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SubjectRe: [PATCH tip/core/rcu 04/21] docs/memory-barriers.txt: Rewrite "KERNEL I/O BARRIER EFFECTS" section
On Tue, Mar 26, 2019 at 04:41:16PM -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> From: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
>
> The "KERNEL I/O BARRIER EFFECTS" section of memory-barriers.txt is vague,
> x86-centric, out-of-date, incomplete and demonstrably incorrect in places.
> This is largely because I/O ordering is a horrible can of worms, but also
> because the document has stagnated as our understanding has evolved.
>
> Attempt to address some of that, by rewriting the section based on
> recent(-ish) discussions with Arnd, BenH and others. Maybe one day we'll
> find a way to formalise this stuff, but for now let's at least try to
> make the English easier to understand.
>
> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org>
> Cc: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
> Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de>
> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
> Cc: Andrea Parri <andrea.parri@amarulasolutions.com>
> Cc: Palmer Dabbelt <palmer@sifive.com>
> Cc: Daniel Lustig <dlustig@nvidia.com>
> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
> Cc: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
> Cc: "Maciej W. Rozycki" <macro@linux-mips.org>
> Cc: Mikulas Patocka <mpatocka@redhat.com>
> Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> ---
> Documentation/memory-barriers.txt | 115 ++++++++++++++++++------------
> 1 file changed, 70 insertions(+), 45 deletions(-)

If somebody could provide an Ack on this patch, I'd really appreciate it,
please. Whilst the portable ordering guarantees that I've documented are
fairly conservative, I do think that this change is a big improvement and
gives you what you need if you're writing a portable device driver for a new
piece of hardware. I'm tackling the removal of MMIOWB as a separate series.

I think Paul now requires an Ack before he'll send a patch to mainline,
hence the grovelling.

