cache flushes' L1D flush is conditionally enabled
+
+ 'L1D cache flushes' L1D flush is unconditionally enabled
+ ================================ ====================================
+
+The resulting grade of protection is discussed in the following sections.
+
+
+Host mitigation mechanism
+-------------------------
+
+The kernel is unconditionally protected against L1TF attacks from malicious
+user space running on the host.
+
+
+Guest mitigation mechanisms
+---------------------------
+
+.. _l1d_flush:
+
+1. L1D flush on VMENTER
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ To make sure that a guest cannot attack data which is present in the L1D
+ the hypervisor flushes the L1D before entering the guest.
+
+ Flushing the L1D evicts not only the data which should not be accessed
+ by a potentially malicious guest, it also flushes the guest
+ data. Flushing the L1D has a performance impact as the processor has to
+ bring the flushed guest data back into the L1D. Depending on the
+ frequency of VMEXIT/VMENTER and the type of computations in the guest
+ performance degradation in the range of 1% to 50% has been observed. For
+ scenarios where guest VMEXIT/VMENTER are rare the performance impact is
+ minimal. Virtio and mechanisms like posted interrupts are designed to
+ confine the VMEXITs to a bare minimum, but specific configurations and
+ application scenarios might still suffer from a high VMEXIT rate.
+
+ The kernel provides two L1D flush modes:
+ - conditional ('cond')
+ - unconditional ('always')
+
+ The conditional mode avoids L1D flushing after VMEXITs which execute
+ only audited code paths before the corresponding VMENTER. These code
+ paths have been verified that they cannot expose secrets or other
+ interesting data to an attacker, but they can leak information about the
+ address space layout of the hypervisor.
+
+ Unconditional mode flushes L1D on all VMENTER invocations and provides
+ maximum protection. It has a higher overhead than the conditional
+ mode. The overhead cannot be quantified correctly as it depends on the
+ workload scenario and the resulting number of VMEXITs.
+
+ The general recommendation is to enable L1D flush on VMENTER. The kernel
+ defaults to conditional mode on affected processors.
+
+ **Note**, that L1D flush does not prevent the SMT problem because the
+ sibling thread will also bring back its data into the L1D which makes it
+ attackable again.
+
+ L1D flush can be controlled by the administrator via the kernel command
+ line and sysfs control files. See :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line`
+ and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
+
+.. _guest_confinement:
+
+2. Guest VCPU confinement to dedicated physical cores
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ To address the SMT problem, it is possible to make a guest or a group of
+ guests affine to one or more physical cores. The proper mechanism for
+ that is to utilize exclusive cpusets to ensure that no other guest or
+ host tasks can run on these cores.
+
+ If only a single guest or related guests run on sibling SMT threads on
+ the same physical core then they can only attack their own memory and
+ restricted parts of the host memory.
+
+ Host memory is attackable, when one of the sibling SMT threads runs in
+ host OS (hypervisor) context and the other in guest context. The amount
+ of valuable information from the host OS context depends on the context
+ which the host OS executes, i.e. interrupts, soft interrupts and kernel
+ threads. The amount of valuable data from these contexts cannot be
+ declared as non-interesting for an attacker without deep inspection of
+ the code.
+
+ **Note**, that assigning guests to a fixed set of physical cores affects
+ the ability of the scheduler to do load balancing and might have
+ negative effects on CPU utilization depending on the hosting
+ scenario. Disabling SMT might be a viable alternative for particular
+ scenarios.
+
+ For further information about confining guests to a single or to a group
+ of cores consult the cpusets documentation:
+
+ https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroup-v1/cpusets.txt
+
+.. _interrupt_isolation:
+
+3. Interrupt affinity
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ Interrupts can be made affine to logical CPUs. This is not universally
+ true because there are types of interrupts which are truly per CPU
+ interrupts, e.g. the local timer interrupt. Aside of that multi queue
+ devices affine their interrupts to single CPUs or groups of CPUs per
+ queue without allowing the administrator to control the affinities.
+
+ Moving the interrupts, which can be affinity controlled, away from CPUs
+ which run untrusted guests, reduces the attack vector space.
+
+ Whether the interrupts with are affine to CPUs, which run untrusted
+ guests, provide interesting data for an attacker depends on the system
+ configuration and the scenarios which run on the system. While for some
+ of the interrupts it can be assumed that they won't expose interesting
+ information beyond exposing hints about the host OS memory layout, there
+ is no way to make general assumptions.
+
+ Interrupt affinity can be controlled by the administrator via the
+ /proc/irq/$NR/smp_affinity[_list] files. Limited documentation is
+ available at:
+
+ https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/IRQ-affinity.txt
+
+.. _smt_control:
+
+4. SMT control
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ To prevent the SMT issues of L1TF it might be necessary to disable SMT
+ completely. Disabling SMT can have a significant performance impact, but
+ the impact depends on the hosting scenario and the type of workloads.
+ The impact of disabling SMT needs also to be weighted against the impact
+ of other mitigation solutions like confining guests to dedicated cores.
+
+ The kernel provides a sysfs interface to retrieve the status of SMT and
+ to control it. It also provides a kernel command line interface to
+ control SMT.
+
+ The kernel command line interface consists of the following options:
+
+ =========== ==========================================================
+ nosmt Affects the bring up of the secondary CPUs during boot. The
+ kernel tries to bring all present CPUs online during the
+ boot process. "nosmt" makes sure that from each physical
+ core only one - the so called primary (hyper) thread is
+ activated. Due to a design flaw of Intel processors related
+ to Machine Check Exceptions the non primary siblings have
+ to be brought up at least partially and are then shut down
+ again. "nosmt" can be undone via the sysfs interface.
+
+ nosmt=force Has the same effect as "nosmt" but it does not allow to
+ undo the SMT disable via the sysfs interface.
+ =========== ==========================================================
+
+ The sysfs interface provides two files:
+
+ - /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/control
+ - /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/active
+
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/control:
+
+ This file allows to read out the SMT control state and provides the
+ ability to disable or (re)enable SMT. The possible states are:
+
+ ============== ===================================================
+ on SMT is supported by the CPU and enabled. All
+ logical CPUs can be onlined and offlined without
+ restrictions.
+
+ off SMT is supported by the CPU and disabled. Only
+ the so called primary SMT threads can be onlined
+ and offlined without restrictions. An attempt to
+ online a non-primary sibling is rejected
+
+ forceoff Same as 'off' but the state cannot be controlled.
+ Attempts to write to the control file are rejected.
+
+ notsupported The processor does not support SMT. It's therefore
+ not affected by the SMT implications of L1TF.
+ Attempts to write to the control file are rejected.
+ ============== ===================================================
+
+ The possible states which can be written into this file to control SMT
+ state are:
+
+ - on
+ - off
+ - forceoff
+
+ /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/active:
+
+ This file reports whether SMT is enabled and active, i.e. if on any
+ physical core two or more sibling threads are online.
+
+ SMT control is also possible at boot time via the l1tf kernel command
+ line parameter in combination with L1D flush control. See
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line`.
+
+5. Disabling EPT
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ Disabling EPT for virtual machines provides full mitigation for L1TF even
+ with SMT enabled, because the effective page tables for guests are
+ managed and sanitized by the hypervisor. Though disabling EPT has a
+ significant performance impact especially when the Meltdown mitigation
+ KPTI is enabled.
+
+ EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept' parameter.
+
+There is ongoing research and development for new mitigation mechanisms to
+address the performance impact of disabling SMT or EPT.
+
+.. _mitigation_control_command_line:
+
+Mitigation control on the kernel command line
+---------------------------------------------
+
+The kernel command line allows to control the L1TF mitigations at boot
+time with the option "l1tf=". The valid arguments for this option are:
+
+ ============ =============================================================
+ full Provides all available mitigations for the L1TF
+ vulnerability. Disables SMT and enables all mitigations in
+ the hypervisors, i.e. unconditional L1D flushing
+
+ SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
+ is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
+ warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
+ insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
+ disabled.
+
+ full,force Same as 'full', but disables SMT and L1D flush runtime
+ control. Implies the 'nosmt=force' command line option.
+ (i.e. sysfs control of SMT is disabled.)
+
+ flush Leaves SMT enabled and enables the default hypervisor
+ mitigation, i.e. conditional L1D flushing
+
+ SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
+ is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
+ warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
+ insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
+ disabled.
+
+ flush,nosmt Disables SMT and enables the default hypervisor mitigation,
+ i.e. conditional L1D flushing.
+
+ SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
+ is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
+ warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
+ insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
+ disabled.
+
+ flush,nowarn Same as 'flush', but hypervisors will not warn when a VM is
+ started in a potentially insecure configuration.
+
+ off Disables hypervisor mitigations and doesn't emit any
+ warnings.
+ It also drops the swap size and available RAM limit restrictions
+ on both hypervisor and bare metal.
+
+ ============ =============================================================
+
+The default is 'flush'. For details about L1D flushing see :ref:`l1d_flush`.
+
+
+.. _mitigation_control_kvm:
+
+Mitigation control for KVM - module parameter
+-------------------------------------------------------------
+
+The KVM hypervisor mitigation mechanism, flushing the L1D cache when
+entering a guest, can be controlled with a module parameter.
+
+The option/parameter is "kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush=". It takes the
+following arguments:
+
+ ============ ==============================================================
+ always L1D cache flush on every VMENTER.
+
+ cond Flush L1D on VMENTER only when the code between VMEXIT and
+ VMENTER can leak host memory which is considered
+ interesting for an attacker. This still can leak host memory
+ which allows e.g. to determine the hosts address space layout.
+
+ never Disables the mitigation
+ ============ ==============================================================
+
+The parameter can be provided on the kernel command line, as a module
+parameter when loading the modules and at runtime modified via the sysfs
+file:
+
+/sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/vmentry_l1d_flush
+
+The default is 'cond'. If 'l1tf=full,force' is given on the kernel command
+line, then 'always' is enforced and the kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush
+module parameter is ignored and writes to the sysfs file are rejected.
+
+.. _mitigation_selection:
+
+Mitigation selection guide
+--------------------------
+
+1. No virtualization in use
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The system is protected by the kernel unconditionally and no further
+ action is required.
+
+2. Virtualization with trusted guests
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ If the guest comes from a trusted source and the guest OS kernel is
+ guaranteed to have the L1TF mitigations in place the system is fully
+ protected against L1TF and no further action is required.
+
+ To avoid the overhead of the default L1D flushing on VMENTER the
+ administrator can disable the flushing via the kernel command line and
+ sysfs control files. See :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
+
+
+3. Virtualization with untrusted guests
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+3.1. SMT not supported or disabled
+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+ If SMT is not supported by the processor or disabled in the BIOS or by
+ the kernel, it's only required to enforce L1D flushing on VMENTER.
+
+ Conditional L1D flushing is the default behaviour and can be tuned. See
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
+
+3.2. EPT not supported or disabled
+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+ If EPT is not supported by the processor or disabled in the hypervisor,
+ the system is fully protected. SMT can stay enabled and L1D flushing on
+ VMENTER is not required.
+
+ EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept' parameter.
+
+3.3. SMT and EPT supported and active
+"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+ If SMT and EPT are supported and active then various degrees of
+ mitigations can be employed:
+
+ - L1D flushing on VMENTER:
+
+ L1D flushing on VMENTER is the minimal protection requirement, but it
+ is only potent in combination with other mitigation methods.
+
+ Conditional L1D flushing is the default behaviour and can be tuned. See
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
+
+ - Guest confinement:
+
+ Confinement of guests to a single or a group of physical cores which
+ are not running any other processes, can reduce the attack surface
+ significantly, but interrupts, soft interrupts and kernel threads can
+ still expose valuable data to a potential attacker. See
+ :ref:`guest_confinement`.
+
+ - Interrupt isolation:
+
+ Isolating the guest CPUs from interrupts can reduce the attack surface
+ further, but still allows a malicious guest to explore a limited amount
+ of host physical memory. This can at least be used to gain knowledge
+ about the host address space layout. The interrupts which have a fixed
+ affinity to the CPUs which run the untrusted guests can depending on
+ the scenario still trigger soft interrupts and schedule kernel threads
+ which might expose valuable information. See
