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SubjectRe: [RFC 3/6] objtool: arm64: Adapt the stack frame checks and the section analysis for the arm architecture
Date
Hi,

As Julien also pointed out I realise that similarly to the first patch
of this series, this patch should be split into smaller ones. I will do
this for the next version.

On 4/23/19 9:36 PM, Josh Poimboeuf wrote:
> On Tue, Apr 09, 2019 at 02:52:40PM +0100, Raphael Gault wrote:
>> Since the way the initial stack frame when entering a function is different that what is done
>> in the x86_64 architecture, we need to add some more check to support the different cases.
>> As opposed as for x86_64, the return address is not stored by the call instruction but is instead
>> loaded in a register. The initial stack frame is thus empty when entering a function and 2 push
>> operations are needed to set it up correctly. All the different combinations need to be
>> taken into account.
>>
>> On arm64, the .altinstr_replacement section is not flagged as containing executable instructions
>> but we still need to process it.
>>
>> Switch tables are alse stored in a different way on arm64 than on x86_64 so we need to be able
>> to identify in which case we are when looking for it.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Raphael Gault <raphael.gault@arm.com>
>> ---
>> tools/objtool/arch.h | 2 +
>> tools/objtool/arch/arm64/decode.c | 27 +++++++++
>> tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c | 5 ++
>> tools/objtool/check.c | 95 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
>> tools/objtool/elf.c | 3 +-
>> 5 files changed, 120 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/tools/objtool/arch.h b/tools/objtool/arch.h
>> index 0eff166ca613..f3bef3f2cef3 100644
>> --- a/tools/objtool/arch.h
>> +++ b/tools/objtool/arch.h
>> @@ -88,4 +88,6 @@ unsigned long arch_compute_jump_destination(struct instruction *insn);
>>
>> unsigned long arch_compute_rela_sym_offset(int addend);
>>
>> +bool arch_is_insn_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn);
>> +
>> #endif /* _ARCH_H */
>> diff --git a/tools/objtool/arch/arm64/decode.c b/tools/objtool/arch/arm64/decode.c
>> index 0feb3ae3af5d..8b293eae2b38 100644
>> --- a/tools/objtool/arch/arm64/decode.c
>> +++ b/tools/objtool/arch/arm64/decode.c
>> @@ -105,6 +105,33 @@ unsigned long arch_compute_rela_sym_offset(int addend)
>> return addend;
>> }
>>
>> +/*
>> + * In order to know if we are in presence of a sibling
>> + * call and not in presence of a switch table we look
>> + * back at the previous instructions and see if we are
>> + * jumping inside the same function that we are already
>> + * in.
>> + */
>> +bool arch_is_insn_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn)
>> +{
>> +struct instruction *prev;
>> +struct list_head *l;
>> +struct symbol *sym;
>> +list_for_each_prev(l, &insn->list) {
>> +prev = (void *)l;
>> +if (!prev->func
>> +|| prev->func->pfunc != insn->func->pfunc)
>> +return false;
>> +if (prev->stack_op.src.reg != ADR_SOURCE)
>> +continue;
>> +sym = find_symbol_containing(insn->sec, insn->immediate);
>> +if (!sym || sym->type != STT_FUNC
>> +|| sym->pfunc != insn->func->pfunc)
>> +return true;
>> +break;
>> +}
>> +return true;
>> +}
>
> I get the feeling there might be a better way to do this, but I can't
> figure out what this function is actually doing. It looks like it
> searches backwards in the function for an instruction which has
> stack_op.src.reg != ADR_SOURCE -- what does that mean? And why doesn't
> it do anything with the instruction after it finds it?
>

I will indeed try to make it better.