Cheers,

Will

> diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> index 1c22b21ae922..158947ae78c2 100644
> --- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> @@ -2599,72 +2599,97 @@ likely, then interrupt-disabling locks should be used to guarantee ordering.
> KERNEL I/O BARRIER EFFECTS
> ==========================
>
> -When accessing I/O memory, drivers should use the appropriate accessor
> -functions:
> +Interfacing with peripherals via I/O accesses is deeply architecture and device
> +specific. Therefore, drivers which are inherently non-portable may rely on
> +specific behaviours of their target systems in order to achieve synchronization
> +in the most lightweight manner possible. For drivers intending to be portable
> +between multiple architectures and bus implementations, the kernel offers a
> +series of accessor functions that provide various degrees of ordering
> +guarantees:
>
> - (*) inX(), outX():
> + (*) readX(), writeX():
>
> - These are intended to talk to I/O space rather than memory space, but
> - that's primarily a CPU-specific concept. The i386 and x86_64 processors
> - do indeed have special I/O space access cycles and instructions, but many
> - CPUs don't have such a concept.
> + The readX() and writeX() MMIO accessors take a pointer to the peripheral
> + being accessed as an __iomem * parameter. For pointers mapped with the
> + default I/O attributes (e.g. those returned by ioremap()), then the
> + ordering guarantees are as follows:
>
> - The PCI bus, amongst others, defines an I/O space concept which - on such
> - CPUs as i386 and x86_64 - readily maps to the CPU's concept of I/O
> - space. However, it may also be mapped as a virtual I/O space in the CPU's
> - memory map, particularly on those CPUs that don't support alternate I/O
> - spaces.
> + 1. All readX() and writeX() accesses to the same peripheral are ordered
> + with respect to each other. For example, this ensures that MMIO register
> + writes by the CPU to a particular device will arrive in program order.
>
> - Accesses to this space may be fully synchronous (as on i386), but
> - intermediary bridges (such as the PCI host bridge) may not fully honour
> - that.
> + 2. A writeX() by the CPU to the peripheral will first wait for the
> + completion of all prior CPU writes to memory. For example, this ensures
> + that writes by the CPU to an outbound DMA buffer allocated by
> + dma_alloc_coherent() will be visible to a DMA engine when the CPU writes
> + to its MMIO control register to trigger the transfer.
>
> - They are guaranteed to be fully ordered with respect to each other.
> + 3. A readX() by the CPU from the peripheral will complete before any
> + subsequent CPU reads from memory can begin. For example, this ensures
> + that reads by the CPU from an incoming DMA buffer allocated by
> + dma_alloc_coherent() will not see stale data after reading from the DMA
> + engine's MMIO status register to establish that the DMA transfer has
> + completed.
>
> - They are not guaranteed to be fully ordered with respect to other types of
> - memory and I/O operation.
> + 4. A readX() by the CPU from the peripheral will complete before any
> + subsequent delay() loop can begin execution. For example, this ensures
> + that two MMIO register writes by the CPU to a peripheral will arrive at
> + least 1us apart if the first write is immediately read back with readX()
> + and udelay(1) is called prior to the second writeX().
>
> - (*) readX(), writeX():
> + __iomem pointers obtained with non-default attributes (e.g. those returned
> + by ioremap_wc()) are unlikely to provide many of these guarantees.
>
> - Whether these are guaranteed to be fully ordered and uncombined with
> - respect to each other on the issuing CPU depends on the characteristics
> - defined for the memory window through which they're accessing. On later
> - i386 architecture machines, for example, this is controlled by way of the
> - MTRR registers.
> + (*) readX_relaxed(), writeX_relaxed():
>
> - Ordinarily, these will be guaranteed to be fully ordered and uncombined,
> - provided they're not accessing a prefetchable device.
> + These are similar to readX() and writeX(), but provide weaker memory
> + ordering guarantees. Specifically, they do not guarantee ordering with
> + respect to normal memory accesses or delay() loops (i.e bullets 2-4 above)
> + but they are still guaranteed to be ordered with respect to other accesses
> + to the same peripheral when operating on __iomem pointers mapped with the
> + default I/O attributes.
>
> - However, intermediary hardware (such as a PCI bridge) may indulge in
> - deferral if it so wishes; to flush a store, a load from the same location
> - is preferred[*], but a load from the same device or from configuration
> - space should suffice for PCI.
> + (*) readsX(), writesX():
>
> - [*] NOTE! attempting to load from the same location as was written to may
> - cause a malfunction - consider the 16550 Rx/Tx serial registers for
> - example.
> + The readsX() and writesX() MMIO accessors are designed for accessing
> + register-based, memory-mapped FIFOs residing on peripherals that are not
> + capable of performing DMA. Consequently, they provide only the ordering
> + guarantees of readX_relaxed() and writeX_relaxed(), as documented above.
>
> - Used with prefetchable I/O memory, an mmiowb() barrier may be required to
> - force stores to be ordered.
> + (*) inX(), outX():
>
> - Please refer to the PCI specification for more information on interactions
> - between PCI transactions.
> + The inX() and outX() accessors are intended to access legacy port-mapped
> + I/O peripherals, which may require special instructions on some
> + architectures (notably x86). The port number of the peripheral being
> + accessed is passed as an argument.
>
> - (*) readX_relaxed(), writeX_relaxed()
> + Since many CPU architectures ultimately access these peripherals via an
> + internal virtual memory mapping, the portable ordering guarantees provided
> + by inX() and outX() are the same as those provided by readX() and writeX()
> + respectively when accessing a mapping with the default I/O attributes.
>
> - These are similar to readX() and writeX(), but provide weaker memory
> - ordering guarantees. Specifically, they do not guarantee ordering with
> - respect to normal memory accesses (e.g. DMA buffers) nor do they guarantee
> - ordering with respect to LOCK or UNLOCK operations. If the latter is
> - required, an mmiowb() barrier can be used. Note that relaxed accesses to
> - the same peripheral are guaranteed to be ordered with respect to each
> - other.
> + Device drivers may expect outX() to emit a non-posted write transaction
> + that waits for a completion response from the I/O peripheral before
> + returning. This is not guaranteed by all architectures and is therefore
> + not part of the portable ordering semantics.
> +
> + (*) insX(), outsX():
> +
> + As above, the insX() and outX() accessors provide the same ordering
> + guarantees as readsX() and writesX() respectively when accessing a mapping
> + with the default I/O attributes.
>
> (*) ioreadX(), iowriteX()
>
> These will perform appropriately for the type of access they're actually
> doing, be it inX()/outX() or readX()/writeX().
>
> +All of these accessors assume that the underlying peripheral is little-endian,
> +and will therefore perform byte-swapping operations on big-endian architectures.
> +
> +Composing I/O ordering barriers with SMP ordering barriers and LOCK/UNLOCK
> +operations is a dangerous sport which may require the use of mmiowb(). See the
> +subsection "Acquires vs I/O accesses" for more information.
>
> ========================================
> ASSUMED MINIMUM EXECUTION ORDERING MODEL
> --
> 2.17.1
>

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