+ :ref:`interrupt_isolation`.
+
+The above three mitigation methods combined can provide protection to a
+certain degree, but the risk of the remaining attack surface has to be
+carefully analyzed. For full protection the following methods are
+available:
+
+ - Disabling SMT:
+
+ Disabling SMT and enforcing the L1D flushing provides the maximum
+ amount of protection. This mitigation is not depending on any of the
+ above mitigation methods.
+
+ SMT control and L1D flushing can be tuned by the command line
+ parameters 'nosmt', 'l1tf', 'kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush' and at run
+ time with the matching sysfs control files. See :ref:`smt_control`,
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and
+ :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
+
+ - Disabling EPT:
+
+ Disabling EPT provides the maximum amount of protection as well. It is
+ not depending on any of the above mitigation methods. SMT can stay
+ enabled and L1D flushing is not required, but the performance impact is
+ significant.
+
+ EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept'
+ parameter.
+
+3.4. Nested virtual machines
+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+When nested virtualization is in use, three operating systems are involved:
+the bare metal hypervisor, the nested hypervisor and the nested virtual
+machine. VMENTER operations from the nested hypervisor into the nested
+guest will always be processed by the bare metal hypervisor. If KVM is the
+bare metal hypervisor it will:
+
+ - Flush the L1D cache on every switch from the nested hypervisor to the
+ nested virtual machine, so that the nested hypervisor's secrets are not
+ exposed to the nested virtual machine;
+
+ - Flush the L1D cache on every switch from the nested virtual machine to
+ the nested hypervisor; this is a complex operation, and flushing the L1D
+ cache avoids that the bare metal hypervisor's secrets are exposed to the
+ nested virtual machine;
+
+ - Instruct the nested hypervisor to not perform any L1D cache flush. This
+ is an optimization to avoid double L1D flushing.
+
+
+.. _default_mitigations:
+
+Default mitigations
+-------------------
+
+ The kernel default mitigations for vulnerable processors are:
+
+ - PTE inversion to protect against malicious user space. This is done
+ unconditionally and cannot be controlled. The swap storage is limited
+ to ~16TB.
+
+ - L1D conditional flushing on VMENTER when EPT is enabled for
+ a guest.
+
+ The kernel does not by default enforce the disabling of SMT, which leaves
+ SMT systems vulnerable when running untrusted guests with EPT enabled.
+
+ The rationale for this choice is:
+
+ - Force disabling SMT can break existing setups, especially with
+ unattended updates.
+
+ - If regular users run untrusted guests on their machine, then L1TF is
+ just an add on to other malware which might be embedded in an untrusted
+ guest, e.g. spam-bots or attacks on the local network.
+
+ There is no technical way to prevent a user from running untrusted code
+ on their machines blindly.
+
+ - It's technically extremely unlikely and from today's knowledge even
+ impossible that L1TF can be exploited via the most popular attack
+ mechanisms like JavaScript because these mechanisms have no way to
+ control PTEs. If this would be possible and not other mitigation would
+ be possible, then the default might be different.
+
+ - The administrators of cloud and hosting setups have to carefully
+ analyze the risk for their scenarios and make the appropriate
+ mitigation choices, which might even vary across their deployed
+ machines and also result in other changes of their overall setup.
+ There is no way for the kernel to provide a sensible default for this
+ kind of scenarios.
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/mds.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/mds.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e3a796c0d3a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/mds.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,308 @@
+MDS - Microarchitectural Data Sampling
+======================================
+
+Microarchitectural Data Sampling is a hardware vulnerability which allows
+unprivileged speculative access to data which is available in various CPU
+internal buffers.
+
+Affected processors
+-------------------
+
+This vulnerability affects a wide range of Intel processors. The
+vulnerability is not present on:
+
+ - Processors from AMD, Centaur and other non Intel vendors
+
+ - Older processor models, where the CPU family is < 6
+
+ - Some Atoms (Bonnell, Saltwell, Goldmont, GoldmontPlus)
+
+ - Intel processors which have the ARCH_CAP_MDS_NO bit set in the
+ IA32_ARCH_CAPABILITIES MSR.
+
+Whether a processor is affected or not can be read out from the MDS
+vulnerability file in sysfs. See :ref:`mds_sys_info`.
+
+Not all processors are affected by all variants of MDS, but the mitigation
+is identical for all of them so the kernel treats them as a single
+vulnerability.
+
+Related CVEs
+------------
+
+The following CVE entries are related to the MDS vulnerability:
+
+ ============== ===== ===================================================
+ CVE-2018-12126 MSBDS Microarchitectural Store Buffer Data Sampling
+ CVE-2018-12130 MFBDS Microarchitectural Fill Buffer Data Sampling
+ CVE-2018-12127 MLPDS Microarchitectural Load Port Data Sampling
+ CVE-2019-11091 MDSUM Microarchitectural Data Sampling Uncacheable Memory
+ ============== ===== ===================================================
+
+Problem
+-------
+
+When performing store, load, L1 refill operations, processors write data
+into temporary microarchitectural structures (buffers). The data in the
+buffer can be forwarded to load operations as an optimization.
+
+Under certain conditions, usually a fault/assist caused by a load
+operation, data unrelated to the load memory address can be speculatively
+forwarded from the buffers. Because the load operation causes a fault or
+assist and its result will be discarded, the forwarded data will not cause
+incorrect program execution or state changes. But a malicious operation
+may be able to forward this speculative data to a disclosure gadget which
+allows in turn to infer the value via a cache side channel attack.
+
+Because the buffers are potentially shared between Hyper-Threads cross
+Hyper-Thread attacks are possible.
+
+Deeper technical information is available in the MDS specific x86
+architecture section: :ref:`Documentation/x86/mds.rst <mds>`.
+
+
+Attack scenarios
+----------------
+
+Attacks against the MDS vulnerabilities can be mounted from malicious non
+priviledged user space applications running on hosts or guest. Malicious
+guest OSes can obviously mount attacks as well.
+
+Contrary to other speculation based vulnerabilities the MDS vulnerability
+does not allow the attacker to control the memory target address. As a
+consequence the attacks are purely sampling based, but as demonstrated with
+the TLBleed attack samples can be postprocessed successfully.
+
+Web-Browsers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ It's unclear whether attacks through Web-Browsers are possible at
+ all. The exploitation through Java-Script is considered very unlikely,
+ but other widely used web technologies like Webassembly could possibly be
+ abused.
+
+
+.. _mds_sys_info:
+
+MDS system information
+-----------------------
+
+The Linux kernel provides a sysfs interface to enumerate the current MDS
+status of the system: whether the system is vulnerable, and which
+mitigations are active. The relevant sysfs file is:
+
+/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/mds
+
+The possible values in this file are:
+
+ .. list-table::
+
+ * - 'Not affected'
+ - The processor is not vulnerable
+ * - 'Vulnerable'
+ - The processor is vulnerable, but no mitigation enabled
+ * - 'Vulnerable: Clear CPU buffers attempted, no microcode'
+ - The processor is vulnerable but microcode is not updated.
+
+ The mitigation is enabled on a best effort basis. See :ref:`vmwerv`
+ * - 'Mitigation: Clear CPU buffers'
+ - The processor is vulnerable and the CPU buffer clearing mitigation is
+ enabled.
+
+If the processor is vulnerable then the following information is appended
+to the above information:
+
+ ======================== ============================================
+ 'SMT vulnerable' SMT is enabled
+ 'SMT mitigated' SMT is enabled and mitigated
+ 'SMT disabled' SMT is disabled
+ 'SMT Host state unknown' Kernel runs in a VM, Host SMT state unknown
+ ======================== ============================================
+
+.. _vmwerv:
+
+Best effort mitigation mode
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ If the processor is vulnerable, but the availability of the microcode based
+ mitigation mechanism is not advertised via CPUID the kernel selects a best
+ effort mitigation mode. This mode invokes the mitigation instructions
+ without a guarantee that they clear the CPU buffers.
+
+ This is done to address virtualization scenarios where the host has the
+ microcode update applied, but the hypervisor is not yet updated to expose
+ the CPUID to the guest. If the host has updated microcode the protection
+ takes effect otherwise a few cpu cycles are wasted pointlessly.
+
+ The state in the mds sysfs file reflects this situation accordingly.
+
+
+Mitigation mechanism
+-------------------------
+
+The kernel detects the affected CPUs and the presence of the microcode
+which is required.
+
+If a CPU is affected and the microcode is available, then the kernel
+enables the mitigation by default. The mitigation can be controlled at boot
+time via a kernel command line option. See
+:ref:`mds_mitigation_control_command_line`.
+
+.. _cpu_buffer_clear:
+
+CPU buffer clearing
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The mitigation for MDS clears the affected CPU buffers on return to user
+ space and when entering a guest.
+
+ If SMT is enabled it also clears the buffers on idle entry when the CPU
+ is only affected by MSBDS and not any other MDS variant, because the
+ other variants cannot be protected against cross Hyper-Thread attacks.
+
+ For CPUs which are only affected by MSBDS the user space, guest and idle
+ transition mitigations are sufficient and SMT is not affected.
+
+.. _virt_mechanism:
+
+Virtualization mitigation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The protection for host to guest transition depends on the L1TF
+ vulnerability of the CPU:
+
+ - CPU is affected by L1TF:
+
+ If the L1D flush mitigation is enabled and up to date microcode is
+ available, the L1D flush mitigation is automatically protecting the
+ guest transition.
+
+ If the L1D flush mitigation is disabled then the MDS mitigation is
+ invoked explicit when the host MDS mitigation is enabled.
+
+ For details on L1TF and virtualization see:
+ :ref:`Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln//l1tf.rst <mitigation_control_kvm>`.
+
+ - CPU is not affected by L1TF:
+
+ CPU buffers are flushed before entering the guest when the host MDS
+ mitigation is enabled.
+
+ The resulting MDS protection matrix for the host to guest transition:
+
+ ============ ===== ============= ============ =================
+ L1TF MDS VMX-L1FLUSH Host MDS MDS-State
+
+ Don't care No Don't care N/A Not affected
+
+ Yes Yes Disabled Off Vulnerable
+
+ Yes Yes Disabled Full Mitigated
+
+ Yes Yes Enabled Don't care Mitigated
+
+ No Yes N/A Off Vulnerable
+
+ No Yes N/A Full Mitigated
+ ============ ===== ============= ============ =================
+
+ This only covers the host to guest transition, i.e. prevents leakage from
+ host to guest, but does not protect the guest internally. Guests need to
+ have their own protections.
+
+.. _xeon_phi:
+
+XEON PHI specific considerations
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The XEON PHI processor family is affected by MSBDS which can be exploited
+ cross Hyper-Threads when entering idle states. Some XEON PHI variants allow
+ to use MWAIT in user space (Ring 3) which opens an potential attack vector
+ for malicious user space. The exposure can be disabled on the kernel
+ command line with the 'ring3mwait=disable' command line option.
+
+ XEON PHI is not affected by the other MDS variants and MSBDS is mitigated
+ before the CPU enters a idle state. As XEON PHI is not affected by L1TF
+ either disabling SMT is not required for full protection.
+
+.. _mds_smt_control:
+
+SMT control
+^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ All MDS variants except MSBDS can be attacked cross Hyper-Threads. That
+ means on CPUs which are affected by MFBDS or MLPDS it is necessary to
+ disable SMT for full protection. These are most of the affected CPUs; the
+ exception is XEON PHI, see :ref:`xeon_phi`.
+
+ Disabling SMT can have a significant performance impact, but the impact
+ depends on the type of workloads.
+
+ See the relevant chapter in the L1TF mitigation documentation for details:
+ :ref:`Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst <smt_control>`.
+
+
+.. _mds_mitigation_control_command_line:
+
+Mitigation control on the kernel command line
+---------------------------------------------
+
+The kernel command line allows to control the MDS mitigations at boot
+time with the option "mds=". The valid arguments for this option are:
+
+ ============ =============================================================
+ full If the CPU is vulnerable, enable all available mitigations
+ for the MDS vulnerability, CPU buffer clearing on exit to
+ userspace and when entering a VM. Idle transitions are
+ protected as well if SMT is enabled.
+
+ It does not automatically disable SMT.
+
+ full,nosmt The same as mds=full, with SMT disabled on vulnerable
+ CPUs. This is the complete mitigation.
+
+ off Disables MDS mitigations completely.
+
+ ============ =============================================================
+
+Not specifying this option is equivalent to "mds=full".
+
+
+Mitigation selection guide
+--------------------------
+
+1. Trusted userspace
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ If all userspace applications are from a trusted source and do not
+ execute untrusted code which is supplied externally, then the mitigation
+ can be disabled.
+
+
+2. Virtualization with trusted guests
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The same considerations as above versus trusted user space apply.
+
+3. Virtualization with untrusted guests
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ The protection depends on the state of the L1TF mitigations.
+ See :ref:`virt_mechanism`.
+
+ If the MDS mitigation is enabled and SMT is disabled, guest to host and
+ guest to guest attacks are prevented.
+
+.. _mds_default_mitigations:
+
+Default mitigations
+-------------------
+
+ The kernel default mitigations for vulnerable processors are:
+
+ - Enable CPU buffer clearing
+
+ The kernel does not by default enforce the disabling of SMT, which leaves
+ SMT systems vulnerable when running untrusted code. The same rationale as
+ for L1TF applies.
+ See :ref:`Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln//l1tf.rst <default_mitigations>`.
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/index.rst
index 0a491676685e..42247516962a 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/index.rst
@@ -17,14 +17,12 @@ etc.
kernel-parameters
devices

