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Subject[PATCH v3] ARC: ARCv2: jump label: implement jump label patching
Date
Implement jump label patching for ARC. Jump labels provide
an interface to generate dynamic branches using
self-modifying code.

This allows us to implement conditional branches where
changing branch direction is expensive but branch selection
is basically 'free'

This implementation uses 32-bit NOP and BRANCH instructions
which forced to be aligned by 4 to guarantee that they don't
cross L1 cache line boundary / L1 I$ cache fetch block
boundary and can be update atomically.

Signed-off-by: Eugeniy Paltsev <Eugeniy.Paltsev@synopsys.com>
---
Changes v1->v2:
* Patched instruction should not cross L1 I$ fetch block boundary and
not only L1 I$ line. Fix comments and asserts in code.
* Other small comments fix and code cleanup.
Changes v2->v3:
* Code cleanup.
* Mark testdata array as __initconst
* Drop check about fetch block in code.
* Invert ARC_DBG_JUMP_LABEL vs STATIC_KEYS_SELFTEST dependency.

arch/arc/Kconfig | 8 ++
arch/arc/include/asm/cache.h | 2 +
arch/arc/include/asm/jump_label.h | 72 +++++++++++++
arch/arc/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
arch/arc/kernel/jump_label.c | 170 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
5 files changed, 253 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 arch/arc/include/asm/jump_label.h
create mode 100644 arch/arc/kernel/jump_label.c

diff --git a/arch/arc/Kconfig b/arch/arc/Kconfig
index 8383155c8c82..375f9d278139 100644
--- a/arch/arc/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/arc/Kconfig
@@ -46,6 +46,7 @@ config ARC
select OF_EARLY_FLATTREE
select PCI_SYSCALL if PCI
select PERF_USE_VMALLOC if ARC_CACHE_VIPT_ALIASING
+ select HAVE_ARCH_JUMP_LABEL if ISA_ARCV2 && !CPU_ENDIAN_BE32

config ARCH_HAS_CACHE_LINE_SIZE
def_bool y
@@ -525,6 +526,13 @@ config ARC_DW2_UNWIND
config ARC_DBG_TLB_PARANOIA
bool "Paranoia Checks in Low Level TLB Handlers"

+config ARC_DBG_JUMP_LABEL
+ bool "Paranoid checks in Static Keys (jump labels) code"
+ depends on JUMP_LABEL
+ default y if STATIC_KEYS_SELFTEST
+ help
+ Enable paranoid checks and self-test of both ARC-specific and generic
+ part of static keys (jump labels) related code.
endif

config ARC_BUILTIN_DTB_NAME
diff --git a/arch/arc/include/asm/cache.h b/arch/arc/include/asm/cache.h
index 918804c7c1a4..d8ece4292388 100644
--- a/arch/arc/include/asm/cache.h
+++ b/arch/arc/include/asm/cache.h
@@ -25,6 +25,8 @@

