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Subject[PATCH -mm -V7] mm, swap: fix race between swapoff and some swap operations
Date
From: Huang Ying <ying.huang@intel.com>

When swapin is performed, after getting the swap entry information from
the page table, system will swap in the swap entry, without any lock held
to prevent the swap device from being swapoff. This may cause the race
like below,

CPU 1 CPU 2
----- -----
do_swap_page
swapin_readahead
__read_swap_cache_async
swapoff swapcache_prepare
p->swap_map = NULL __swap_duplicate
p->swap_map[?] /* !!! NULL pointer access */

Because swapoff is usually done when system shutdown only, the race may
not hit many people in practice. But it is still a race need to be fixed.

To fix the race, get_swap_device() is added to check whether the specified
swap entry is valid in its swap device. If so, it will keep the swap
entry valid via preventing the swap device from being swapoff, until
put_swap_device() is called.

Because swapoff() is very rare code path, to make the normal path runs as
fast as possible, disabling preemption + stop_machine() instead of
reference count is used to implement get/put_swap_device(). From
get_swap_device() to put_swap_device(), the preemption is disabled, so
stop_machine() in swapoff() will wait until put_swap_device() is called.

In addition to swap_map, cluster_info, etc. data structure in the struct
swap_info_struct, the swap cache radix tree will be freed after swapoff,
so this patch fixes the race between swap cache looking up and swapoff
too.

Races between some other swap cache usages protected via disabling
preemption and swapoff are fixed too via calling stop_machine() between
clearing PageSwapCache() and freeing swap cache data structure.

Alternative implementation could be replacing disable preemption with
rcu_read_lock_sched and stop_machine() with synchronize_sched().

Signed-off-by: "Huang, Ying" <ying.huang@intel.com>
Not-Nacked-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
Cc: Tim Chen <tim.c.chen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>
Cc: Jérôme Glisse <jglisse@redhat.com>
Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Cc: Dave Jiang <dave.jiang@intel.com>
Cc: Daniel Jordan <daniel.m.jordan@oracle.com>
Cc: Andrea Parri <andrea.parri@amarulasolutions.com>

Changelog:

v7:

- Rebased on patch: "mm, swap: bounds check swap_info accesses to avoid NULL derefs"

v6:

- Add more comments to get_swap_device() to make it more clear about
possible swapoff or swapoff+swapon.

v5:

- Replace RCU with stop_machine()

v4:

- Use synchronize_rcu() in enable_swap_info() to reduce overhead of
normal paths further.

v3:

- Re-implemented with RCU to reduce the overhead of normal paths

v2:

- Re-implemented with SRCU to reduce the overhead of normal paths.

- Avoid to check whether the swap device has been swapoff in
get_swap_device(). Because we can check the origin of the swap
entry to make sure the swap device hasn't bee swapoff.
---
include/linux/swap.h | 13 +++-
mm/memory.c | 2 +-
mm/swap_state.c | 16 ++++-
mm/swapfile.c | 150 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------
4 files changed, 145 insertions(+), 36 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/swap.h b/include/linux/swap.h
index 649529be91f2..aecd1430d0a9 100644
--- a/include/linux/swap.h
+++ b/include/linux/swap.h
@@ -175,8 +175,9 @@ enum {
SWP_PAGE_DISCARD = (1 << 10), /* freed swap page-cluster discards */
SWP_STABLE_WRITES = (1 << 11), /* no overwrite PG_writeback pages */
SWP_SYNCHRONOUS_IO = (1 << 12), /* synchronous IO is efficient */
+ SWP_VALID = (1 << 13), /* swap is valid to be operated on? */
/* add others here before... */
- SWP_SCANNING = (1 << 13), /* refcount in scan_swap_map */
+ SWP_SCANNING = (1 << 14), /* refcount in scan_swap_map */
};

