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Subject[PATCH v2 47/79] docs: early-userspace: convert docs to ReST and rename to *.rst
The two files there describes a Kernel API feature, used to
support early userspace stuff. Prepare for moving them to
the kernel API book by converting to ReST format.

The conversion itself was quite trivial: just add/mark a few
titles as such, add a literal block markup, add a table markup
and a few blank lines, in order to make Sphinx to properly parse it.

At its new index.rst, let's add a :orphan: while this is not linked to
the main index.rst file, in order to avoid build warnings.

Signed-off-by: Mauro Carvalho Chehab <>
.../{buffer-format.txt => buffer-format.rst} | 19 +++++++++++++------
.../{README => early_userspace_support.rst} | 3 +++
Documentation/early-userspace/index.rst | 18 ++++++++++++++++++
Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt | 2 +-
.../filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt | 4 ++--
usr/Kconfig | 2 +-
6 files changed, 38 insertions(+), 10 deletions(-)
rename Documentation/early-userspace/{buffer-format.txt => buffer-format.rst} (91%)
rename Documentation/early-userspace/{README => early_userspace_support.rst} (99%)
create mode 100644 Documentation/early-userspace/index.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.txt b/Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.rst
similarity index 91%
rename from Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.txt
rename to Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.rst
index e1fd7f9dad16..7f74e301fdf3 100644
--- a/Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.rst
@@ -1,8 +1,10 @@
- initramfs buffer format
- -----------------------
+initramfs buffer format

- Al Viro, H. Peter Anvin
- Last revision: 2002-01-13
+Al Viro, H. Peter Anvin
+Last revision: 2002-01-13

Starting with kernel 2.5.x, the old "initial ramdisk" protocol is
getting {replaced/complemented} with the new "initial ramfs"
@@ -18,7 +20,8 @@ archive can be compressed using gzip(1). One valid version of an
initramfs buffer is thus a single .cpio.gz file.

The full format of the initramfs buffer is defined by the following
-grammar, where:
+grammar, where::
* is used to indicate "0 or more occurrences of"
(|) indicates alternatives
+ indicates concatenation
@@ -49,7 +52,9 @@ hexadecimal ASCII numbers fully padded with '0' on the left to the
full width of the field, for example, the integer 4780 is represented
by the ASCII string "000012ac"):

+============= ================== ==============================================
Field name Field size Meaning
+============= ================== ==============================================
c_magic 6 bytes The string "070701" or "070702"
c_ino 8 bytes File inode number
c_mode 8 bytes File mode and permissions
@@ -65,6 +70,7 @@ c_rmin 8 bytes Minor part of device node reference
c_namesize 8 bytes Length of filename, including final \0
c_chksum 8 bytes Checksum of data field if c_magic is 070702;
otherwise zero
+============= ================== ==============================================

The c_mode field matches the contents of st_mode returned by stat(2)
on Linux, and encodes the file type and file permissions.
@@ -82,7 +88,8 @@ If the filename is "TRAILER!!!" this is actually an end-of-archive
marker; the c_filesize for an end-of-archive marker must be zero.

-*** Handling of hard links
+Handling of hard links

When a nondirectory with c_nlink > 1 is seen, the (c_maj,c_min,c_ino)
tuple is looked up in a tuple buffer. If not found, it is entered in
diff --git a/Documentation/early-userspace/README b/Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst
similarity index 99%
rename from Documentation/early-userspace/README
rename to Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst
index 955d667dc87e..3deefb34046b 100644
--- a/Documentation/early-userspace/README
+++ b/Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst
@@ -1,3 +1,4 @@
Early userspace support

@@ -26,6 +27,7 @@ archive to be used as the image or have the kernel build process build
the image from specifications.


You can create a cpio archive that contains the early userspace image.
Your cpio archive should be specified in CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE and it
@@ -34,6 +36,7 @@ CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE and directory and file names are not allowed in
combination with a cpio archive.


The kernel build process can also build an early userspace image from
source parts rather than supplying a cpio archive. This method provides
diff --git a/Documentation/early-userspace/index.rst b/Documentation/early-userspace/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2b8eb6132058
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/early-userspace/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+Early Userspace
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 1
+ early_userspace_support
+ buffer-format
+.. only:: subproject and html
+ Indices
+ =======
+ * :ref:`genindex`
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt
index d2963123eb1c..4862d3d77e27 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt
@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@ rdinit=<executable file>
A description of the process of mounting the root file system can be
found in:

- Documentation/early-userspace/README
+ Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt b/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt
index 79637d227e85..fa985909dbca 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt
@@ -105,7 +105,7 @@ All this differs from the old initrd in several ways:
- The old initrd file was a gzipped filesystem image (in some file format,
such as ext2, that needed a driver built into the kernel), while the new
initramfs archive is a gzipped cpio archive (like tar only simpler,
- see cpio(1) and Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.txt). The
+ see cpio(1) and Documentation/early-userspace/buffer-format.rst). The
kernel's cpio extraction code is not only extremely small, it's also
__init text and data that can be discarded during the boot process.

@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ One advantage of the configuration file is that root access is not required to
set permissions or create device nodes in the new archive. (Note that those
two example "file" entries expect to find files named "" and "busybox" in
a directory called "initramfs", under the linux-2.6.* directory. See
-Documentation/early-userspace/README for more details.)
+Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst for more details.)

The kernel does not depend on external cpio tools. If you specify a
directory instead of a configuration file, the kernel's build infrastructure
diff --git a/usr/Kconfig b/usr/Kconfig
index 43658b8a975e..86e37e297278 100644
--- a/usr/Kconfig
+++ b/usr/Kconfig
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ config INITRAMFS_SOURCE
When multiple directories and files are specified then the
initramfs image will be the aggregate of all of them.

- See <file:Documentation/early-userspace/README> for more details.
+ See <file:Documentation/early-userspace/early_userspace_support.rst> for more details.

If you are not sure, leave it blank.

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