-This section describes CPU vulnerabilities and provides an overview of the
-possible mitigations along with guidance for selecting mitigations if they
-are configurable at compile, boot or run time.
+This section describes CPU vulnerabilities and their mitigations.

.. toctree::
:maxdepth: 1

- l1tf
+ hw-vuln/index

Here is a set of documents aimed at users who are trying to track down
problems and bugs in particular.
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
index 2b8ee90bb644..c7937f379d22 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -2141,7 +2141,7 @@

Default is 'flush'.

- For details see: Documentation/admin-guide/l1tf.rst
+ For details see: Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst

l2cr= [PPC]

@@ -2387,6 +2387,32 @@
Format: <first>,<last>
Specifies range of consoles to be captured by the MDA.

+ mds= [X86,INTEL]
+ Control mitigation for the Micro-architectural Data
+ Sampling (MDS) vulnerability.
+
+ Certain CPUs are vulnerable to an exploit against CPU
+ internal buffers which can forward information to a
+ disclosure gadget under certain conditions.
+
+ In vulnerable processors, the speculatively
+ forwarded data can be used in a cache side channel
+ attack, to access data to which the attacker does
+ not have direct access.
+
+ This parameter controls the MDS mitigation. The
+ options are:
+
+ full - Enable MDS mitigation on vulnerable CPUs
+ full,nosmt - Enable MDS mitigation and disable
+ SMT on vulnerable CPUs
+ off - Unconditionally disable MDS mitigation
+
+ Not specifying this option is equivalent to
+ mds=full.
+
+ For details see: Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/mds.rst
+
mem=nn[KMG] [KNL,BOOT] Force usage of a specific amount of memory
Amount of memory to be used when the kernel is not able
to see the whole system memory or for test.
@@ -2544,6 +2570,40 @@
in the "bleeding edge" mini2440 support kernel at
http://repo.or.cz/w/linux-2.6/mini2440.git