#define SWAP_CLUSTER_MAX 32UL
@@ -460,7 +461,7 @@ extern unsigned int count_swap_pages(int, int);
extern sector_t map_swap_page(struct page *, struct block_device **);
extern sector_t swapdev_block(int, pgoff_t);
extern int page_swapcount(struct page *);
-extern int __swap_count(struct swap_info_struct *si, swp_entry_t entry);
+extern int __swap_count(swp_entry_t entry);
extern int __swp_swapcount(swp_entry_t entry);
extern int swp_swapcount(swp_entry_t entry);
extern struct swap_info_struct *page_swap_info(struct page *);
@@ -470,6 +471,12 @@ extern int try_to_free_swap(struct page *);
struct backing_dev_info;
extern int init_swap_address_space(unsigned int type, unsigned long nr_pages);
extern void exit_swap_address_space(unsigned int type);
+extern struct swap_info_struct *get_swap_device(swp_entry_t entry);
+
+static inline void put_swap_device(struct swap_info_struct *si)
+{
+ preempt_enable();
+}

#else /* CONFIG_SWAP */

@@ -576,7 +583,7 @@ static inline int page_swapcount(struct page *page)
return 0;
}

-static inline int __swap_count(struct swap_info_struct *si, swp_entry_t entry)
+static inline int __swap_count(swp_entry_t entry)
{
return 0;
}
diff --git a/mm/memory.c b/mm/memory.c
index 34ced1369883..9c0743c17c6c 100644
--- a/mm/memory.c
+++ b/mm/memory.c
@@ -2719,7 +2719,7 @@ vm_fault_t do_swap_page(struct vm_fault *vmf)
struct swap_info_struct *si = swp_swap_info(entry);

if (si->flags & SWP_SYNCHRONOUS_IO &&
- __swap_count(si, entry) == 1) {
+ __swap_count(entry) == 1) {
/* skip swapcache */
page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma,
vmf->address);
diff --git a/mm/swap_state.c b/mm/swap_state.c
index 85245fdec8d9..61453f1faf72 100644
--- a/mm/swap_state.c
+++ b/mm/swap_state.c
@@ -310,8 +310,13 @@ struct page *lookup_swap_cache(swp_entry_t entry, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
unsigned long addr)
{
struct page *page;
+ struct swap_info_struct *si;

+ si = get_swap_device(entry);
+ if (!si)
+ return NULL;
page = find_get_page(swap_address_space(entry), swp_offset(entry));
+ put_swap_device(si);

INC_CACHE_INFO(find_total);
if (page) {
@@ -354,8 +359,8 @@ struct page *__read_swap_cache_async(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask,
struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long addr,
bool *new_page_allocated)
{
- struct page *found_page, *new_page = NULL;
- struct address_space *swapper_space = swap_address_space(entry);
+ struct page *found_page = NULL, *new_page = NULL;
+ struct swap_info_struct *si;
int err;
*new_page_allocated = false;

@@ -365,7 +370,12 @@ struct page *__read_swap_cache_async(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask,
* called after lookup_swap_cache() failed, re-calling
* that would confuse statistics.
*/
- found_page = find_get_page(swapper_space, swp_offset(entry));
+ si = get_swap_device(entry);
+ if (!si)
+ break;
+ found_page = find_get_page(swap_address_space(entry),
+ swp_offset(entry));
+ put_swap_device(si);
if (found_page)
break;

diff --git a/mm/swapfile.c b/mm/swapfile.c
index cca8420b12db..8f92f36814fb 100644
--- a/mm/swapfile.c
+++ b/mm/swapfile.c
@@ -38,6 +38,7 @@
#include <linux/export.h>
#include <linux/swap_slots.h>
#include <linux/sort.h>
+#include <linux/stop_machine.h>

#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
@@ -1186,6 +1187,64 @@ static unsigned char __swap_entry_free_locked(struct swap_info_struct *p,
return usage;
}