>> static int is_arm64(struct elf *elf)
>> {
>> switch(elf->ehdr.e_machine){
>> diff --git a/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c b/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c
>> index 1af7b4996307..88c3d99c76be 100644
>> --- a/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c
>> +++ b/tools/objtool/arch/x86/decode.c
>> @@ -85,6 +85,11 @@ unsigned long arch_compute_rela_sym_offset(int addend)
>> return addend + 4;
>> }
>>
>> +bool arch_is_insn_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn)
>> +{
>> +return true;
>> +}
>
> All x86 instructions are sibling calls?
>

The sementic here is indeed wrong. I implemented it like that on the x86
side because at the place it is called from in check.c we already know
that we are in presence of a sibling calls when on x86. I will improve
these bits on the next iteration.

>> +
>> int arch_orc_read_unwind_hints(struct objtool_file *file)
>> {
>> struct section *sec, *relasec;
>> diff --git a/tools/objtool/check.c b/tools/objtool/check.c
>> index 17fcd8c8f9c1..fa6106214318 100644
>> --- a/tools/objtool/check.c
>> +++ b/tools/objtool/check.c
>> @@ -261,10 +261,12 @@ static int decode_instructions(struct objtool_file *file)
>> unsigned long offset;
>> struct instruction *insn;
>> int ret;
>> +static int composed_insn = 0;
>>
>> for_each_sec(file, sec) {
>>
>> -if (!(sec->sh.sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR))
>> +if (!(sec->sh.sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR)
>> +&& (strcmp(sec->name, ".altinstr_replacement") || !IGNORE_SHF_EXEC_FLAG))
>> continue;
>
> We should just fix the root cause instead, presumably:
>
> diff --git a/arch/arm64/include/asm/alternative.h b/arch/arm64/include/asm/alternative.h
> index b9f8d787eea9..e9e6b81e3eb4 100644
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/alternative.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/alternative.h
> @@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ static inline void apply_alternatives_module(void *start, size_t length) { }
> ALTINSTR_ENTRY(feature,cb)\
> ".popsection\n"\
> " .if " __stringify(cb) " == 0\n"\
> -".pushsection .altinstr_replacement, \"a\"\n"\
> +".pushsection .altinstr_replacement, \"ax\"\n"\
> "663:\n\t"\
> newinstr "\n"\
> "664:\n\t"\
>
>

I will take your advice and suggest this in the next version as well.

>>
>> if (strcmp(sec->name, ".altinstr_replacement") &&
>> @@ -297,10 +299,22 @@ static int decode_instructions(struct objtool_file *file)
>> WARN_FUNC("invalid instruction type %d",
>> insn->sec, insn->offset, insn->type);
>> ret = -1;
>> -goto err;
>> +free(insn);
>> +continue;
>
> What's the purpose of this change? If it's really needed then it looks
> like it should be a separate patch.
>
>> }
>> -
>> -hash_add(file->insn_hash, &insn->hash, insn->offset);
>> +/*
>> + * For arm64 architecture, we sometime split instructions so that
>> + * we can track the state evolution (i.e. load/store of pairs of registers).
>> + * We thus need to take both into account and not erase the previous ones.
>> + */
>
> Ew... Is this an architectural thing, or just a quirk of the arm64
> decoder?
>

The motivation for this is to simulate the two consecutive operations
that would be executed on x86 but are done in one on arm64. This is
strictly a decoder related quirk. I don't know if there is a better way
to do it without modifying the struct op_src and struct instruction.