+ mitigations=
+ [X86,PPC,S390] Control optional mitigations for CPU
+ vulnerabilities. This is a set of curated,
+ arch-independent options, each of which is an
+ aggregation of existing arch-specific options.
+
+ off
+ Disable all optional CPU mitigations. This
+ improves system performance, but it may also
+ expose users to several CPU vulnerabilities.
+ Equivalent to: nopti [X86,PPC]
+ nospectre_v1 [PPC]
+ nobp=0 [S390]
+ nospectre_v2 [X86,PPC,S390]
+ spectre_v2_user=off [X86]
+ spec_store_bypass_disable=off [X86,PPC]
+ l1tf=off [X86]
+ mds=off [X86]
+
+ auto (default)
+ Mitigate all CPU vulnerabilities, but leave SMT
+ enabled, even if it's vulnerable. This is for
+ users who don't want to be surprised by SMT
+ getting disabled across kernel upgrades, or who
+ have other ways of avoiding SMT-based attacks.
+ Equivalent to: (default behavior)
+
+ auto,nosmt
+ Mitigate all CPU vulnerabilities, disabling SMT
+ if needed. This is for users who always want to
+ be fully mitigated, even if it means losing SMT.
+ Equivalent to: l1tf=flush,nosmt [X86]
+ mds=full,nosmt [X86]
+
mminit_loglevel=
[KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_MEMORY_INIT is set, this
parameter allows control of the logging verbosity for
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/l1tf.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/l1tf.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 9af977384168..000000000000
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/l1tf.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,614 +0,0 @@
-L1TF - L1 Terminal Fault
-========================
-
-L1 Terminal Fault is a hardware vulnerability which allows unprivileged
-speculative access to data which is available in the Level 1 Data Cache
-when the page table entry controlling the virtual address, which is used
-for the access, has the Present bit cleared or other reserved bits set.
-
-Affected processors
--------------------
-
-This vulnerability affects a wide range of Intel processors. The
-vulnerability is not present on:
-
- - Processors from AMD, Centaur and other non Intel vendors
-
- - Older processor models, where the CPU family is < 6
-
- - A range of Intel ATOM processors (Cedarview, Cloverview, Lincroft,
- Penwell, Pineview, Silvermont, Airmont, Merrifield)
-
- - The Intel XEON PHI family
-
- - Intel processors which have the ARCH_CAP_RDCL_NO bit set in the
- IA32_ARCH_CAPABILITIES MSR. If the bit is set the CPU is not affected
- by the Meltdown vulnerability either. These CPUs should become
- available by end of 2018.
-
-Whether a processor is affected or not can be read out from the L1TF
-vulnerability file in sysfs. See :ref:`l1tf_sys_info`.
-
-Related CVEs
-------------
-
-The following CVE entries are related to the L1TF vulnerability:
-
- ============= ================= ==============================
- CVE-2018-3615 L1 Terminal Fault SGX related aspects
- CVE-2018-3620 L1 Terminal Fault OS, SMM related aspects
- CVE-2018-3646 L1 Terminal Fault Virtualization related aspects
- ============= ================= ==============================
-
-Problem
--------
-
-If an instruction accesses a virtual address for which the relevant page
-table entry (PTE) has the Present bit cleared or other reserved bits set,
-then speculative execution ignores the invalid PTE and loads the referenced
-data if it is present in the Level 1 Data Cache, as if the page referenced
-by the address bits in the PTE was still present and accessible.
-
-While this is a purely speculative mechanism and the instruction will raise
-a page fault when it is retired eventually, the pure act of loading the
-data and making it available to other speculative instructions opens up the
-opportunity for side channel attacks to unprivileged malicious code,
-similar to the Meltdown attack.
-
-While Meltdown breaks the user space to kernel space protection, L1TF
-allows to attack any physical memory address in the system and the attack
-works across all protection domains. It allows an attack of SGX and also
-works from inside virtual machines because the speculation bypasses the
-extended page table (EPT) protection mechanism.
-
-
-Attack scenarios
-----------------
-
-1. Malicious user space
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- Operating Systems store arbitrary information in the address bits of a
- PTE which is marked non present. This allows a malicious user space
- application to attack the physical memory to which these PTEs resolve.
- In some cases user-space can maliciously influence the information
- encoded in the address bits of the PTE, thus making attacks more
- deterministic and more practical.
-
- The Linux kernel contains a mitigation for this attack vector, PTE
- inversion, which is permanently enabled and has no performance
- impact. The kernel ensures that the address bits of PTEs, which are not
- marked present, never point to cacheable physical memory space.
-
- A system with an up to date kernel is protected against attacks from
- malicious user space applications.
-
-2. Malicious guest in a virtual machine
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- The fact that L1TF breaks all domain protections allows malicious guest
- OSes, which can control the PTEs directly, and malicious guest user
- space applications, which run on an unprotected guest kernel lacking the
- PTE inversion mitigation for L1TF, to attack physical host memory.
-
- A special aspect of L1TF in the context of virtualization is symmetric
- multi threading (SMT). The Intel implementation of SMT is called
- HyperThreading. The fact that Hyperthreads on the affected processors
- share the L1 Data Cache (L1D) is important for this. As the flaw allows
- only to attack data which is present in L1D, a malicious guest running
- on one Hyperthread can attack the data which is brought into the L1D by
- the context which runs on the sibling Hyperthread of the same physical
- core. This context can be host OS, host user space or a different guest.
-
- If the processor does not support Extended Page Tables, the attack is
- only possible, when the hypervisor does not sanitize the content of the
- effective (shadow) page tables.
-
- While solutions exist to mitigate these attack vectors fully, these
- mitigations are not enabled by default in the Linux kernel because they
- can affect performance significantly. The kernel provides several
- mechanisms which can be utilized to address the problem depending on the
- deployment scenario. The mitigations, their protection scope and impact
- are described in the next sections.
-
- The default mitigations and the rationale for choosing them are explained
- at the end of this document. See :ref:`default_mitigations`.
-
-.. _l1tf_sys_info:
-
-L1TF system information
------------------------
-
-The Linux kernel provides a sysfs interface to enumerate the current L1TF
-status of the system: whether the system is vulnerable, and which
-mitigations are active. The relevant sysfs file is:
-
-/sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/l1tf
-
-The possible values in this file are:
-
- =========================== ===============================
- 'Not affected' The processor is not vulnerable
- 'Mitigation: PTE Inversion' The host protection is active
- =========================== ===============================
-
-If KVM/VMX is enabled and the processor is vulnerable then the following
-information is appended to the 'Mitigation: PTE Inversion' part:
-
- - SMT status:
-
- ===================== ================
- 'VMX: SMT vulnerable' SMT is enabled
- 'VMX: SMT disabled' SMT is disabled
- ===================== ================
-
- - L1D Flush mode:
-
- ================================ ====================================
- 'L1D vulnerable' L1D flushing is disabled
-
- 'L1D conditional cache flushes' L1D flush is conditionally enabled
-
- 'L1D cache flushes' L1D flush is unconditionally enabled
- ================================ ====================================
-
-The resulting grade of protection is discussed in the following sections.
-
-
-Host mitigation mechanism
--------------------------
-
-The kernel is unconditionally protected against L1TF attacks from malicious
-user space running on the host.
-
-
-Guest mitigation mechanisms
----------------------------
-
-.. _l1d_flush:
-
-1. L1D flush on VMENTER
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- To make sure that a guest cannot attack data which is present in the L1D
- the hypervisor flushes the L1D before entering the guest.
-
- Flushing the L1D evicts not only the data which should not be accessed
- by a potentially malicious guest, it also flushes the guest
- data. Flushing the L1D has a performance impact as the processor has to
- bring the flushed guest data back into the L1D. Depending on the
- frequency of VMEXIT/VMENTER and the type of computations in the guest
- performance degradation in the range of 1% to 50% has been observed. For
- scenarios where guest VMEXIT/VMENTER are rare the performance impact is
- minimal. Virtio and mechanisms like posted interrupts are designed to
- confine the VMEXITs to a bare minimum, but specific configurations and
- application scenarios might still suffer from a high VMEXIT rate.
-
- The kernel provides two L1D flush modes:
- - conditional ('cond')
- - unconditional ('always')
-
- The conditional mode avoids L1D flushing after VMEXITs which execute
- only audited code paths before the corresponding VMENTER. These code
- paths have been verified that they cannot expose secrets or other
- interesting data to an attacker, but they can leak information about the
- address space layout of the hypervisor.
-
- Unconditional mode flushes L1D on all VMENTER invocations and provides
- maximum protection. It has a higher overhead than the conditional
- mode. The overhead cannot be quantified correctly as it depends on the
- workload scenario and the resulting number of VMEXITs.
-
- The general recommendation is to enable L1D flush on VMENTER. The kernel
- defaults to conditional mode on affected processors.
-
- **Note**, that L1D flush does not prevent the SMT problem because the
- sibling thread will also bring back its data into the L1D which makes it
- attackable again.
-
- L1D flush can be controlled by the administrator via the kernel command
- line and sysfs control files. See :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line`
- and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
-
-.. _guest_confinement:
-
-2. Guest VCPU confinement to dedicated physical cores
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- To address the SMT problem, it is possible to make a guest or a group of
- guests affine to one or more physical cores. The proper mechanism for
- that is to utilize exclusive cpusets to ensure that no other guest or
- host tasks can run on these cores.
-
- If only a single guest or related guests run on sibling SMT threads on
- the same physical core then they can only attack their own memory and
- restricted parts of the host memory.
-
- Host memory is attackable, when one of the sibling SMT threads runs in
- host OS (hypervisor) context and the other in guest context. The amount
- of valuable information from the host OS context depends on the context
- which the host OS executes, i.e. interrupts, soft interrupts and kernel
- threads. The amount of valuable data from these contexts cannot be
- declared as non-interesting for an attacker without deep inspection of
- the code.
-
- **Note**, that assigning guests to a fixed set of physical cores affects
- the ability of the scheduler to do load balancing and might have
- negative effects on CPU utilization depending on the hosting
- scenario. Disabling SMT might be a viable alternative for particular
- scenarios.
-
- For further information about confining guests to a single or to a group
- of cores consult the cpusets documentation:
-
- https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/cgroup-v1/cpusets.txt
-
-.. _interrupt_isolation:
-
-3. Interrupt affinity
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- Interrupts can be made affine to logical CPUs. This is not universally
- true because there are types of interrupts which are truly per CPU
- interrupts, e.g. the local timer interrupt. Aside of that multi queue
- devices affine their interrupts to single CPUs or groups of CPUs per
- queue without allowing the administrator to control the affinities.
-
- Moving the interrupts, which can be affinity controlled, away from CPUs
- which run untrusted guests, reduces the attack vector space.
-
- Whether the interrupts with are affine to CPUs, which run untrusted
- guests, provide interesting data for an attacker depends on the system
- configuration and the scenarios which run on the system. While for some
- of the interrupts it can be assumed that they won't expose interesting
- information beyond exposing hints about the host OS memory layout, there
- is no way to make general assumptions.
-
- Interrupt affinity can be controlled by the administrator via the
- /proc/irq/$NR/smp_affinity[_list] files. Limited documentation is
- available at:
-
- https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/IRQ-affinity.txt
-
-.. _smt_control:
-
-4. SMT control
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- To prevent the SMT issues of L1TF it might be necessary to disable SMT
- completely. Disabling SMT can have a significant performance impact, but
- the impact depends on the hosting scenario and the type of workloads.
- The impact of disabling SMT needs also to be weighted against the impact
- of other mitigation solutions like confining guests to dedicated cores.
-
- The kernel provides a sysfs interface to retrieve the status of SMT and
- to control it. It also provides a kernel command line interface to
- control SMT.
-
- The kernel command line interface consists of the following options:
-
- =========== ==========================================================
- nosmt Affects the bring up of the secondary CPUs during boot. The
- kernel tries to bring all present CPUs online during the
- boot process. "nosmt" makes sure that from each physical
- core only one - the so called primary (hyper) thread is
- activated. Due to a design flaw of Intel processors related
- to Machine Check Exceptions the non primary siblings have
- to be brought up at least partially and are then shut down
- again. "nosmt" can be undone via the sysfs interface.
-
- nosmt=force Has the same effect as "nosmt" but it does not allow to
- undo the SMT disable via the sysfs interface.
- =========== ==========================================================
-
- The sysfs interface provides two files:
-
- - /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/control
- - /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/active
-
- /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/control:
-
- This file allows to read out the SMT control state and provides the
- ability to disable or (re)enable SMT. The possible states are:
-
- ============== ===================================================
- on SMT is supported by the CPU and enabled. All
- logical CPUs can be onlined and offlined without
- restrictions.
-
- off SMT is supported by the CPU and disabled. Only
- the so called primary SMT threads can be onlined
- and offlined without restrictions. An attempt to
- online a non-primary sibling is rejected
-
- forceoff Same as 'off' but the state cannot be controlled.
- Attempts to write to the control file are rejected.
-
- notsupported The processor does not support SMT. It's therefore
- not affected by the SMT implications of L1TF.
- Attempts to write to the control file are rejected.
- ============== ===================================================
-
- The possible states which can be written into this file to control SMT
- state are:
-
- - on
- - off
- - forceoff
-
- /sys/devices/system/cpu/smt/active:
-
- This file reports whether SMT is enabled and active, i.e. if on any
- physical core two or more sibling threads are online.
-
- SMT control is also possible at boot time via the l1tf kernel command
- line parameter in combination with L1D flush control. See
- :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line`.
-
-5. Disabling EPT
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- Disabling EPT for virtual machines provides full mitigation for L1TF even
- with SMT enabled, because the effective page tables for guests are
- managed and sanitized by the hypervisor. Though disabling EPT has a
- significant performance impact especially when the Meltdown mitigation
- KPTI is enabled.
-
- EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept' parameter.
-
-There is ongoing research and development for new mitigation mechanisms to
-address the performance impact of disabling SMT or EPT.
-
-.. _mitigation_control_command_line:
-
-Mitigation control on the kernel command line
----------------------------------------------
-
-The kernel command line allows to control the L1TF mitigations at boot
-time with the option "l1tf=". The valid arguments for this option are:
-
- ============ =============================================================
- full Provides all available mitigations for the L1TF
- vulnerability. Disables SMT and enables all mitigations in
- the hypervisors, i.e. unconditional L1D flushing
-
- SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
- is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
- warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
- insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
- disabled.
-
- full,force Same as 'full', but disables SMT and L1D flush runtime
- control. Implies the 'nosmt=force' command line option.
- (i.e. sysfs control of SMT is disabled.)
-
- flush Leaves SMT enabled and enables the default hypervisor
- mitigation, i.e. conditional L1D flushing
-
- SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
- is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
- warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
- insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
- disabled.
-
- flush,nosmt Disables SMT and enables the default hypervisor mitigation,
- i.e. conditional L1D flushing.
-
- SMT control and L1D flush control via the sysfs interface
- is still possible after boot. Hypervisors will issue a
- warning when the first VM is started in a potentially
- insecure configuration, i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush
- disabled.
-
- flush,nowarn Same as 'flush', but hypervisors will not warn when a VM is
- started in a potentially insecure configuration.
-
- off Disables hypervisor mitigations and doesn't emit any
- warnings.
- It also drops the swap size and available RAM limit restrictions
- on both hypervisor and bare metal.
-
- ============ =============================================================
-
-The default is 'flush'. For details about L1D flushing see :ref:`l1d_flush`.
-
-
-.. _mitigation_control_kvm:
-
-Mitigation control for KVM - module parameter
--------------------------------------------------------------
-
-The KVM hypervisor mitigation mechanism, flushing the L1D cache when
-entering a guest, can be controlled with a module parameter.
-
-The option/parameter is "kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush=". It takes the
-following arguments:
-
- ============ ==============================================================
- always L1D cache flush on every VMENTER.
-
- cond Flush L1D on VMENTER only when the code between VMEXIT and
- VMENTER can leak host memory which is considered
- interesting for an attacker. This still can leak host memory
- which allows e.g. to determine the hosts address space layout.
-
- never Disables the mitigation
- ============ ==============================================================
-
-The parameter can be provided on the kernel command line, as a module
-parameter when loading the modules and at runtime modified via the sysfs
-file:
-
-/sys/module/kvm_intel/parameters/vmentry_l1d_flush
-
-The default is 'cond'. If 'l1tf=full,force' is given on the kernel command
-line, then 'always' is enforced and the kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush
-module parameter is ignored and writes to the sysfs file are rejected.
-
-
-Mitigation selection guide
---------------------------
-
-1. No virtualization in use
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- The system is protected by the kernel unconditionally and no further
- action is required.
-
-2. Virtualization with trusted guests
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
- If the guest comes from a trusted source and the guest OS kernel is
- guaranteed to have the L1TF mitigations in place the system is fully
- protected against L1TF and no further action is required.
-
- To avoid the overhead of the default L1D flushing on VMENTER the
- administrator can disable the flushing via the kernel command line and
- sysfs control files. See :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and
- :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
-
-
-3. Virtualization with untrusted guests
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-
-3.1. SMT not supported or disabled
-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
-
- If SMT is not supported by the processor or disabled in the BIOS or by
- the kernel, it's only required to enforce L1D flushing on VMENTER.
-
- Conditional L1D flushing is the default behaviour and can be tuned. See
- :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
-
-3.2. EPT not supported or disabled
-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
-
- If EPT is not supported by the processor or disabled in the hypervisor,
- the system is fully protected. SMT can stay enabled and L1D flushing on
- VMENTER is not required.
-
- EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept' parameter.
-
-3.3. SMT and EPT supported and active
-"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
-
- If SMT and EPT are supported and active then various degrees of
- mitigations can be employed:
-
- - L1D flushing on VMENTER:
-
- L1D flushing on VMENTER is the minimal protection requirement, but it
- is only potent in combination with other mitigation methods.
-
- Conditional L1D flushing is the default behaviour and can be tuned. See
- :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
-
- - Guest confinement:
-
- Confinement of guests to a single or a group of physical cores which
- are not running any other processes, can reduce the attack surface
- significantly, but interrupts, soft interrupts and kernel threads can
- still expose valuable data to a potential attacker. See
- :ref:`guest_confinement`.
-
- - Interrupt isolation:
-
- Isolating the guest CPUs from interrupts can reduce the attack surface
- further, but still allows a malicious guest to explore a limited amount
- of host physical memory. This can at least be used to gain knowledge
- about the host address space layout. The interrupts which have a fixed
- affinity to the CPUs which run the untrusted guests can depending on
- the scenario still trigger soft interrupts and schedule kernel threads
- which might expose valuable information. See
- :ref:`interrupt_isolation`.
-
-The above three mitigation methods combined can provide protection to a
-certain degree, but the risk of the remaining attack surface has to be
-carefully analyzed. For full protection the following methods are
-available:
-
- - Disabling SMT:
-
- Disabling SMT and enforcing the L1D flushing provides the maximum
- amount of protection. This mitigation is not depending on any of the
- above mitigation methods.
-
- SMT control and L1D flushing can be tuned by the command line
- parameters 'nosmt', 'l1tf', 'kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush' and at run
- time with the matching sysfs control files. See :ref:`smt_control`,
- :ref:`mitigation_control_command_line` and
- :ref:`mitigation_control_kvm`.
-
- - Disabling EPT:
-
- Disabling EPT provides the maximum amount of protection as well. It is
- not depending on any of the above mitigation methods. SMT can stay
- enabled and L1D flushing is not required, but the performance impact is
- significant.
-
- EPT can be disabled in the hypervisor via the 'kvm-intel.ept'
- parameter.
-
-3.4. Nested virtual machines
-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
-
-When nested virtualization is in use, three operating systems are involved:
-the bare metal hypervisor, the nested hypervisor and the nested virtual
-machine. VMENTER operations from the nested hypervisor into the nested
-guest will always be processed by the bare metal hypervisor. If KVM is the
-bare metal hypervisor it will:
-
- - Flush the L1D cache on every switch from the nested hypervisor to the
- nested virtual machine, so that the nested hypervisor's secrets are not
- exposed to the nested virtual machine;
-
- - Flush the L1D cache on every switch from the nested virtual machine to
- the nested hypervisor; this is a complex operation, and flushing the L1D
- cache avoids that the bare metal hypervisor's secrets are exposed to the
- nested virtual machine;
-
- - Instruct the nested hypervisor to not perform any L1D cache flush. This
- is an optimization to avoid double L1D flushing.
-
-
-.. _default_mitigations:
-
-Default mitigations
--------------------
-
- The kernel default mitigations for vulnerable processors are:
-
- - PTE inversion to protect against malicious user space. This is done
- unconditionally and cannot be controlled. The swap storage is limited
- to ~16TB.
-
- - L1D conditional flushing on VMENTER when EPT is enabled for
- a guest.
-
- The kernel does not by default enforce the disabling of SMT, which leaves
- SMT systems vulnerable when running untrusted guests with EPT enabled.
-
- The rationale for this choice is:
-
- - Force disabling SMT can break existing setups, especially with
- unattended updates.
-
- - If regular users run untrusted guests on their machine, then L1TF is
- just an add on to other malware which might be embedded in an untrusted
- guest, e.g. spam-bots or attacks on the local network.
-
- There is no technical way to prevent a user from running untrusted code
- on their machines blindly.
-
- - It's technically extremely unlikely and from today's knowledge even
- impossible that L1TF can be exploited via the most popular attack
- mechanisms like JavaScript because these mechanisms have no way to
- control PTEs. If this would be possible and not other mitigation would
- be possible, then the default might be different.
-
- - The administrators of cloud and hosting setups have to carefully
- analyze the risk for their scenarios and make the appropriate
- mitigation choices, which might even vary across their deployed
- machines and also result in other changes of their overall setup.
- There is no way for the kernel to provide a sensible default for this
- kind of scenarios.
diff --git a/Documentation/index.rst b/Documentation/index.rst
index 80a421cb935e..3511400dc092 100644
--- a/Documentation/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/index.rst
@@ -102,6 +102,7 @@ implementation.
:maxdepth: 2