+/*
+ * Check whether swap entry is valid in the swap device. If so,
+ * return pointer to swap_info_struct, and keep the swap entry valid
+ * via preventing the swap device from being swapoff, until
+ * put_swap_device() is called. Otherwise return NULL.
+ *
+ * Notice that swapoff or swapoff+swapon can still happen before the
+ * preempt_disable() in get_swap_device() or after the
+ * preempt_enable() in put_swap_device() if there isn't any other way
+ * to prevent swapoff, such as page lock, page table lock, etc. The
+ * caller must be prepared for that. For example, the following
+ * situation is possible.
+ *
+ * CPU1 CPU2
+ * do_swap_page()
+ * ... swapoff+swapon
+ * __read_swap_cache_async()
+ * swapcache_prepare()
+ * __swap_duplicate()
+ * // check swap_map
+ * // verify PTE not changed
+ *
+ * In __swap_duplicate(), the swap_map need to be checked before
+ * changing partly because the specified swap entry may be for another
+ * swap device which has been swapoff. And in do_swap_page(), after
+ * the page is read from the swap device, the PTE is verified not
+ * changed with the page table locked to check whether the swap device
+ * has been swapoff or swapoff+swapon.
+ */
+struct swap_info_struct *get_swap_device(swp_entry_t entry)
+{
+ struct swap_info_struct *si;
+ unsigned long type, offset;
+
+ if (!entry.val)
+ goto out;
+ type = swp_type(entry);
+ si = swap_type_to_swap_info(type);
+ if (!si)
+ goto bad_nofile;
+
+ preempt_disable();
+ if (!(si->flags & SWP_VALID))
+ goto unlock_out;
+ offset = swp_offset(entry);
+ if (offset >= si->max)
+ goto unlock_out;
+
+ return si;
+bad_nofile:
+ pr_err("%s: %s%08lx\n", __func__, Bad_file, entry.val);
+out:
+ return NULL;
+unlock_out:
+ preempt_enable();
+ return NULL;
+}
+
static unsigned char __swap_entry_free(struct swap_info_struct *p,
swp_entry_t entry, unsigned char usage)
{
@@ -1357,11 +1416,18 @@ int page_swapcount(struct page *page)
return count;
}

-int __swap_count(struct swap_info_struct *si, swp_entry_t entry)
+int __swap_count(swp_entry_t entry)
{
+ struct swap_info_struct *si;
pgoff_t offset = swp_offset(entry);
+ int count = 0;

- return swap_count(si->swap_map[offset]);
+ si = get_swap_device(entry);
+ if (si) {
+ count = swap_count(si->swap_map[offset]);
+ put_swap_device(si);
+ }
+ return count;
}

static int swap_swapcount(struct swap_info_struct *si, swp_entry_t entry)
@@ -1386,9 +1452,11 @@ int __swp_swapcount(swp_entry_t entry)
int count = 0;
struct swap_info_struct *si;

- si = __swap_info_get(entry);
- if (si)
+ si = get_swap_device(entry);
+ if (si) {
count = swap_swapcount(si, entry);
+ put_swap_device(si);
+ }
return count;
}

@@ -2332,9 +2400,9 @@ static int swap_node(struct swap_info_struct *p)
return bdev ? bdev->bd_disk->node_id : NUMA_NO_NODE;
}

-static void _enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
- unsigned char *swap_map,
- struct swap_cluster_info *cluster_info)
+static void setup_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
+ unsigned char *swap_map,
+ struct swap_cluster_info *cluster_info)
{
int i;

@@ -2359,7 +2427,11 @@ static void _enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
}
p->swap_map = swap_map;
p->cluster_info = cluster_info;
- p->flags |= SWP_WRITEOK;
+}
+
+static void _enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p)
+{
+ p->flags |= SWP_WRITEOK | SWP_VALID;
atomic_long_add(p->pages, &nr_swap_pages);
total_swap_pages += p->pages;

@@ -2378,6 +2450,11 @@ static void _enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
add_to_avail_list(p);
}

