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Subject[PATCH v5 00/18] locking/rwsem: Rwsem rearchitecture part 2
- Drop v4 patch 1 as it is merged into tip's locking/core branch.
- Integrate the 2 followup patches into the series. The first
follow-up patch is broken into 2 pieces. The first piece comes in
before the "Enable readers spinning on writer" and the 2nd piece
is merged into the "Enable time-based spinning on reader-owned
rwsem" patch. The 2nd followup patch is added after that.
- Add a new patch to make all wake_up_q() calls after dropping
wait_lock as suggested by PeterZ.
- Incorporate numerouos suggestions by PeterZ and Davidlohr.

- Fix the missing initialization bug with !CONFIG_RWSEM_SPIN_ON_OWNER
in patch 2.
- Move the "Remove rwsem_wake() wakeup optimization" patch before
the "Implement a new locking scheme" patch.
- Add two new patches to merge the relevant content of rwsem.h and
rwsem-xadd.c into rwsem.c as suggested by PeterZ.
- Refactor the lock handoff patch to make all setting and clearing
of the handoff bit serialized by wait_lock to ensure correctness.
- Adapt the rest of the patches to the new code base.

- Add 2 more patches in front to fix build and testing issues found.
Patch 1 can actually be merged on top of the patch "locking/rwsem:
Enhance DEBUG_RWSEMS_WARN_ON() macro" in part 1.
- Change the handoff patch (now patch 4) to set handoff bit immediately
after wakeup for RT writers. The timeout limit is also tightened to
- There is no code changes in other patches other than resolving conflicts
with patches 1, 2 and 4.

- Move the negative reader count checking patch (patch 12->10)
forward to before the merge owner to count patch as suggested by
Linus & expand the comment.
- Change the reader-owned rwsem spinning from count based to time
based to have better control of the max time allowed.

This is part 2 of a 3-part (0/1/2) series to rearchitect the internal
operation of rwsem. Both part 0 and part 1 are merged into tip.

This patchset revamps the current rwsem-xadd implementation to make
it saner and easier to work with. It also implements the following 3
new features:

1) Waiter lock handoff
2) Reader optimistic spinning with adapative disabling
3) Store write-lock owner in the atomic count (x86-64 only for now)

Waiter lock handoff is similar to the mechanism currently in the mutex
code. This ensures that lock starvation won't happen.

Reader optimistic spinning enables readers to acquire the lock more
quickly. So workloads that use a mix of readers and writers should
see an increase in performance as long as the reader critical sections
are short. For those workloads that have long reader critical sections
reader optimistic spinning may hurt performance, so an adaptive disabling
mechanism is also implemented to disable it when reader-owned lock
spinning timeouts happen.

Finally, storing the write-lock owner into the count will allow
optimistic spinners to get to the lock holder's task structure more
quickly and eliminating the timing gap where the write lock is acquired
but the owner isn't known yet. This is important for RT tasks where
spinning on a lock with an unknown owner is not allowed.

Because of the fact that multiple readers can share the same lock,
there is a natural preference for readers when measuring in term of
locking throughput as more readers are likely to get into the locking
fast path than the writers. With waiter lock handoff, we are not going
to starve the writers.

On a 1-socket 22-core 44-thread Skylake system with 22 reader and writer
locking threads, the min/mean/max locking operations done in a 5-second
testing window before the patchset were:

22 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 38,193/38,194/38,194
22 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 104,663/162,133/261,370

After the patchset, they became:

22 readers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 520,981/560,847/631,603
22 writers, Iterations Min/Mean/Max = 230,567/241,565/276,940

So it was much fairer to readers.

Patch 1 makes owner a permanent member of the rw_semaphore structure and
set it irrespective of CONFIG_RWSEM_SPIN_ON_OWNER.

Patch 2 removes rwsem_wake() wakeup optimization as it doesn't work
with lock handoff.

Patch 3 implements a new rwsem locking scheme similar to what qrwlock
is current doing. Write lock is done by atomic_cmpxchg() while read
lock is still being done by atomic_add().