sh/index
+ x86/index

Filesystem Documentation
------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/conf.py b/Documentation/x86/conf.py
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..33c5c3142e20
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/x86/conf.py
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+# -*- coding: utf-8; mode: python -*-
+
+project = "X86 architecture specific documentation"
+
+tags.add("subproject")
+
+latex_documents = [
+ ('index', 'x86.tex', project,
+ 'The kernel development community', 'manual'),
+]
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/index.rst b/Documentation/x86/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ef389dcf1b1d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/x86/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+==========================
+x86 architecture specifics
+==========================
+
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 1
+
+ mds
diff --git a/Documentation/x86/mds.rst b/Documentation/x86/mds.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..534e9baa4e1d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/x86/mds.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,225 @@
+Microarchitectural Data Sampling (MDS) mitigation
+=================================================
+
+.. _mds:
+
+Overview
+--------
+
+Microarchitectural Data Sampling (MDS) is a family of side channel attacks
+on internal buffers in Intel CPUs. The variants are:
+
+ - Microarchitectural Store Buffer Data Sampling (MSBDS) (CVE-2018-12126)
+ - Microarchitectural Fill Buffer Data Sampling (MFBDS) (CVE-2018-12130)
+ - Microarchitectural Load Port Data Sampling (MLPDS) (CVE-2018-12127)
+ - Microarchitectural Data Sampling Uncacheable Memory (MDSUM) (CVE-2019-11091)
+
+MSBDS leaks Store Buffer Entries which can be speculatively forwarded to a
+dependent load (store-to-load forwarding) as an optimization. The forward
+can also happen to a faulting or assisting load operation for a different
+memory address, which can be exploited under certain conditions. Store
+buffers are partitioned between Hyper-Threads so cross thread forwarding is
+not possible. But if a thread enters or exits a sleep state the store
+buffer is repartitioned which can expose data from one thread to the other.
+
+MFBDS leaks Fill Buffer Entries. Fill buffers are used internally to manage
+L1 miss situations and to hold data which is returned or sent in response
+to a memory or I/O operation. Fill buffers can forward data to a load
+operation and also write data to the cache. When the fill buffer is
+deallocated it can retain the stale data of the preceding operations which
+can then be forwarded to a faulting or assisting load operation, which can
+be exploited under certain conditions. Fill buffers are shared between
+Hyper-Threads so cross thread leakage is possible.
+
+MLPDS leaks Load Port Data. Load ports are used to perform load operations
+from memory or I/O. The received data is then forwarded to the register
+file or a subsequent operation. In some implementations the Load Port can
+contain stale data from a previous operation which can be forwarded to
+faulting or assisting loads under certain conditions, which again can be
+exploited eventually. Load ports are shared between Hyper-Threads so cross
+thread leakage is possible.
+
+MDSUM is a special case of MSBDS, MFBDS and MLPDS. An uncacheable load from
+memory that takes a fault or assist can leave data in a microarchitectural
+structure that may later be observed using one of the same methods used by
+MSBDS, MFBDS or MLPDS.
+
+Exposure assumptions
+--------------------
+
+It is assumed that attack code resides in user space or in a guest with one
+exception. The rationale behind this assumption is that the code construct
+needed for exploiting MDS requires:
+
+ - to control the load to trigger a fault or assist
+
+ - to have a disclosure gadget which exposes the speculatively accessed
+ data for consumption through a side channel.
+
+ - to control the pointer through which the disclosure gadget exposes the
+ data
+
+The existence of such a construct in the kernel cannot be excluded with
+100% certainty, but the complexity involved makes it extremly unlikely.
+
+There is one exception, which is untrusted BPF. The functionality of
+untrusted BPF is limited, but it needs to be thoroughly investigated
+whether it can be used to create such a construct.
+
+
+Mitigation strategy
+-------------------
+
+All variants have the same mitigation strategy at least for the single CPU
+thread case (SMT off): Force the CPU to clear the affected buffers.
+
+This is achieved by using the otherwise unused and obsolete VERW
+instruction in combination with a microcode update. The microcode clears
+the affected CPU buffers when the VERW instruction is executed.
+
+For virtualization there are two ways to achieve CPU buffer
+clearing. Either the modified VERW instruction or via the L1D Flush
+command. The latter is issued when L1TF mitigation is enabled so the extra
+VERW can be avoided. If the CPU is not affected by L1TF then VERW needs to
+be issued.
+
+If the VERW instruction with the supplied segment selector argument is
+executed on a CPU without the microcode update there is no side effect
+other than a small number of pointlessly wasted CPU cycles.
+
+This does not protect against cross Hyper-Thread attacks except for MSBDS
+which is only exploitable cross Hyper-thread when one of the Hyper-Threads
+enters a C-state.
+
+The kernel provides a function to invoke the buffer clearing:
+
+ mds_clear_cpu_buffers()
+
+The mitigation is invoked on kernel/userspace, hypervisor/guest and C-state
+(idle) transitions.
+
+As a special quirk to address virtualization scenarios where the host has
+the microcode updated, but the hypervisor does not (yet) expose the
+MD_CLEAR CPUID bit to guests, the kernel issues the VERW instruction in the
+hope that it might actually clear the buffers. The state is reflected
+accordingly.
+
+According to current knowledge additional mitigations inside the kernel
+itself are not required because the necessary gadgets to expose the leaked
+data cannot be controlled in a way which allows exploitation from malicious
+user space or VM guests.
+
+Kernel internal mitigation modes
+--------------------------------
+
+ ======= ============================================================
+ off Mitigation is disabled. Either the CPU is not affected or
+ mds=off is supplied on the kernel command line
+
+ full Mitigation is enabled. CPU is affected and MD_CLEAR is
+ advertised in CPUID.
+
+ vmwerv Mitigation is enabled. CPU is affected and MD_CLEAR is not
+ advertised in CPUID. That is mainly for virtualization
+ scenarios where the host has the updated microcode but the
+ hypervisor does not expose MD_CLEAR in CPUID. It's a best
+ effort approach without guarantee.
+ ======= ============================================================
+
+If the CPU is affected and mds=off is not supplied on the kernel command
+line then the kernel selects the appropriate mitigation mode depending on
+the availability of the MD_CLEAR CPUID bit.
+
+Mitigation points
+-----------------
+
+1. Return to user space
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ When transitioning from kernel to user space the CPU buffers are flushed
+ on affected CPUs when the mitigation is not disabled on the kernel
+ command line. The migitation is enabled through the static key
+ mds_user_clear.
+
+ The mitigation is invoked in prepare_exit_to_usermode() which covers
+ most of the kernel to user space transitions. There are a few exceptions
+ which are not invoking prepare_exit_to_usermode() on return to user
+ space. These exceptions use the paranoid exit code.
+
+ - Non Maskable Interrupt (NMI):
+
+ Access to sensible data like keys, credentials in the NMI context is
+ mostly theoretical: The CPU can do prefetching or execute a
+ misspeculated code path and thereby fetching data which might end up
+ leaking through a buffer.
+
+ But for mounting other attacks the kernel stack address of the task is
+ already valuable information. So in full mitigation mode, the NMI is
+ mitigated on the return from do_nmi() to provide almost complete
+ coverage.
+
+ - Double fault (#DF):
+
+ A double fault is usually fatal, but the ESPFIX workaround, which can
+ be triggered from user space through modify_ldt(2) is a recoverable
+ double fault. #DF uses the paranoid exit path, so explicit mitigation
+ in the double fault handler is required.
+
+ - Machine Check Exception (#MC):
+
+ Another corner case is a #MC which hits between the CPU buffer clear
+ invocation and the actual return to user. As this still is in kernel
+ space it takes the paranoid exit path which does not clear the CPU
+ buffers. So the #MC handler repopulates the buffers to some
+ extent. Machine checks are not reliably controllable and the window is
+ extremly small so mitigation would just tick a checkbox that this
+ theoretical corner case is covered. To keep the amount of special
+ cases small, ignore #MC.
+
+ - Debug Exception (#DB):
+
+ This takes the paranoid exit path only when the INT1 breakpoint is in
+ kernel space. #DB on a user space address takes the regular exit path,
+ so no extra mitigation required.
+
+
+2. C-State transition
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+ When a CPU goes idle and enters a C-State the CPU buffers need to be
+ cleared on affected CPUs when SMT is active. This addresses the
+ repartitioning of the store buffer when one of the Hyper-Threads enters
+ a C-State.
+
+ When SMT is inactive, i.e. either the CPU does not support it or all
+ sibling threads are offline CPU buffer clearing is not required.
+
+ The idle clearing is enabled on CPUs which are only affected by MSBDS
+ and not by any other MDS variant. The other MDS variants cannot be
+ protected against cross Hyper-Thread attacks because the Fill Buffer and
+ the Load Ports are shared. So on CPUs affected by other variants, the
+ idle clearing would be a window dressing exercise and is therefore not
+ activated.
+
+ The invocation is controlled by the static key mds_idle_clear which is
+ switched depending on the chosen mitigation mode and the SMT state of
+ the system.
+
+ The buffer clear is only invoked before entering the C-State to prevent
+ that stale data from the idling CPU from spilling to the Hyper-Thread
+ sibling after the store buffer got repartitioned and all entries are
+ available to the non idle sibling.
+
+ When coming out of idle the store buffer is partitioned again so each
+ sibling has half of it available. The back from idle CPU could be then
+ speculatively exposed to contents of the sibling. The buffers are
+ flushed either on exit to user space or on VMENTER so malicious code
+ in user space or the guest cannot speculatively access them.
+
+ The mitigation is hooked into all variants of halt()/mwait(), but does
+ not cover the legacy ACPI IO-Port mechanism because the ACPI idle driver
+ has been superseded by the intel_idle driver around 2010 and is
+ preferred on all affected CPUs which are expected to gain the MD_CLEAR
+ functionality in microcode. Aside of that the IO-Port mechanism is a
+ legacy interface which is only used on older systems which are either
+ not affected or do not receive microcode updates anymore.
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index bf604f77e5e5..58ec07990e76 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
VERSION = 5
PATCHLEVEL = 1
-SUBLEVEL = 1
+SUBLEVEL = 2
EXTRAVERSION =
NAME = Shy Crocodile