>> +if (composed_insn > 0)
>> +hash_add(file->insn_hash, &insn->hash, insn->offset + composed_insn);
>> +else
>> +hash_add(file->insn_hash, &insn->hash, insn->offset);
>> +if (insn->len == 0)
>> +composed_insn++;
>> +else
>> +composed_insn = 0;
>> list_add_tail(&insn->list, &file->insn_list);
>> }
>>
>> @@ -510,10 +524,10 @@ static int add_jump_destinations(struct objtool_file *file)
>> dest_off = arch_compute_jump_destination(insn);
>> } else if (rela->sym->type == STT_SECTION) {
>> dest_sec = rela->sym->sec;
>> -dest_off = rela->addend + 4;
>> +dest_off = arch_compute_rela_sym_offset(rela->addend);
>> } else if (rela->sym->sec->idx) {
>> dest_sec = rela->sym->sec;
>> -dest_off = rela->sym->sym.st_value + rela->addend + 4;
>> +dest_off = rela->sym->sym.st_value + arch_compute_rela_sym_offset(rela->addend);
>> } else if (strstr(rela->sym->name, "_indirect_thunk_")) {
>> /*
>> * Retpoline jumps are really dynamic jumps in
>> @@ -663,7 +677,7 @@ static int handle_group_alt(struct objtool_file *file,
>> last_orig_insn = insn;
>> }
>>
>> -if (next_insn_same_sec(file, last_orig_insn)) {
>> +if (last_orig_insn && next_insn_same_sec(file, last_orig_insn)) {
>
> This might belong in a separate patch which explains the reason for the
> change.
>

I did this because I encountered situations where the last_orig_insn was
NULL because of the offset check perform in the preceding loop. This
caused a null dereference to occur. But it definitely should be split up.

>> fake_jump = malloc(sizeof(*fake_jump));
>> if (!fake_jump) {
>> WARN("malloc failed");
>> @@ -976,6 +990,17 @@ static struct rela *find_switch_table(struct objtool_file *file,
>> if (find_symbol_containing(rodata_sec, table_offset))
>> continue;
>>
>> +/*
>> + * If we are on arm64 architecture, we now that we
>
> "know"
>
>> + * are in presence of a switch table thanks to
>> + * the `br <Xn>` insn. but we can't retrieve it yet.
>> + * So we just ignore unreachable for this file.
>> + */
>> +if (JUMP_DYNAMIC_IS_SWITCH_TABLE) {
>> +file->ignore_unreachables = true;
>> +return NULL;
>> +}
>> +
>
> I think this means switch table reading is not yet supported? If so
> then maybe the flag should be called SWITCH_TABLE_NOT_SUPPORTED.
>
> But really this needs to be fixed anyway before merging the code.
>

This was indeed an ugly way to do this. I will propose a better solution
for this part in the next iteration.

>> rodata_rela = find_rela_by_dest(rodata_sec, table_offset);
>> if (rodata_rela) {
>> /*
>> @@ -1258,8 +1283,8 @@ static void save_reg(struct insn_state *state, unsigned char reg, int base,
>>
>> static void restore_reg(struct insn_state *state, unsigned char reg)
>> {
>> -state->regs[reg].base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
>> -state->regs[reg].offset = 0;
>> +state->regs[reg].base = initial_func_cfi.regs[reg].base;
>> +state->regs[reg].offset = initial_func_cfi.regs[reg].offset;
>> }
>>
>> /*
>> @@ -1415,8 +1440,33 @@ static int update_insn_state(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
>>
>> /* add imm, %rsp */
>> state->stack_size -= op->src.offset;
>> -if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
>> +if (cfa->base == CFI_SP) {
>> cfa->offset -= op->src.offset;
>> +if (state->stack_size == 0
>> +&& initial_func_cfi.cfa.base == CFI_CFA) {
>> +cfa->base = CFI_CFA;
>> +cfa->offset = 0;
>> +}
>> +}
>> +/*
>> + * on arm64 the save/restore of sp into fp is not automatic
>> + * and the first one can be done without the other so we
>> + * need to be careful not to invalidate the stack frame in such
>> + * cases.
>> + */
>> +else if (cfa->base == CFI_BP) {
>> +if (state->stack_size == 0
>> +&& initial_func_cfi.cfa.base == CFI_CFA) {
>> +cfa->base = CFI_CFA;
>> +cfa->offset = 0;
>> +restore_reg(state, CFI_BP);
>> +}
>> +}
>> +else if (cfa->base == CFI_CFA) {
>> +cfa->base = CFI_SP;
>> +if (state->stack_size >= 16)
>> +cfa->offset = 16;
>> +}
>> break;
>> }
>>
>> @@ -1427,6 +1477,16 @@ static int update_insn_state(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
>> break;
>> }
>>
>> +if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP && op->dest.reg == CFI_BP &&
>> + cfa->base == CFI_SP &&
>> + regs[CFI_BP].base == CFI_CFA &&
>> + regs[CFI_BP].offset == -cfa->offset) {
>> +
>> +/* mov %rsp, %rbp */
>> +cfa->base = op->dest.reg;
>> +state->bp_scratch = false;
>> +break;
>> +}
>> if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP && cfa->base == CFI_SP) {
>>
>> /* drap: lea disp(%rsp), %drap */
>> @@ -1518,6 +1578,9 @@ static int update_insn_state(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
>> state->stack_size -= 8;
>> if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
>> cfa->offset -= 8;
>> +if (cfa->base == CFI_SP && cfa->offset == 0
>> +&& initial_func_cfi.cfa.base == CFI_CFA)
>> +cfa->base = CFI_CFA;
>>
>> break;
>>
>> @@ -1557,6 +1620,8 @@ static int update_insn_state(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
>>
>> case OP_DEST_PUSH:
>> state->stack_size += 8;
>> +if (cfa->base == CFI_CFA)
>> +cfa->base = CFI_SP;
>> if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
>> cfa->offset += 8;
>>
>> @@ -1728,7 +1793,7 @@ static int validate_branch(struct objtool_file *file, struct instruction *first,
>> insn = first;
>> sec = insn->sec;
>>
>> -if (insn->alt_group && list_empty(&insn->alts)) {
>> +if (!insn->visited && insn->alt_group && list_empty(&insn->alts)) {
>
> Why? This looks like another one that might belong in a separate patch.
>

