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SubjectRe: Adding plain accesses and detecting data races in the LKMM
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Hi Paul,

Please find inline comments below.

On Fri, 19 Apr 2019 05:47:20 -0700, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> On Fri, Apr 19, 2019 at 02:53:02AM +0200, Andrea Parri wrote:
>>> Are you saying that on x86, atomic_inc() acts as a full memory barrier
>>> but not as a compiler barrier, and vice versa for
>>> smp_mb__after_atomic()? Or that neither atomic_inc() nor
>>> smp_mb__after_atomic() implements a full memory barrier?
>>
>> I'd say the former; AFAICT, these boil down to:
>>
>> https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.1-rc5/source/arch/x86/include/asm/atomic.h#L95
>> https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v5.1-rc5/source/arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h#L84
>
> OK, how about the following?
>
> Thanx, Paul
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> commit 19d166dadc4e1bba4b248fb46d32ca4f2d10896b
> Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
> Date: Fri Apr 19 05:20:30 2019 -0700
>
> tools/memory-model: Make smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() match x86
>
> Read-modify-write atomic operations that do not return values need not
> provide any ordering guarantees, and this means that both the compiler
> and the CPU are free to reorder accesses across things like atomic_inc()
> and atomic_dec(). The stronger systems such as x86 allow the compiler
> to do the reordering, but prevent the CPU from so doing, and these
> systems implement smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() as compiler barriers.
> The weaker systems such as Power allow both the compiler and the CPU
> to reorder accesses across things like atomic_inc() and atomic_dec(),
> and implement smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic() as full memory barriers.
>
> This means that smp_mb__before_atomic() only orders the atomic operation
> itself with accesses preceding the smp_mb__before_atomic(), and does
> not necessarily provide any ordering whatsoever against accesses
> folowing the atomic operation. Similarly, smp_mb__after_atomic()

s/folowing/following/

> only orders the atomic operation itself with accesses following the
> smp_mb__after_atomic(), and does not necessarily provide any ordering
> whatsoever against accesses preceding the atomic operation. Full ordering
> therefore requires both an smp_mb__before_atomic() before the atomic
> operation and an smp_mb__after_atomic() after the atomic operation.
>
> Therefore, linux-kernel.cat's current model of Before-atomic
> and After-atomic is too strong, as it guarantees ordering of
> accesses on the other side of the atomic operation from the
> smp_mb__{before,after}_atomic(). This commit therefore weakens
> the guarantee to match the semantics called out above.
>
> Reported-by: Andrea Parri <andrea.parri@amarulasolutions.com>
> Suggested-by: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
> Signed-off-by: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> index 169d938c0b53..e5b97c3e8e39 100644
> --- a/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/memory-barriers.txt
> @@ -1888,7 +1888,37 @@ There are some more advanced barrier functions:
> atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
>
> This makes sure that the death mark on the object is perceived to be set
> - *before* the reference counter is decremented.
> + *before* the reference counter is decremented. However, please note
> + that smp_mb__before_atomic()'s ordering guarantee does not necessarily
> + extend beyond the atomic operation. For example:
> +
> + obj->dead = 1;
> + smp_mb__before_atomic();
> + atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
> + r1 = a;
> +
> + Here the store to obj->dead is not guaranteed to be ordered with
> + with the load from a. This reordering can happen on x86 as follows:

s/with//

And I beg you to avoid using the single letter variable "a".
It's confusing.

> + (1) The compiler can reorder the load from a to precede the
> + atomic_dec(), (2) Because x86 smp_mb__before_atomic() is only a
> + compiler barrier, the CPU can reorder the preceding store to
> + obj->dead with the later load from a.
> +
> + This could be avoided by using READ_ONCE(), which would prevent the
> + compiler from reordering due to both atomic_dec() and READ_ONCE()
> + being volatile accesses, and is usually preferable for loads from
> + shared variables. However, weakly ordered CPUs would still be
> + free to reorder the atomic_dec() with the load from a, so a more
> + readable option is to also use smp_mb__after_atomic() as follows:

The point here is not just "readability", but also the portability of the
code, isn't it?

Thanks, Akira

> +
> + WRITE_ONCE(obj->dead, 1);
> + smp_mb__before_atomic();
> + atomic_dec(&obj->ref_count);
> + smp_mb__after_atomic();
> + r1 = READ_ONCE(a);
> +
> + This orders all three accesses against each other, and also makes
> + the intent quite clear.
>
> See Documentation/atomic_{t,bitops}.txt for more information.
>
> diff --git a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> index 8dcb37835b61..b6866f93abb8 100644
> --- a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> +++ b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
> @@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ include "lock.cat"
> let rmb = [R \ Noreturn] ; fencerel(Rmb) ; [R \ Noreturn]
> let wmb = [W] ; fencerel(Wmb) ; [W]
> let mb = ([M] ; fencerel(Mb) ; [M]) |
> - ([M] ; fencerel(Before-atomic) ; [RMW] ; po? ; [M]) |
> - ([M] ; po? ; [RMW] ; fencerel(After-atomic) ; [M]) |
> + ([M] ; fencerel(Before-atomic) ; [RMW]) |
> + ([RMW] ; fencerel(After-atomic) ; [M]) |
> ([M] ; po? ; [LKW] ; fencerel(After-spinlock) ; [M]) |
> ([M] ; po ; [UL] ; (co | po) ; [LKW] ;
> fencerel(After-unlock-lock) ; [M])
>

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