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/security.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/security.c
index b33bafb8fcea..70568ccbd9fd 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/security.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/security.c
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ void setup_barrier_nospec(void)
enable = security_ftr_enabled(SEC_FTR_FAVOUR_SECURITY) &&
security_ftr_enabled(SEC_FTR_BNDS_CHK_SPEC_BAR);

- if (!no_nospec)
+ if (!no_nospec && !cpu_mitigations_off())
enable_barrier_nospec(enable);
}

@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ static int __init handle_nospectre_v2(char *p)
early_param("nospectre_v2", handle_nospectre_v2);
void setup_spectre_v2(void)
{
- if (no_spectrev2)
+ if (no_spectrev2 || cpu_mitigations_off())
do_btb_flush_fixups();
else
btb_flush_enabled = true;
@@ -300,7 +300,7 @@ void setup_stf_barrier(void)

stf_enabled_flush_types = type;

- if (!no_stf_barrier)
+ if (!no_stf_barrier && !cpu_mitigations_off())
stf_barrier_enable(enable);
}

diff --git a/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup_64.c b/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup_64.c
index ba404dd9ce1d..4f49e1a3594c 100644
--- a/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup_64.c
+++ b/arch/powerpc/kernel/setup_64.c
@@ -932,7 +932,7 @@ void setup_rfi_flush(enum l1d_flush_type types, bool enable)

enabled_flush_types = types;

- if (!no_rfi_flush)
+ if (!no_rfi_flush && !cpu_mitigations_off())
rfi_flush_enable(enable);
}

diff --git a/arch/s390/kernel/nospec-branch.c b/arch/s390/kernel/nospec-branch.c
index bdddaae96559..649135cbedd5 100644
--- a/arch/s390/kernel/nospec-branch.c
+++ b/arch/s390/kernel/nospec-branch.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/device.h>
+#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>

static int __init nobp_setup_early(char *str)
@@ -58,7 +59,7 @@ early_param("nospectre_v2", nospectre_v2_setup_early);

void __init nospec_auto_detect(void)
{
- if (test_facility(156)) {
+ if (test_facility(156) || cpu_mitigations_off()) {
/*
* The machine supports etokens.
* Disable expolines and disable nobp.
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/common.c b/arch/x86/entry/common.c
index 7bc105f47d21..19f650d729f5 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/common.c
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/common.c
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
#include <asm/vdso.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/cpufeature.h>
+#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>

#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/syscalls.h>
@@ -212,6 +213,8 @@ __visible inline void prepare_exit_to_usermode(struct pt_regs *regs)
#endif

user_enter_irqoff();
+
+ mds_user_clear_cpu_buffers();
}

#define SYSCALL_EXIT_WORK_FLAGS \
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
index 981ff9479648..75f27ee2c263 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h
@@ -344,6 +344,7 @@
/* Intel-defined CPU features, CPUID level 0x00000007:0 (EDX), word 18 */
#define X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4VNNIW (18*32+ 2) /* AVX-512 Neural Network Instructions */
#define X86_FEATURE_AVX512_4FMAPS (18*32+ 3) /* AVX-512 Multiply Accumulation Single precision */
+#define X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR (18*32+10) /* VERW clears CPU buffers */
#define X86_FEATURE_TSX_FORCE_ABORT (18*32+13) /* "" TSX_FORCE_ABORT */
#define X86_FEATURE_PCONFIG (18*32+18) /* Intel PCONFIG */
#define X86_FEATURE_SPEC_CTRL (18*32+26) /* "" Speculation Control (IBRS + IBPB) */
@@ -382,5 +383,7 @@
#define X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V2 X86_BUG(16) /* CPU is affected by Spectre variant 2 attack with indirect branches */
#define X86_BUG_SPEC_STORE_BYPASS X86_BUG(17) /* CPU is affected by speculative store bypass attack */
#define X86_BUG_L1TF X86_BUG(18) /* CPU is affected by L1 Terminal Fault */
+#define X86_BUG_MDS X86_BUG(19) /* CPU is affected by Microarchitectural data sampling */
+#define X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY X86_BUG(20) /* CPU is only affected by the MSDBS variant of BUG_MDS */

#endif /* _ASM_X86_CPUFEATURES_H */
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
index 058e40fed167..8a0e56e1dcc9 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/irqflags.h
@@ -6,6 +6,8 @@

#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__

+#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>
+
/* Provide __cpuidle; we can't safely include <linux/cpu.h> */
#define __cpuidle __attribute__((__section__(".cpuidle.text")))

@@ -54,11 +56,13 @@ static inline void native_irq_enable(void)

static inline __cpuidle void native_safe_halt(void)
{
+ mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers();
asm volatile("sti; hlt": : :"memory");
}

static inline __cpuidle void native_halt(void)
{
+ mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers();
asm volatile("hlt": : :"memory");
}

diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h
index ca5bc0eacb95..20f7da552e90 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h
@@ -2,6 +2,8 @@
#ifndef _ASM_X86_MSR_INDEX_H
#define _ASM_X86_MSR_INDEX_H

+#include <linux/bits.h>
+
/*
* CPU model specific register (MSR) numbers.
*
@@ -40,14 +42,14 @@
/* Intel MSRs. Some also available on other CPUs */

#define MSR_IA32_SPEC_CTRL 0x00000048 /* Speculation Control */
-#define SPEC_CTRL_IBRS (1 << 0) /* Indirect Branch Restricted Speculation */
+#define SPEC_CTRL_IBRS BIT(0) /* Indirect Branch Restricted Speculation */
#define SPEC_CTRL_STIBP_SHIFT 1 /* Single Thread Indirect Branch Predictor (STIBP) bit */
-#define SPEC_CTRL_STIBP (1 << SPEC_CTRL_STIBP_SHIFT) /* STIBP mask */
+#define SPEC_CTRL_STIBP BIT(SPEC_CTRL_STIBP_SHIFT) /* STIBP mask */
#define SPEC_CTRL_SSBD_SHIFT 2 /* Speculative Store Bypass Disable bit */
-#define SPEC_CTRL_SSBD (1 << SPEC_CTRL_SSBD_SHIFT) /* Speculative Store Bypass Disable */
+#define SPEC_CTRL_SSBD BIT(SPEC_CTRL_SSBD_SHIFT) /* Speculative Store Bypass Disable */

#define MSR_IA32_PRED_CMD 0x00000049 /* Prediction Command */
-#define PRED_CMD_IBPB (1 << 0) /* Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier */
+#define PRED_CMD_IBPB BIT(0) /* Indirect Branch Prediction Barrier */

#define MSR_PPIN_CTL 0x0000004e
#define MSR_PPIN 0x0000004f
@@ -69,20 +71,25 @@
#define MSR_MTRRcap 0x000000fe

#define MSR_IA32_ARCH_CAPABILITIES 0x0000010a
-#define ARCH_CAP_RDCL_NO (1 << 0) /* Not susceptible to Meltdown */
-#define ARCH_CAP_IBRS_ALL (1 << 1) /* Enhanced IBRS support */
-#define ARCH_CAP_SKIP_VMENTRY_L1DFLUSH (1 << 3) /* Skip L1D flush on vmentry */
-#define ARCH_CAP_SSB_NO (1 << 4) /*
- * Not susceptible to Speculative Store Bypass
- * attack, so no Speculative Store Bypass
- * control required.
- */
+#define ARCH_CAP_RDCL_NO BIT(0) /* Not susceptible to Meltdown */
+#define ARCH_CAP_IBRS_ALL BIT(1) /* Enhanced IBRS support */
+#define ARCH_CAP_SKIP_VMENTRY_L1DFLUSH BIT(3) /* Skip L1D flush on vmentry */
+#define ARCH_CAP_SSB_NO BIT(4) /*
+ * Not susceptible to Speculative Store Bypass
+ * attack, so no Speculative Store Bypass
+ * control required.
+ */
+#define ARCH_CAP_MDS_NO BIT(5) /*
+ * Not susceptible to
+ * Microarchitectural Data
+ * Sampling (MDS) vulnerabilities.
+ */

#define MSR_IA32_FLUSH_CMD 0x0000010b
-#define L1D_FLUSH (1 << 0) /*
- * Writeback and invalidate the
- * L1 data cache.
- */
+#define L1D_FLUSH BIT(0) /*
+ * Writeback and invalidate the
+ * L1 data cache.
+ */

#define MSR_IA32_BBL_CR_CTL 0x00000119
#define MSR_IA32_BBL_CR_CTL3 0x0000011e
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/mwait.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/mwait.h
index 39a2fb29378a..eb0f80ce8524 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/mwait.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/mwait.h
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
#include <linux/sched/idle.h>

#include <asm/cpufeature.h>
+#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>

#define MWAIT_SUBSTATE_MASK 0xf
#define MWAIT_CSTATE_MASK 0xf
@@ -40,6 +41,8 @@ static inline void __monitorx(const void *eax, unsigned long ecx,

static inline void __mwait(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ecx)
{
+ mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers();
+
/* "mwait %eax, %ecx;" */
asm volatile(".byte 0x0f, 0x01, 0xc9;"
:: "a" (eax), "c" (ecx));
@@ -74,6 +77,8 @@ static inline void __mwait(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ecx)
static inline void __mwaitx(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ebx,
unsigned long ecx)
{
+ /* No MDS buffer clear as this is AMD/HYGON only */
+
/* "mwaitx %eax, %ebx, %ecx;" */
asm volatile(".byte 0x0f, 0x01, 0xfb;"
:: "a" (eax), "b" (ebx), "c" (ecx));
@@ -81,6 +86,8 @@ static inline void __mwaitx(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ebx,

static inline void __sti_mwait(unsigned long eax, unsigned long ecx)
{
+ mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers();
+
trace_hardirqs_on();
/* "mwait %eax, %ecx;" */
asm volatile("sti; .byte 0x0f, 0x01, 0xc9;"
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
index dad12b767ba0..4e970390110f 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/nospec-branch.h
@@ -318,6 +318,56 @@ DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(switch_to_cond_stibp);
DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(switch_mm_cond_ibpb);
DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(switch_mm_always_ibpb);

+DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(mds_user_clear);
+DECLARE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(mds_idle_clear);
+
+#include <asm/segment.h>
+
+/**
+ * mds_clear_cpu_buffers - Mitigation for MDS vulnerability
+ *
+ * This uses the otherwise unused and obsolete VERW instruction in
+ * combination with microcode which triggers a CPU buffer flush when the
+ * instruction is executed.
+ */
+static inline void mds_clear_cpu_buffers(void)
+{
+ static const u16 ds = __KERNEL_DS;
+
+ /*
+ * Has to be the memory-operand variant because only that
+ * guarantees the CPU buffer flush functionality according to
+ * documentation. The register-operand variant does not.
+ * Works with any segment selector, but a valid writable
+ * data segment is the fastest variant.
+ *
+ * "cc" clobber is required because VERW modifies ZF.
+ */
+ asm volatile("verw %[ds]" : : [ds] "m" (ds) : "cc");
+}
+
+/**
+ * mds_user_clear_cpu_buffers - Mitigation for MDS vulnerability
+ *
+ * Clear CPU buffers if the corresponding static key is enabled
+ */
+static inline void mds_user_clear_cpu_buffers(void)
+{
+ if (static_branch_likely(&mds_user_clear))
+ mds_clear_cpu_buffers();
+}
+
+/**
+ * mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers - Mitigation for MDS vulnerability
+ *
+ * Clear CPU buffers if the corresponding static key is enabled
+ */
+static inline void mds_idle_clear_cpu_buffers(void)
+{
+ if (static_branch_likely(&mds_idle_clear))
+ mds_clear_cpu_buffers();
+}
+
#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */

/*
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
index 2bb3a648fc12..31e9895db75e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
@@ -991,4 +991,10 @@ enum l1tf_mitigations {

extern enum l1tf_mitigations l1tf_mitigation;

