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Subject[PATCH v2 5/6] mm: rework non-root kmem_cache lifecycle management
Date
This commit makes several important changes in the lifecycle
of a non-root kmem_cache, which also affect the lifecycle
of a memory cgroup.

Currently each charged slab page has a page->mem_cgroup pointer
to the memory cgroup and holds a reference to it.
Kmem_caches are held by the memcg and are released with it.
It means that none of kmem_caches are released unless at least one
reference to the memcg exists, which is not optimal.

So the current scheme can be illustrated as:
page->mem_cgroup->kmem_cache.

To implement the slab memory reparenting we need to invert the scheme
into: page->kmem_cache->mem_cgroup.

Let's make every page to hold a reference to the kmem_cache (we
already have a stable pointer), and make kmem_caches to hold a single
reference to the memory cgroup.

To make this possible we need to introduce a new percpu refcounter
for non-root kmem_caches. The counter is initialized to the percpu
mode, and is switched to atomic mode after deactivation, so we never
shutdown an active cache. The counter is bumped for every charged page
and also for every running allocation. So the kmem_cache can't
be released unless all allocations complete.

To shutdown non-active empty kmem_caches, let's reuse the
infrastructure of the RCU-delayed work queue, used previously for
the deactivation. After the generalization, it's perfectly suited
for our needs.

Since now we can release a kmem_cache at any moment after the
deactivation, let's call sysfs_slab_remove() only from the shutdown
path. It makes deactivation path simpler.

Because we don't set the page->mem_cgroup pointer, we need to change
the way how memcg-level stats is working for slab pages. We can't use
mod_lruvec_page_state() helpers anymore, so switch over to
mod_lruvec_state().

* I used the following simple approach to test the performance
(stolen from another patchset by T. Harding):

time find / -name fname-no-exist
echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
repeat several times

Results (I've chosen best results in several runs):

orig patched

real 0m0.700s 0m0.722s
user 0m0.114s 0m0.120s
sys 0m0.317s 0m0.324s

real 0m0.729s 0m0.746s
user 0m0.110s 0m0.139s
sys 0m0.320s 0m0.317s

real 0m0.745s 0m0.719s
user 0m0.108s 0m0.124s
sys 0m0.320s 0m0.323s

So it looks like the difference is not noticeable in this test.

Signed-off-by: Roman Gushchin <guro@fb.com>
---
include/linux/slab.h | 3 ++-
mm/memcontrol.c | 16 ++++++-----
mm/slab.h | 48 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
mm/slab_common.c | 63 +++++++++++++++++++++++---------------------
mm/slub.c | 12 +--------
5 files changed, 85 insertions(+), 57 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/slab.h b/include/linux/slab.h
index 47923c173f30..1b54e5f83342 100644
--- a/include/linux/slab.h
+++ b/include/linux/slab.h
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
#include <linux/overflow.h>
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/workqueue.h>
+#include <linux/percpu-refcount.h>


/*
@@ -152,7 +153,6 @@ int kmem_cache_shrink(struct kmem_cache *);

void memcg_create_kmem_cache(struct mem_cgroup *, struct kmem_cache *);
void memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *);
-void memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *);

/*
* Please use this macro to create slab caches. Simply specify the
@@ -641,6 +641,7 @@ struct memcg_cache_params {
struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
struct list_head children_node;
struct list_head kmem_caches_node;
+ struct percpu_ref refcnt;

void (*work_fn)(struct kmem_cache *);
union {
diff --git a/mm/memcontrol.c b/mm/memcontrol.c
index b2c39f187cbb..c9896105d8d5 100644
--- a/mm/memcontrol.c
+++ b/mm/memcontrol.c
@@ -2663,8 +2663,11 @@ struct kmem_cache *memcg_kmem_get_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
goto out;

memcg_cachep = cache_from_memcg_idx(cachep, kmemcg_id);
- if (likely(memcg_cachep))
+ if (likely(memcg_cachep)) {
+ percpu_ref_get(&memcg_cachep->memcg_params.refcnt);
+ css_put(&memcg->css);
return memcg_cachep;
+ }

/*
* If we are in a safe context (can wait, and not in interrupt
@@ -2691,7 +2694,7 @@ struct kmem_cache *memcg_kmem_get_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
void memcg_kmem_put_cache(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
{
if (!is_root_cache(cachep))
- css_put(&cachep->memcg_params.memcg->css);
+ percpu_ref_put(&cachep->memcg_params.refcnt);
}

/**
@@ -2719,9 +2722,6 @@ int __memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(struct page *page, gfp_t gfp, int order,
cancel_charge(memcg, nr_pages);
return -ENOMEM;
}
-
- page->mem_cgroup = memcg;
-
return 0;
}

