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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/1] Lib: sort.c: replaced heap sort algorithm with introspective sort
On Tue,  5 Feb 2019 21:24:13 +0300 Andrey Abramov <st5pub@yandex.ru> wrote:

> Replaced heap sort algorithm with faster introspective sort algorithm.
>
> Signed-off-by: Andrey Abramov <st5pub@yandex.ru>
> ---
> v1: The introspective sort algorithm is faster the heap sort (for example on my machine on a 100MB of random data it was consistently almost twice faster) and it doesn't have the worst case, unlike qsort.

I guess faster is always better, but are there any known parts of the
kernel which actually care about the performance of sort()?

>
> ...
>
> --- a/lib/sort.c
> +++ b/lib/sort.c
> @@ -1,8 +1,9 @@
> // SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> /*
> - * A fast, small, non-recursive O(nlog n) sort for the Linux kernel
> + * A fast, recursive O(nlog n) sort for the Linux kernel

oops. A good analysis of the maximum stack utilization is needed,
please.

> * Jan 23 2005 Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>
> + * Feb 5 2019 Andrey Abramov <st5pub@yandex.ru> (introspective sort)
> */
>
> #define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
> @@ -48,33 +49,22 @@ static void generic_swap(void *a, void *b, int size)
> * @num: number of elements
> * @size: size of each element
> * @cmp_func: pointer to comparison function
> - * @swap_func: pointer to swap function or NULL
> + * @swap_func: pointer to swap function
> *
> - * This function does a heapsort on the given array. You may provide a
> - * swap_func function optimized to your element type.
> + * This function does a heapsort on the given array.
> *
> * Sorting time is O(n log n) both on average and worst-case. While
> * qsort is about 20% faster on average, it suffers from exploitable
> * O(n*n) worst-case behavior and extra memory requirements that make
> * it less suitable for kernel use.
> */
> -
> -void sort(void *base, size_t num, size_t size,
> +void heapsort(void *base, size_t num, size_t size,

static?

> int (*cmp_func)(const void *, const void *),
> void (*swap_func)(void *, void *, int size))
> {
> /* pre-scale counters for performance */
> int i = (num/2 - 1) * size, n = num * size, c, r;
>
> - if (!swap_func) {
> - if (size == 4 && alignment_ok(base, 4))
> - swap_func = u32_swap;
> - else if (size == 8 && alignment_ok(base, 8))
> - swap_func = u64_swap;
> - else
> - swap_func = generic_swap;
> - }
> -
> /* heapify */
> for ( ; i >= 0; i -= size) {
> for (r = i; r * 2 + size < n; r = c) {
> @@ -103,4 +93,111 @@ void sort(void *base, size_t num, size_t size,
> }
> }
>
> +void introsort(void *base, size_t num, size_t size,

static?

> + int (*cmp_func)(const void *, const void *),
> + void (*swap_func)(void *, void *, int size),
> + unsigned int max_depth, unsigned int depth)
> +{
> +
> + void *last = base + (num - 1) * size;
> + void *pivot = base + ((num - 1) / 2) * size;
> + void *i = base;
> + void *j = last;

That's about 100 bytes per invokation.

> + if (num <= 1)
> + return;
> +
> + /* switching to heapsort */

Please explain the reason for this in the comment.

> + if (depth >= max_depth) {
> + heapsort(base, num, size, cmp_func, swap_func);

Ditto.

> + return;
> + }
> +
> + /* making pivot be the median of middle, first and last elements */

"Make"

(and why?)

> + if ((cmp_func(pivot, base) >= 0 && cmp_func(base, last) >= 0)
> + || (cmp_func(last, base) >= 0 && cmp_func(base, pivot) >= 0)) {
> + pivot = base;
> + } else if ((cmp_func(pivot, last) >= 0 && cmp_func(last, base) >= 0)
> + || (cmp_func(base, last) >= 0 && cmp_func(last, pivot) >= 0)) {
> + pivot = last;
> + }
> +
> + /* split array */
> + while (true) {
> + while (cmp_func(i, pivot) < 0 && i < last)
> + i += size;
> + while (cmp_func(j, pivot) > 0 && j > base)
> + j -= size;
> +
> + if (i >= j)
> + break;
> +
> + swap_func(i, j, size);
> +
> + if (i == pivot)
> + pivot = j;
> + else if (j == pivot)
> + pivot = i;
> +
> + j -= size;
> + i += size;
> + }
> +
> + /* continue for smaller parts */
> + if (i < last)
> + introsort(i, ((size_t)last - (size_t)i) / size + 1,
> + size, cmp_func, swap_func, max_depth, depth + 1);
> + if (base < j)
> + introsort(base, ((size_t)j - (size_t)base) / size + 1,
> + size, cmp_func, swap_func, max_depth, depth + 1);
> +}
> +
> +unsigned int log2_up(size_t val)

static?

> +{
> + unsigned int log = 0;
> + size_t current = 1;
> +
> + unsigned int max_reachable_log = sizeof(val) * 8 - 1;
> +
> + while (current < val) {
> + current <<= 1;
> + log++;
> + if (log == max_reachable_log && current < val)
> + return max_reachable_log + 1;
> + }
> +
> + return log;
> +}

Please add a comment explaining what this does. Partly so that readers
(such as I) can understand why it can't utilize the existing log2().

> +
> +/**
> + * sort - sort an array of elements
> + * @base: pointer to data to sort
> + * @num: number of elements
> + * @size: size of each element
> + * @cmp_func: pointer to comparison function
> + * @swap_func: pointer to swap function or NULL
> + *
> + * This function does a introspective sort on the given array. You may provide a
> + * swap_func function optimized to your element type.
> + *
> + * The introspective sort use both qsort and heapsort,
> + * so it is faster than heapsort on average,

There's a non-ascii character after "heapsort".

> + * but it doesn't have the worst case unlike qsort

Unclear. "like qsort"?

> + */
> +void sort(void *base, size_t num, size_t size,
> + int (*cmp_func)(const void *, const void *),
> + void (*swap_func)(void *, void *, int size))
> +{
> + if (!swap_func) {
> + if (size == 4 && alignment_ok(base, 4))
> + swap_func = u32_swap;
> + else if (size == 8 && alignment_ok(base, 8))
> + swap_func = u64_swap;
> + else
> + swap_func = generic_swap;
> + }
> +
> + introsort(base, num, size, cmp_func, swap_func, log2_up(num) * 2, 1);
> +}
> EXPORT_SYMBOL(sort);

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