+enum mds_mitigations {
+ MDS_MITIGATION_OFF,
+ MDS_MITIGATION_FULL,
+ MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV,
+};
+
#endif /* _ASM_X86_PROCESSOR_H */
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
index b91b3bfa5cfb..03b4cc0ec3a7 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/bugs.c
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@
static void __init spectre_v2_select_mitigation(void);
static void __init ssb_select_mitigation(void);
static void __init l1tf_select_mitigation(void);
+static void __init mds_select_mitigation(void);

/* The base value of the SPEC_CTRL MSR that always has to be preserved. */
u64 x86_spec_ctrl_base;
@@ -63,6 +64,13 @@ DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(switch_mm_cond_ibpb);
/* Control unconditional IBPB in switch_mm() */
DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(switch_mm_always_ibpb);

+/* Control MDS CPU buffer clear before returning to user space */
+DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(mds_user_clear);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(mds_user_clear);
+/* Control MDS CPU buffer clear before idling (halt, mwait) */
+DEFINE_STATIC_KEY_FALSE(mds_idle_clear);
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(mds_idle_clear);
+
void __init check_bugs(void)
{
identify_boot_cpu();
@@ -101,6 +109,10 @@ void __init check_bugs(void)

l1tf_select_mitigation();

+ mds_select_mitigation();
+
+ arch_smt_update();
+
#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
/*
* Check whether we are able to run this kernel safely on SMP.
@@ -206,6 +218,61 @@ static void x86_amd_ssb_disable(void)
wrmsrl(MSR_AMD64_LS_CFG, msrval);
}

+#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "MDS: " fmt
+
+/* Default mitigation for MDS-affected CPUs */
+static enum mds_mitigations mds_mitigation __ro_after_init = MDS_MITIGATION_FULL;
+static bool mds_nosmt __ro_after_init = false;
+
+static const char * const mds_strings[] = {
+ [MDS_MITIGATION_OFF] = "Vulnerable",
+ [MDS_MITIGATION_FULL] = "Mitigation: Clear CPU buffers",
+ [MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV] = "Vulnerable: Clear CPU buffers attempted, no microcode",
+};
+
+static void __init mds_select_mitigation(void)
+{
+ if (!boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_MDS) || cpu_mitigations_off()) {
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_OFF;
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (mds_mitigation == MDS_MITIGATION_FULL) {
+ if (!boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_MD_CLEAR))
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV;
+
+ static_branch_enable(&mds_user_clear);
+
+ if (!boot_cpu_has(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY) &&
+ (mds_nosmt || cpu_mitigations_auto_nosmt()))
+ cpu_smt_disable(false);
+ }
+
+ pr_info("%s\n", mds_strings[mds_mitigation]);
+}
+
+static int __init mds_cmdline(char *str)
+{
+ if (!boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_MDS))
+ return 0;
+
+ if (!str)
+ return -EINVAL;
+
+ if (!strcmp(str, "off"))
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_OFF;
+ else if (!strcmp(str, "full"))
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_FULL;
+ else if (!strcmp(str, "full,nosmt")) {
+ mds_mitigation = MDS_MITIGATION_FULL;
+ mds_nosmt = true;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+early_param("mds", mds_cmdline);
+
#undef pr_fmt
#define pr_fmt(fmt) "Spectre V2 : " fmt

@@ -440,7 +507,8 @@ static enum spectre_v2_mitigation_cmd __init spectre_v2_parse_cmdline(void)
char arg[20];
int ret, i;

- if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nospectre_v2"))
+ if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nospectre_v2") ||
+ cpu_mitigations_off())
return SPECTRE_V2_CMD_NONE;

ret = cmdline_find_option(boot_command_line, "spectre_v2", arg, sizeof(arg));
@@ -574,9 +642,6 @@ static void __init spectre_v2_select_mitigation(void)

/* Set up IBPB and STIBP depending on the general spectre V2 command */
spectre_v2_user_select_mitigation(cmd);
-
- /* Enable STIBP if appropriate */
- arch_smt_update();
}

static void update_stibp_msr(void * __unused)
@@ -610,6 +675,31 @@ static void update_indir_branch_cond(void)
static_branch_disable(&switch_to_cond_stibp);
}

+#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) fmt
+
+/* Update the static key controlling the MDS CPU buffer clear in idle */
+static void update_mds_branch_idle(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * Enable the idle clearing if SMT is active on CPUs which are
+ * affected only by MSBDS and not any other MDS variant.
+ *
+ * The other variants cannot be mitigated when SMT is enabled, so
+ * clearing the buffers on idle just to prevent the Store Buffer
+ * repartitioning leak would be a window dressing exercise.
+ */
+ if (!boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY))
+ return;
+
+ if (sched_smt_active())
+ static_branch_enable(&mds_idle_clear);
+ else
+ static_branch_disable(&mds_idle_clear);
+}
+
+#define MDS_MSG_SMT "MDS CPU bug present and SMT on, data leak possible. See https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/hw-vuln/mds.html for more details.\n"
+
void arch_smt_update(void)
{
/* Enhanced IBRS implies STIBP. No update required. */
@@ -631,6 +721,17 @@ void arch_smt_update(void)
break;
}

+ switch (mds_mitigation) {
+ case MDS_MITIGATION_FULL:
+ case MDS_MITIGATION_VMWERV:
+ if (sched_smt_active() && !boot_cpu_has(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY))
+ pr_warn_once(MDS_MSG_SMT);
+ update_mds_branch_idle();
+ break;
+ case MDS_MITIGATION_OFF:
+ break;
+ }
+
mutex_unlock(&spec_ctrl_mutex);
}

@@ -672,7 +773,8 @@ static enum ssb_mitigation_cmd __init ssb_parse_cmdline(void)
char arg[20];
int ret, i;

- if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nospec_store_bypass_disable")) {
+ if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nospec_store_bypass_disable") ||
+ cpu_mitigations_off()) {
return SPEC_STORE_BYPASS_CMD_NONE;
} else {
ret = cmdline_find_option(boot_command_line, "spec_store_bypass_disable",
@@ -1008,6 +1110,11 @@ static void __init l1tf_select_mitigation(void)
if (!boot_cpu_has_bug(X86_BUG_L1TF))
return;

+ if (cpu_mitigations_off())
+ l1tf_mitigation = L1TF_MITIGATION_OFF;
+ else if (cpu_mitigations_auto_nosmt())
+ l1tf_mitigation = L1TF_MITIGATION_FLUSH_NOSMT;
+
override_cache_bits(&boot_cpu_data);

switch (l1tf_mitigation) {
@@ -1036,7 +1143,7 @@ static void __init l1tf_select_mitigation(void)
pr_info("You may make it effective by booting the kernel with mem=%llu parameter.\n",
half_pa);
pr_info("However, doing so will make a part of your RAM unusable.\n");
- pr_info("Reading https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/l1tf.html might help you decide.\n");
+ pr_info("Reading https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.html might help you decide.\n");
return;
}

@@ -1069,6 +1176,7 @@ static int __init l1tf_cmdline(char *str)
early_param("l1tf", l1tf_cmdline);

#undef pr_fmt
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) fmt

#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS

@@ -1107,6 +1215,23 @@ static ssize_t l1tf_show_state(char *buf)
}
#endif

+static ssize_t mds_show_state(char *buf)
+{
+ if (!hypervisor_is_type(X86_HYPER_NATIVE)) {
+ return sprintf(buf, "%s; SMT Host state unknown\n",
+ mds_strings[mds_mitigation]);
+ }
+
+ if (boot_cpu_has(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY)) {
+ return sprintf(buf, "%s; SMT %s\n", mds_strings[mds_mitigation],
+ (mds_mitigation == MDS_MITIGATION_OFF ? "vulnerable" :
+ sched_smt_active() ? "mitigated" : "disabled"));
+ }
+
+ return sprintf(buf, "%s; SMT %s\n", mds_strings[mds_mitigation],
+ sched_smt_active() ? "vulnerable" : "disabled");
+}
+
static char *stibp_state(void)
{
if (spectre_v2_enabled == SPECTRE_V2_IBRS_ENHANCED)
@@ -1173,6 +1298,10 @@ static ssize_t cpu_show_common(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr
if (boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_L1TF_PTEINV))
return l1tf_show_state(buf);
break;
+
+ case X86_BUG_MDS:
+ return mds_show_state(buf);
+
default:
break;
}
@@ -1204,4 +1333,9 @@ ssize_t cpu_show_l1tf(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr, char *b
{
return cpu_show_common(dev, attr, buf, X86_BUG_L1TF);
}
+
+ssize_t cpu_show_mds(struct device *dev, struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ return cpu_show_common(dev, attr, buf, X86_BUG_MDS);
+}
#endif
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
index cb28e98a0659..132a63dc5a76 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c
@@ -948,61 +948,77 @@ static void identify_cpu_without_cpuid(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
#endif
}

-static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_no_speculation[] = {
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SALTWELL, X86_FEATURE_ANY },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SALTWELL_TABLET, X86_FEATURE_ANY },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_BONNELL_MID, X86_FEATURE_ANY },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SALTWELL_MID, X86_FEATURE_ANY },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_BONNELL, X86_FEATURE_ANY },
- { X86_VENDOR_CENTAUR, 5 },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 5 },
- { X86_VENDOR_NSC, 5 },
- { X86_VENDOR_ANY, 4 },
+#define NO_SPECULATION BIT(0)
+#define NO_MELTDOWN BIT(1)
+#define NO_SSB BIT(2)
+#define NO_L1TF BIT(3)
+#define NO_MDS BIT(4)
+#define MSBDS_ONLY BIT(5)
+
+#define VULNWL(_vendor, _family, _model, _whitelist) \
+ { X86_VENDOR_##_vendor, _family, _model, X86_FEATURE_ANY, _whitelist }
+
+#define VULNWL_INTEL(model, whitelist) \
+ VULNWL(INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_##model, whitelist)
+
+#define VULNWL_AMD(family, whitelist) \
+ VULNWL(AMD, family, X86_MODEL_ANY, whitelist)
+
+#define VULNWL_HYGON(family, whitelist) \
+ VULNWL(HYGON, family, X86_MODEL_ANY, whitelist)
+
+static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_vuln_whitelist[] = {
+ VULNWL(ANY, 4, X86_MODEL_ANY, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL(CENTAUR, 5, X86_MODEL_ANY, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL(INTEL, 5, X86_MODEL_ANY, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL(NSC, 5, X86_MODEL_ANY, NO_SPECULATION),
+
+ /* Intel Family 6 */
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SALTWELL, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SALTWELL_TABLET, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SALTWELL_MID, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_BONNELL, NO_SPECULATION),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_BONNELL_MID, NO_SPECULATION),
+
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_X, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_SILVERMONT_MID, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNL, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(XEON_PHI_KNM, NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+
+ VULNWL_INTEL(CORE_YONAH, NO_SSB),
+
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_AIRMONT_MID, NO_L1TF | MSBDS_ONLY),
+
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_X, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
+ VULNWL_INTEL(ATOM_GOLDMONT_PLUS, NO_MDS | NO_L1TF),
+
+ /* AMD Family 0xf - 0x12 */
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x0f, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x10, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x11, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_AMD(0x12, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_SSB | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+
+ /* FAMILY_ANY must be last, otherwise 0x0f - 0x12 matches won't work */
+ VULNWL_AMD(X86_FAMILY_ANY, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
+ VULNWL_HYGON(X86_FAMILY_ANY, NO_MELTDOWN | NO_L1TF | NO_MDS),
{}
};

-static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_no_meltdown[] = {
- { X86_VENDOR_AMD },
- { X86_VENDOR_HYGON },
- {}
-};
-
-/* Only list CPUs which speculate but are non susceptible to SSB */
-static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_no_spec_store_bypass[] = {
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_AIRMONT },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT_X },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT_MID },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_CORE_YONAH },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNL },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNM },
- { X86_VENDOR_AMD, 0x12, },
- { X86_VENDOR_AMD, 0x11, },
- { X86_VENDOR_AMD, 0x10, },
- { X86_VENDOR_AMD, 0xf, },
- {}
-};
+static bool __init cpu_matches(unsigned long which)
+{
+ const struct x86_cpu_id *m = x86_match_cpu(cpu_vuln_whitelist);

