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SubjectRe: [PATCH 0/7] introduce cpu.headroom knob to cpu controller
Date
Hi Peter,

> On Apr 8, 2019, at 2:45 PM, Song Liu <songliubraving@fb.com> wrote:
>
> Servers running latency sensitive workload usually aren't fully loaded for
> various reasons including disaster readiness. The machines running our
> interactive workloads (referred as main workload) have a lot of spare CPU
> cycles that we would like to use for optimistic side jobs like video
> encoding. However, our experiments show that the side workload has strong
> impact on the latency of main workload:
>
> side-job main-load-level main-avg-latency
> none 1.0 1.00
> none 1.1 1.10
> none 1.2 1.10
> none 1.3 1.10
> none 1.4 1.15
> none 1.5 1.24
> none 1.6 1.74
>
> ffmpeg 1.0 1.82
> ffmpeg 1.1 2.74
>
> Note: both the main-load-level and the main-avg-latency numbers are
> _normalized_.
>
> In these experiments, ffmpeg is put in a cgroup with cpu.weight of 1
> (lowest priority). However, it consumes all idle CPU cycles in the
> system and causes high latency for the main workload. Further experiments
> and analysis (more details below) shows that, for the main workload to meet
> its latency targets, it is necessary to limit the CPU usage of the side
> workload so that there are some _idle_ CPU. There are various reasons
> behind the need of idle CPU time. First, shared CPU resouce saturation
> starts to happen way before time-measured utilization reaches 100%.
> Secondly, scheduling latency starts to impact the main workload as CPU
> reaches full utilization.
>
> Currently, the cpu controller provides two mechanisms to protect the main
> workload: cpu.weight and cpu.max. However, neither of them is sufficient
> in these use cases. As shown in the experiments above, side workload with
> cpu.weight of 1 (lowest priority) would still consume all idle CPU and add
> unacceptable latency to the main workload. cpu.max can throttle the CPU
> usage of the side workload and preserve some idle CPU. However, cpu.max
> cannot react to changes in load levels. For example, when the main
> workload uses 40% of CPU, cpu.max of 30% for the side workload would yield
> good latencies for the main workload. However, when the workload
> experiences higher load levels and uses more CPU, the same setting (cpu.max
> of 30%) would cause the interactive workload to miss its latency target.
>
> These experiments demonstrated the need for a mechanism to effectively
> throttle CPU usage of the side workload and preserve idle CPU cycles.
> The mechanism should be able to adjust the level of throttling based on
> the load level of the main workload.
>
> This patchset introduces a new knob for cpu controller: cpu.headroom.
> cgroup of the main workload uses cpu.headroom to ensure side workload to
> use limited CPU cycles. For example, if a main workload has a cpu.headroom
> of 30%. The side workload will be throttled to give 30% overall idle CPU.
> If the main workload uses more than 70% of CPU, the side workload will only
> run with configurable minimal cycles. This configurable minimal cycles is
> referred as "tolerance" of the main workload.
>
> The following is a detailed example:
>
> main/cpu.headroom main-cpu-load low-pri-cpu-cycle idle-cpu
> 30% 30% 40% 30%
> 30% 40% 30% 30%
> 30% 50% 20% 30%
> 30% 60% 10% 30%
> 30% 70% minimal ~30%
> 30% 80% minimal ~20%
>
> In the example, we use a constant cpu.headroom setting of 30%. As main job
> experiences different level of load, the cpu controller adjusts CPU cycles
> used by the low-pri jobs.
>
> We experiemented with a web server as the main workload and ffmpeg as the
> side workload. The following table compares latency impact on the main
> workload under different cpu.headroom settings and load levels. In all
> tests, the side workload cgroup is configured with cpu.weight of 1. When
> throttled, the side workload can only run 1ms per 100ms period.
>
> average-latency
> main-load-level w/o-side w/-side- w/-side- w/-side-
> no-headroom 30%-headroom 20%-headroom
> 1.0 1.00 1.82 1.26 1.14
> 1.1 1.10 2.74 1.26 1.32
> 1.2 1.10 1.29 1.38
> 1.3 1.10 1.32 1.49
> 1.4 1.15 1.29 1.85
> 1.5 1.24 1.32
> 1.6 1.74 1.50
>
> Each row of the table shows a normalized load level and average latencies
> for 4 scenarios: w/o side workload, w/ side workload but no headroom; w/
> side workload and 30% headroom; with side workload and 20% headroom.
>
>
> When there is no side workload, average latency of main job falls in the
> 0.7x range, except the very high load scenarios. When there is side
> workload but no headroom, latency of the main job goes very high at
> moderate load levels. With 30% headroom, the average latency falls in the
> 0.8x range. With 20% headroom, the average latency falls in the 0.9x to
> 1.x range. We didn't finish tests in some cases with high load, because
> the latency is too high.
>
> This experiment demonstrated cpu.headroom is an effective and efficient
> knob to control the latency of the main job.
>
> Thanks!

Could you please kindly share your feedback and comments on this work?

Thanks and Regards,
Song

> Song Liu (7):
> sched: refactor tg_set_cfs_bandwidth()
> cgroup: introduce hook css_has_tasks_changed
> cgroup: introduce cgroup_parse_percentage
> sched, cgroup: add entry cpu.headroom
> sched/fair: global idleness counter for cpu.headroom
> sched/fair: throttle task runtime based on cpu.headroom
> Documentation: cgroup-v2: add information for cpu.headroom
>
> Documentation/admin-guide/cgroup-v2.rst | 18 +
> fs/proc/stat.c | 4 +-
> include/linux/cgroup-defs.h | 2 +
> include/linux/cgroup.h | 1 +
> include/linux/kernel_stat.h | 2 +
> kernel/cgroup/cgroup.c | 51 +++
> kernel/sched/core.c | 425 ++++++++++++++++++++++--
> kernel/sched/fair.c | 143 +++++++-
> kernel/sched/sched.h | 30 ++
> 9 files changed, 634 insertions(+), 42 deletions(-)
>
> --
> 2.17.1
>

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