Indeed it belongs to a separate patch. I did this because I encountered
a situation where one of the alternative instructions (in
.altinstr_replacement) jumps at the offset of an instruction which is
replaced as well. I thus considered that if one of the instruction of
the group is replaced then all instructions of the group should be
replaced and thus this would never happen at execution.

>> WARN_FUNC("don't know how to handle branch to middle of alternative instruction group",
>> sec, insn->offset);
>> return 1;
>> @@ -1871,6 +1936,14 @@ static int validate_branch(struct objtool_file *file, struct instruction *first,
>> case INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC:
>> if (func && list_empty(&insn->alts) &&
>> has_modified_stack_frame(&state)) {
>> +/*
>> + * On arm64 `br <Xn>` insn can be used for switch-tables
>> + * but it cannot be distinguished in itself from a sibling
>> + * call thus we need to have a look at the previous instructions
>> + * to determine which it is
>> + */
>> +if (!arch_is_insn_sibling_call(insn))
>> +break;
>> WARN_FUNC("sibling call from callable instruction with modified stack frame",
>> sec, insn->offset);
>> return 1;
>> diff --git a/tools/objtool/elf.c b/tools/objtool/elf.c
>> index b8f3cca8e58b..136f9b9fb1d1 100644
>> --- a/tools/objtool/elf.c
>> +++ b/tools/objtool/elf.c
>> @@ -74,7 +74,8 @@ struct symbol *find_symbol_by_offset(struct section *sec, unsigned long offset)
>> struct symbol *sym;
>>
>> list_for_each_entry(sym, &sec->symbol_list, list)
>> -if (sym->type != STT_SECTION &&
>> +if (sym->type != STT_NOTYPE &&
>> + sym->type != STT_SECTION &&
>
> Why? Another potential separate patch.
>

This is again a special case I encountered where several symbols can be
found with the same offset so the sole condition of the offset wasn't
enough to distinguish the correct destination. I thus added some extra
check on the type of the symbol.

>> sym->offset == offset)
>> return sym;
>>
>> --
>> 2.17.1
>>
>

Please fill free to comment back on my answers. I would really like to
get you opinion on some of the special cases I mentioned.

Thanks,

--
Raphael Gault
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