-static const __initconst struct x86_cpu_id cpu_no_l1tf[] = {
- /* in addition to cpu_no_speculation */
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT_X },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_AIRMONT },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_SILVERMONT_MID },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_AIRMONT_MID },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GOLDMONT },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GOLDMONT_X },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_ATOM_GOLDMONT_PLUS },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNL },
- { X86_VENDOR_INTEL, 6, INTEL_FAM6_XEON_PHI_KNM },
- {}
-};
+ return m && !!(m->driver_data & which);
+}

static void __init cpu_set_bug_bits(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
{
u64 ia32_cap = 0;

- if (x86_match_cpu(cpu_no_speculation))
+ if (cpu_matches(NO_SPECULATION))
return;

setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_SPECTRE_V1);
@@ -1011,15 +1027,20 @@ static void __init cpu_set_bug_bits(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)
if (cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_ARCH_CAPABILITIES))
rdmsrl(MSR_IA32_ARCH_CAPABILITIES, ia32_cap);

- if (!x86_match_cpu(cpu_no_spec_store_bypass) &&
- !(ia32_cap & ARCH_CAP_SSB_NO) &&
+ if (!cpu_matches(NO_SSB) && !(ia32_cap & ARCH_CAP_SSB_NO) &&
!cpu_has(c, X86_FEATURE_AMD_SSB_NO))
setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_SPEC_STORE_BYPASS);

if (ia32_cap & ARCH_CAP_IBRS_ALL)
setup_force_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_IBRS_ENHANCED);

- if (x86_match_cpu(cpu_no_meltdown))
+ if (!cpu_matches(NO_MDS) && !(ia32_cap & ARCH_CAP_MDS_NO)) {
+ setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_MDS);
+ if (cpu_matches(MSBDS_ONLY))
+ setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_MSBDS_ONLY);
+ }
+
+ if (cpu_matches(NO_MELTDOWN))
return;

/* Rogue Data Cache Load? No! */
@@ -1028,7 +1049,7 @@ static void __init cpu_set_bug_bits(struct cpuinfo_x86 *c)

setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_CPU_MELTDOWN);

- if (x86_match_cpu(cpu_no_l1tf))
+ if (cpu_matches(NO_L1TF))
return;

setup_force_cpu_bug(X86_BUG_L1TF);
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/nmi.c b/arch/x86/kernel/nmi.c
index 18bc9b51ac9b..086cf1d1d71d 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/nmi.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/nmi.c
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
#include <asm/x86_init.h>
#include <asm/reboot.h>
#include <asm/cache.h>
+#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>

#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/nmi.h>
@@ -533,6 +534,9 @@ do_nmi(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
write_cr2(this_cpu_read(nmi_cr2));
if (this_cpu_dec_return(nmi_state))
goto nmi_restart;
+
+ if (user_mode(regs))
+ mds_user_clear_cpu_buffers();
}
NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(do_nmi);

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/traps.c b/arch/x86/kernel/traps.c
index d26f9e9c3d83..07c7bbe79e8b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/traps.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/traps.c
@@ -58,6 +58,7 @@
#include <asm/alternative.h>
#include <asm/fpu/xstate.h>
#include <asm/trace/mpx.h>
+#include <asm/nospec-branch.h>
#include <asm/mpx.h>
#include <asm/vm86.h>
#include <asm/umip.h>
@@ -367,6 +368,13 @@ dotraplinkage void do_double_fault(struct pt_regs *regs, long error_code)
regs->ip = (unsigned long)general_protection;
regs->sp = (unsigned long)&gpregs->orig_ax;

+ /*
+ * This situation can be triggered by userspace via
+ * modify_ldt(2) and the return does not take the regular
+ * user space exit, so a CPU buffer clear is required when
+ * MDS mitigation is enabled.
+ */
+ mds_user_clear_cpu_buffers();
return;
}
#endif
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.c b/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.c
index fd3951638ae4..bbbe611f0c49 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/cpuid.c
@@ -410,7 +410,8 @@ static inline int __do_cpuid_ent(struct kvm_cpuid_entry2 *entry, u32 function,
/* cpuid 7.0.edx*/
const u32 kvm_cpuid_7_0_edx_x86_features =
F(AVX512_4VNNIW) | F(AVX512_4FMAPS) | F(SPEC_CTRL) |
- F(SPEC_CTRL_SSBD) | F(ARCH_CAPABILITIES) | F(INTEL_STIBP);
+ F(SPEC_CTRL_SSBD) | F(ARCH_CAPABILITIES) | F(INTEL_STIBP) |
+ F(MD_CLEAR);

/* all calls to cpuid_count() should be made on the same cpu */
get_cpu();
diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx/vmx.c b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx/vmx.c
index 0c955bb286ff..194c6ec11f4c 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx/vmx.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx/vmx.c
@@ -6431,8 +6431,11 @@ static void vmx_vcpu_run(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
*/
x86_spec_ctrl_set_guest(vmx->spec_ctrl, 0);

+ /* L1D Flush includes CPU buffer clear to mitigate MDS */
if (static_branch_unlikely(&vmx_l1d_should_flush))
vmx_l1d_flush(vcpu);
+ else if (static_branch_unlikely(&mds_user_clear))
+ mds_clear_cpu_buffers();

if (vcpu->arch.cr2 != read_cr2())
write_cr2(vcpu->arch.cr2);
@@ -6668,8 +6671,8 @@ static struct kvm_vcpu *vmx_create_vcpu(struct kvm *kvm, unsigned int id)
return ERR_PTR(err);
}

-#define L1TF_MSG_SMT "L1TF CPU bug present and SMT on, data leak possible. See CVE-2018-3646 and https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/l1tf.html for details.\n"
-#define L1TF_MSG_L1D "L1TF CPU bug present and virtualization mitigation disabled, data leak possible. See CVE-2018-3646 and https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/l1tf.html for details.\n"
+#define L1TF_MSG_SMT "L1TF CPU bug present and SMT on, data leak possible. See CVE-2018-3646 and https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.html for details.\n"
+#define L1TF_MSG_L1D "L1TF CPU bug present and virtualization mitigation disabled, data leak possible. See CVE-2018-3646 and https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.html for details.\n"

static int vmx_vm_init(struct kvm *kvm)
{
diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/pti.c b/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
index 139b28a01ce4..d0255d64edce 100644
--- a/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
+++ b/arch/x86/mm/pti.c
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/cpu.h>

#include <asm/cpufeature.h>
#include <asm/hypervisor.h>
@@ -115,7 +116,8 @@ void __init pti_check_boottime_disable(void)
}
}

- if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nopti")) {
+ if (cmdline_find_option_bool(boot_command_line, "nopti") ||
+ cpu_mitigations_off()) {
pti_mode = PTI_FORCE_OFF;
pti_print_if_insecure("disabled on command line.");
return;
diff --git a/drivers/base/cpu.c b/drivers/base/cpu.c
index 668139cfa664..cc37511de866 100644
--- a/drivers/base/cpu.c
+++ b/drivers/base/cpu.c
@@ -548,11 +548,18 @@ ssize_t __weak cpu_show_l1tf(struct device *dev,
return sprintf(buf, "Not affected\n");
}

+ssize_t __weak cpu_show_mds(struct device *dev,
+ struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+ return sprintf(buf, "Not affected\n");
+}
+
static DEVICE_ATTR(meltdown, 0444, cpu_show_meltdown, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(spectre_v1, 0444, cpu_show_spectre_v1, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(spectre_v2, 0444, cpu_show_spectre_v2, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(spec_store_bypass, 0444, cpu_show_spec_store_bypass, NULL);
static DEVICE_ATTR(l1tf, 0444, cpu_show_l1tf, NULL);
+static DEVICE_ATTR(mds, 0444, cpu_show_mds, NULL);

static struct attribute *cpu_root_vulnerabilities_attrs[] = {
&dev_attr_meltdown.attr,
@@ -560,6 +567,7 @@ static struct attribute *cpu_root_vulnerabilities_attrs[] = {
&dev_attr_spectre_v2.attr,
&dev_attr_spec_store_bypass.attr,
&dev_attr_l1tf.attr,
+ &dev_attr_mds.attr,
NULL
};

diff --git a/include/linux/cpu.h b/include/linux/cpu.h
index 5041357d0297..57ae83c4d5f4 100644
--- a/include/linux/cpu.h
+++ b/include/linux/cpu.h
@@ -57,6 +57,8 @@ extern ssize_t cpu_show_spec_store_bypass(struct device *dev,
struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf);
extern ssize_t cpu_show_l1tf(struct device *dev,
struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf);
+extern ssize_t cpu_show_mds(struct device *dev,
+ struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf);

extern __printf(4, 5)
struct device *cpu_device_create(struct device *parent, void *drvdata,
@@ -187,4 +189,28 @@ static inline void cpu_smt_disable(bool force) { }
static inline void cpu_smt_check_topology(void) { }
#endif

+/*
+ * These are used for a global "mitigations=" cmdline option for toggling
+ * optional CPU mitigations.
+ */
+enum cpu_mitigations {
+ CPU_MITIGATIONS_OFF,
+ CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO,
+ CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO_NOSMT,
+};
+
+extern enum cpu_mitigations cpu_mitigations;
+
+/* mitigations=off */
+static inline bool cpu_mitigations_off(void)
+{
+ return cpu_mitigations == CPU_MITIGATIONS_OFF;
+}
+
+/* mitigations=auto,nosmt */
+static inline bool cpu_mitigations_auto_nosmt(void)
+{
+ return cpu_mitigations == CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO_NOSMT;
+}
+
#endif /* _LINUX_CPU_H_ */
diff --git a/kernel/cpu.c b/kernel/cpu.c
index 6754f3ecfd94..43e741e88691 100644
--- a/kernel/cpu.c
+++ b/kernel/cpu.c
@@ -2304,3 +2304,18 @@ void __init boot_cpu_hotplug_init(void)
#endif
this_cpu_write(cpuhp_state.state, CPUHP_ONLINE);
}
+
+enum cpu_mitigations cpu_mitigations __ro_after_init = CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO;
+
+static int __init mitigations_parse_cmdline(char *arg)
+{
+ if (!strcmp(arg, "off"))
+ cpu_mitigations = CPU_MITIGATIONS_OFF;
+ else if (!strcmp(arg, "auto"))
+ cpu_mitigations = CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO;
+ else if (!strcmp(arg, "auto,nosmt"))
+ cpu_mitigations = CPU_MITIGATIONS_AUTO_NOSMT;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+early_param("mitigations", mitigations_parse_cmdline);
diff --git a/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile
index 1598b4fa0b11..045f5f7d68ab 100644
--- a/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile
+++ b/tools/power/x86/turbostat/Makefile
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ ifeq ("$(origin O)", "command line")
endif

turbostat : turbostat.c
-override CFLAGS += -Wall
+override CFLAGS += -Wall -I../../../include
override CFLAGS += -DMSRHEADER='"../../../../arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h"'
override CFLAGS += -DINTEL_FAMILY_HEADER='"../../../../arch/x86/include/asm/intel-family.h"'

diff --git a/tools/power/x86/x86_energy_perf_policy/Makefile b/tools/power/x86/x86_energy_perf_policy/Makefile
index ae7a0e09b722..1fdeef864e7c 100644
--- a/tools/power/x86/x86_energy_perf_policy/Makefile
+++ b/tools/power/x86/x86_energy_perf_policy/Makefile
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ ifeq ("$(origin O)", "command line")
endif

x86_energy_perf_policy : x86_energy_perf_policy.c
-override CFLAGS += -Wall
+override CFLAGS += -Wall -I../../../include
override CFLAGS += -DMSRHEADER='"../../../../arch/x86/include/asm/msr-index.h"'

%: %.c
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