@@ -2744,8 +2744,10 @@ int __memcg_kmem_charge(struct page *page, gfp_t gfp, int order)
memcg = get_mem_cgroup_from_current();
if (!mem_cgroup_is_root(memcg)) {
ret = __memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, memcg);
- if (!ret)
+ if (!ret) {
+ page->mem_cgroup = memcg;
__SetPageKmemcg(page);
+ }
}
css_put(&memcg->css);
return ret;
@@ -3238,7 +3240,7 @@ static void memcg_free_kmem(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
memcg_offline_kmem(memcg);

if (memcg->kmem_state == KMEM_ALLOCATED) {
- memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(memcg);
+ WARN_ON(!list_empty(&memcg->kmem_caches));
static_branch_dec(&memcg_kmem_enabled_key);
WARN_ON(page_counter_read(&memcg->kmem));
}
diff --git a/mm/slab.h b/mm/slab.h
index 0f5c5444acf1..61110b3035e7 100644
--- a/mm/slab.h
+++ b/mm/slab.h
@@ -173,6 +173,7 @@ void __kmem_cache_release(struct kmem_cache *);
int __kmem_cache_shrink(struct kmem_cache *);
void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s);
void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s);
+void kmemcg_cache_shutdown(struct kmem_cache *s);
void slab_kmem_cache_release(struct kmem_cache *);

struct seq_file;
@@ -284,15 +285,37 @@ static __always_inline int memcg_charge_slab(struct page *page,
gfp_t gfp, int order,
struct kmem_cache *s)
{
- if (is_root_cache(s))
- return 0;
- return memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, s->memcg_params.memcg);
+ struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
+ struct lruvec *lruvec;
+ int ret;
+
+ memcg = s->memcg_params.memcg;
+ ret = memcg_kmem_charge_memcg(page, gfp, order, memcg);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
+ lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(page_pgdat(page), memcg);
+ mod_lruvec_state(lruvec, cache_vmstat_idx(s), 1 << order);
+
+ /* transer try_charge() page references to kmem_cache */
+ percpu_ref_get_many(&s->memcg_params.refcnt, 1 << order);
+ css_put_many(&memcg->css, 1 << order);
+
+ return 0;
}

static __always_inline void memcg_uncharge_slab(struct page *page, int order,
struct kmem_cache *s)
{
- memcg_kmem_uncharge(page, order);
+ struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
+ struct lruvec *lruvec;
+
+ memcg = s->memcg_params.memcg;
+ lruvec = mem_cgroup_lruvec(page_pgdat(page), memcg);
+ mod_lruvec_state(lruvec, cache_vmstat_idx(s), -(1 << order));
+ memcg_kmem_uncharge_memcg(page, order, memcg);
+
+ percpu_ref_put_many(&s->memcg_params.refcnt, 1 << order);
}

extern void slab_init_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *);
@@ -362,15 +385,24 @@ static __always_inline int charge_slab_page(struct page *page,
gfp_t gfp, int order,
struct kmem_cache *s)
{
- memcg_charge_slab(page, gfp, order, s);
- mod_lruvec_page_state(page, cache_vmstat_idx(s), 1 << order);
- return 0;
+ if (is_root_cache(s)) {
+ mod_node_page_state(page_pgdat(page), cache_vmstat_idx(s),
+ 1 << order);
+ return 0;
+ }
+
+ return memcg_charge_slab(page, gfp, order, s);
}

static __always_inline void uncharge_slab_page(struct page *page, int order,
struct kmem_cache *s)
{
- mod_lruvec_page_state(page, cache_vmstat_idx(s), -(1 << order));
+ if (is_root_cache(s)) {
+ mod_node_page_state(page_pgdat(page), cache_vmstat_idx(s),
+ -(1 << order));
+ return;
+ }
+
memcg_uncharge_slab(page, order, s);
}

diff --git a/mm/slab_common.c b/mm/slab_common.c
index 4e5b4292a763..995920222127 100644
--- a/mm/slab_common.c
+++ b/mm/slab_common.c
@@ -45,6 +45,8 @@ static void slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_workfn(struct work_struct *work);
static DECLARE_WORK(slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_work,
slab_caches_to_rcu_destroy_workfn);