+static int swap_onoff_stop(void *arg)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+
static void enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
unsigned char *swap_map,
struct swap_cluster_info *cluster_info,
@@ -2386,7 +2463,17 @@ static void enable_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p, int prio,
frontswap_init(p->type, frontswap_map);
spin_lock(&swap_lock);
spin_lock(&p->lock);
- _enable_swap_info(p, prio, swap_map, cluster_info);
+ setup_swap_info(p, prio, swap_map, cluster_info);
+ spin_unlock(&p->lock);
+ spin_unlock(&swap_lock);
+ /*
+ * Guarantee swap_map, cluster_info, etc. fields are used
+ * between get/put_swap_device() only if SWP_VALID bit is set
+ */
+ stop_machine(swap_onoff_stop, NULL, cpu_online_mask);
+ spin_lock(&swap_lock);
+ spin_lock(&p->lock);
+ _enable_swap_info(p);
spin_unlock(&p->lock);
spin_unlock(&swap_lock);
}
@@ -2395,7 +2482,8 @@ static void reinsert_swap_info(struct swap_info_struct *p)
{
spin_lock(&swap_lock);
spin_lock(&p->lock);
- _enable_swap_info(p, p->prio, p->swap_map, p->cluster_info);
+ setup_swap_info(p, p->prio, p->swap_map, p->cluster_info);
+ _enable_swap_info(p);
spin_unlock(&p->lock);
spin_unlock(&swap_lock);
}
@@ -2498,6 +2586,17 @@ SYSCALL_DEFINE1(swapoff, const char __user *, specialfile)

reenable_swap_slots_cache_unlock();

+ spin_lock(&swap_lock);
+ spin_lock(&p->lock);
+ p->flags &= ~SWP_VALID; /* mark swap device as invalid */
+ spin_unlock(&p->lock);
+ spin_unlock(&swap_lock);
+ /*
+ * wait for swap operations protected by get/put_swap_device()
+ * to complete
+ */
+ stop_machine(swap_onoff_stop, NULL, cpu_online_mask);
+
flush_work(&p->discard_work);

destroy_swap_extents(p);
@@ -3263,17 +3362,11 @@ static int __swap_duplicate(swp_entry_t entry, unsigned char usage)
unsigned char has_cache;
int err = -EINVAL;

- if (non_swap_entry(entry))
- goto out;
-
- p = swp_swap_info(entry);
+ p = get_swap_device(entry);
if (!p)
- goto bad_file;
-
- offset = swp_offset(entry);
- if (unlikely(offset >= p->max))
goto out;

+ offset = swp_offset(entry);
ci = lock_cluster_or_swap_info(p, offset);

count = p->swap_map[offset];
@@ -3319,11 +3412,9 @@ static int __swap_duplicate(swp_entry_t entry, unsigned char usage)
unlock_out:
unlock_cluster_or_swap_info(p, ci);
out:
+ if (p)
+ put_swap_device(p);
return err;
-
-bad_file:
- pr_err("swap_dup: %s%08lx\n", Bad_file, entry.val);
- goto out;
}

/*
@@ -3415,6 +3506,7 @@ int add_swap_count_continuation(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask)
struct page *list_page;
pgoff_t offset;
unsigned char count;
+ int ret = 0;

/*
* When debugging, it's easier to use __GFP_ZERO here; but it's better
@@ -3422,15 +3514,15 @@ int add_swap_count_continuation(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask)
*/
page = alloc_page(gfp_mask | __GFP_HIGHMEM);

- si = swap_info_get(entry);
+ si = get_swap_device(entry);
if (!si) {
/*
* An acceptable race has occurred since the failing
- * __swap_duplicate(): the swap entry has been freed,
- * perhaps even the whole swap_map cleared for swapoff.
+ * __swap_duplicate(): the swap device may be swapoff
*/
goto outer;
}
+ spin_lock(&si->lock);

offset = swp_offset(entry);

@@ -3448,9 +3540,8 @@ int add_swap_count_continuation(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask)
}

if (!page) {
- unlock_cluster(ci);
- spin_unlock(&si->lock);
- return -ENOMEM;
+ ret = -ENOMEM;
+ goto out;
}

/*
@@ -3502,10 +3593,11 @@ int add_swap_count_continuation(swp_entry_t entry, gfp_t gfp_mask)
out:
unlock_cluster(ci);
spin_unlock(&si->lock);
+ put_swap_device(si);
outer:
if (page)
__free_page(page);
- return 0;
+ return ret;
}

/*
--
2.20.1
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