Patch 4 merges the content of rwsem.h and rwsem-xadd.c into rwsem.c just
like the mutex. The rwsem-xadd.c is removed and a bare-bone rwsem.h is
left for internal function declaration needed by percpu-rwsem.c.

Patch 5 optimizes the merged rwsem.c file to generate smaller object
file and performs other miscellaneous code cleanups.

Patch 6 makes rwsem_spin_on_owner() returns owner state.

Patch 7 implments lock handoff to prevent lock starvation. It is expected
that throughput will be lower on workloads with highly contended rwsems
for better fairness.

Patch 8 makes sure that all wake_up_q() calls happened after dropping
the wait_lock.

Patch 9 makes RT task's handling of NULL owner more optimal.

Patch 10 makes reader wakeup to wake up almost all the readers in the
wait queue instead of just those in the front.


Patch 12 enables reader to spin on a writer-owned rwsem.

Patch 13 enables a writer to spin on a reader-owned rwsem for at most
25us and extends the RWSEM_NONSPINNABLE bit to 2 separate ones - one
for readers and one for writers.

Patch 14 implements the adaptive disabling of reader optimistic spinning
when the reader-owned rwsem spinning timeouts happen.

Patch 15 adds some new rwsem owner access helper functions.

Patch 16 handles the case of too many readers by reserving the sign
bit to designate that a reader lock attempt will fail and the locking
reader will be put to sleep. This will ensure that we will not overflow
the reader count.

Patch 17 merges the write-lock owner task pointer into the count.
Only 64-bit count has enough space to provide a reasonable number of
bits for reader count. This is for x86-64 only for the time being.

Patch 18 eliminates redundant computation of the merged owner-count.

With a locking microbenchmark running on 5.1 based kernel, the total
locking rates (in kops/s) on a 1-socket Skylake system with equal numbers
of readers and writers (mixed) before and after this patchset were:

# of Threads Before Patch After Patch
------------ ------------ -----------
2 1,566 4,750
4 1,191 3,972
8 825 3,871
16 744 3,405
32 691 3,243
44 672 3,217

On workloads where the rwsem reader critical section is relatively long
(longer than the spinning period), optimistic of writer on reader-owned
rwsem may not be that helpful. In fact, the performance may regress
in some cases like the will-it-sclae page_fault1 microbenchmark. This
is likely due to the fact that larger reader groups where the readers
acquire the lock together are broken into smaller ones. So more work
will be needed to better tune the rwsem code to that kind of workload.

Waiman Long (18):
locking/rwsem: Make owner available even if
locking/rwsem: Remove rwsem_wake() wakeup optimization
locking/rwsem: Implement a new locking scheme
locking/rwsem: Merge rwsem.h and rwsem-xadd.c into rwsem.c
locking/rwsem: Code cleanup after files merging
locking/rwsem: Make rwsem_spin_on_owner() return owner state
locking/rwsem: Implement lock handoff to prevent lock starvation
locking/rwsem: Always release wait_lock before waking up tasks
locking/rwsem: More optimal RT task handling of null owner
locking/rwsem: Wake up almost all readers in wait queue
locking/rwsem: Clarify usage of owner's nonspinaable bit
locking/rwsem: Enable readers spinning on writer
locking/rwsem: Enable time-based spinning on reader-owned rwsem
locking/rwsem: Adaptive disabling of reader optimistic spinning
locking/rwsem: Add more rwsem owner access helpers
locking/rwsem: Guard against making count negative
locking/rwsem: Merge owner into count on x86-64
locking/rwsem: Remove redundant computation of writer lock word

arch/x86/Kconfig | 6 +
include/linux/rwsem.h | 11 +-
include/linux/sched/wake_q.h | 5 +
kernel/Kconfig.locks | 12 +
kernel/locking/Makefile | 2 +-
kernel/locking/lock_events_list.h | 11 +-
kernel/locking/rwsem-xadd.c | 729 --------------
kernel/locking/rwsem.c | 1473 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
kernel/locking/rwsem.h | 306 +-----
lib/Kconfig.debug | 8 +-
10 files changed, 1493 insertions(+), 1070 deletions(-)
delete mode 100644 kernel/locking/rwsem-xadd.c


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