+static void kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown(struct percpu_ref *percpu_ref);
+
/*
* Set of flags that will prevent slab merging
*/
@@ -145,6 +147,12 @@ static int init_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *s,
struct memcg_cache_array *arr;

if (root_cache) {
+ int ret = percpu_ref_init(&s->memcg_params.refcnt,
+ kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown,
+ 0, GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (ret)
+ return ret;
+
s->memcg_params.root_cache = root_cache;
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->memcg_params.children_node);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&s->memcg_params.kmem_caches_node);
@@ -170,6 +178,8 @@ static void destroy_memcg_params(struct kmem_cache *s)
{
if (is_root_cache(s))
kvfree(rcu_access_pointer(s->memcg_params.memcg_caches));
+ else
+ percpu_ref_exit(&s->memcg_params.refcnt);
}

static void free_memcg_params(struct rcu_head *rcu)
@@ -225,6 +235,7 @@ void memcg_link_cache(struct kmem_cache *s, struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
if (is_root_cache(s)) {
list_add(&s->root_caches_node, &slab_root_caches);
} else {
+ css_get(&memcg->css);
s->memcg_params.memcg = memcg;
list_add(&s->memcg_params.children_node,
&s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.children);
@@ -240,6 +251,7 @@ static void memcg_unlink_cache(struct kmem_cache *s)
} else {
list_del(&s->memcg_params.children_node);
list_del(&s->memcg_params.kmem_caches_node);
+ css_put(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
}
}
#else
@@ -708,16 +720,13 @@ static void kmemcg_after_rcu_workfn(struct work_struct *work)

put_online_mems();
put_online_cpus();
-
- /* done, put the ref from slab_deactivate_memcg_cache_rcu_sched() */
- css_put(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
}

/*
* We need to grab blocking locks. Bounce to ->work. The
* work item shares the space with the RCU head and can't be
- * initialized eariler.
-*/
+ * initialized earlier.
+ */
static void kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
{
struct kmem_cache *s = container_of(head, struct kmem_cache,
@@ -727,9 +736,28 @@ static void kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu(struct rcu_head *head)
queue_work(memcg_kmem_cache_wq, &s->memcg_params.work);
}

+static void kmemcg_cache_shutdown_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
+{
+ WARN_ON(shutdown_cache(s));
+}
+
+static void kmemcg_queue_cache_shutdown(struct percpu_ref *percpu_ref)
+{
+ struct kmem_cache *s = container_of(percpu_ref, struct kmem_cache,
+ memcg_params.refcnt);
+
+ if (s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.dying)
+ return;
+
+ WARN_ON(s->memcg_params.work_fn);
+ s->memcg_params.work_fn = kmemcg_cache_shutdown_after_rcu;
+ call_rcu(&s->memcg_params.rcu_head, kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu);
+}
+
static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
{
__kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(s);
+ percpu_ref_kill(&s->memcg_params.refcnt);
}

static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
@@ -739,9 +767,6 @@ static void kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
if (s->memcg_params.root_cache->memcg_params.dying)
return;

- /* pin memcg so that @s doesn't get destroyed in the middle */
- css_get(&s->memcg_params.memcg->css);
-
WARN_ON_ONCE(s->memcg_params.work_fn);
s->memcg_params.work_fn = kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu;
call_rcu(&s->memcg_params.rcu_head, kmemcg_schedule_work_after_rcu);
@@ -775,28 +800,6 @@ void memcg_deactivate_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
put_online_cpus();
}

-void memcg_destroy_kmem_caches(struct mem_cgroup *memcg)
-{
- struct kmem_cache *s, *s2;
-
- get_online_cpus();
- get_online_mems();
-
- mutex_lock(&slab_mutex);
- list_for_each_entry_safe(s, s2, &memcg->kmem_caches,
- memcg_params.kmem_caches_node) {
- /*
- * The cgroup is about to be freed and therefore has no charges
- * left. Hence, all its caches must be empty by now.
- */
- BUG_ON(shutdown_cache(s));
- }
- mutex_unlock(&slab_mutex);
-
- put_online_mems();
- put_online_cpus();
-}
-
static int shutdown_memcg_caches(struct kmem_cache *s)
{
struct memcg_cache_array *arr;
diff --git a/mm/slub.c b/mm/slub.c
index 90563c0b3b5f..5bfd899d201c 100644
--- a/mm/slub.c
+++ b/mm/slub.c
@@ -4027,18 +4027,8 @@ void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate_after_rcu(struct kmem_cache *s)
{
/*
* Called with all the locks held after a sched RCU grace period.
- * Even if @s becomes empty after shrinking, we can't know that @s
- * doesn't have allocations already in-flight and thus can't
- * destroy @s until the associated memcg is released.
- *
- * However, let's remove the sysfs files for empty caches here.
- * Each cache has a lot of interface files which aren't
- * particularly useful for empty draining caches; otherwise, we can
- * easily end up with millions of unnecessary sysfs files on
- * systems which have a lot of memory and transient cgroups.
*/
- if (!__kmem_cache_shrink(s))
- sysfs_slab_remove(s);
+ __kmem_cache_shrink(s);
}

void __kmemcg_cache_deactivate(struct kmem_cache *s)
--
2.20.1
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