#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__

+#include <linux/build_bug.h>
+
/* Uncached access macros */
#define arc_read_uncached_32(ptr) \
({ \
diff --git a/arch/arc/include/asm/jump_label.h b/arch/arc/include/asm/jump_label.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9d9618079739
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arc/include/asm/jump_label.h
@@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
+/* SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0 */
+#ifndef _ASM_ARC_JUMP_LABEL_H
+#define _ASM_ARC_JUMP_LABEL_H
+
+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
+
+#include <linux/stringify.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+
+#define JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE 4
+
+/*
+ * NOTE about '.balign 4':
+ *
+ * To make atomic update of patched instruction available we need to guarantee
+ * that this instruction doesn't cross L1 cache line boundary.
+ *
+ * As of today we simply align instruction which can be patched by 4 byte using
+ * ".balign 4" directive. In that case patched instruction is aligned with one
+ * 16-bit NOP_S if this is required.
+ * However 'align by 4' directive is much stricter than it actually required.
+ * It's enough that our 32-bit instruction don't cross L1 cache line boundary /
+ * L1 I$ fetch block boundary which can be achieved by using
+ * ".bundle_align_mode" assembler directive. That will save us from adding
+ * useless NOP_S padding in most of the cases.
+ *
+ * TODO: switch to ".bundle_align_mode" directive using whin it will be
+ * supported by ARC toolchain.
+ */
+
+static __always_inline bool arch_static_branch(struct static_key *key,
+ bool branch)
+{
+ asm_volatile_goto(".balign "__stringify(JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE)" \n"
+ "1: \n"
+ "nop \n"
+ ".pushsection __jump_table, \"aw\" \n"
+ ".word 1b, %l[l_yes], %c0 \n"
+ ".popsection \n"
+ : : "i" (&((char *)key)[branch]) : : l_yes);
+
+ return false;
+l_yes:
+ return true;
+}
+
+static __always_inline bool arch_static_branch_jump(struct static_key *key,
+ bool branch)
+{
+ asm_volatile_goto(".balign "__stringify(JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE)" \n"
+ "1: \n"
+ "b %l[l_yes] \n"
+ ".pushsection __jump_table, \"aw\" \n"
+ ".word 1b, %l[l_yes], %c0 \n"
+ ".popsection \n"
+ : : "i" (&((char *)key)[branch]) : : l_yes);
+
+ return false;
+l_yes:
+ return true;
+}
+
+typedef u32 jump_label_t;
+
+struct jump_entry {
+ jump_label_t code;
+ jump_label_t target;
+ jump_label_t key;
+};
+
+#endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
+#endif
diff --git a/arch/arc/kernel/Makefile b/arch/arc/kernel/Makefile
index de6251132310..e784f5396dda 100644
--- a/arch/arc/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arc/kernel/Makefile
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_ARC_EMUL_UNALIGNED) += unaligned.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB) += kgdb.o
obj-$(CONFIG_ARC_METAWARE_HLINK) += arc_hostlink.o
obj-$(CONFIG_PERF_EVENTS) += perf_event.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_JUMP_LABEL) += jump_label.o

obj-$(CONFIG_ARC_FPU_SAVE_RESTORE) += fpu.o
CFLAGS_fpu.o += -mdpfp
diff --git a/arch/arc/kernel/jump_label.c b/arch/arc/kernel/jump_label.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b8600dc325b5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arc/kernel/jump_label.c
@@ -0,0 +1,170 @@
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/jump_label.h>
+
+#include "asm/cacheflush.h"
+
+#define JUMPLABEL_ERR "ARC: jump_label: ERROR: "
+
+/* Halt system on fatal error to make debug easier */
+#define arc_jl_fatal(format...) \
+({ \
+ pr_err(JUMPLABEL_ERR format); \
+ BUG(); \
+})
+
+static inline u32 arc_gen_nop(void)
+{
+ /* 1x 32bit NOP in middle endian */
+ return 0x7000264a;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Atomic update of patched instruction is only available if this
+ * instruction doesn't cross L1 cache line boundary. You can read about
+ * the way we achieve this in arc/include/asm/jump_label.h
+ */
+static inline void instruction_align_assert(void *addr, int len)
+{
+ unsigned long a = (unsigned long)addr;
+
+ if ((a >> L1_CACHE_SHIFT) != ((a + len - 1) >> L1_CACHE_SHIFT))
+ arc_jl_fatal("instruction (addr %px) cross L1 cache line border",
+ addr);
+}
+
+/*
+ * ARCv2 'Branch unconditionally' instruction:
+ * 00000ssssssssss1SSSSSSSSSSNRtttt
+ * s S[n:0] lower bits signed immediate (number is bitfield size)
+ * S S[m:n+1] upper bits signed immediate (number is bitfield size)
+ * t S[24:21] upper bits signed immediate (branch unconditionally far)
+ * N N <.d> delay slot mode
+ * R R Reserved
+ */
+static inline u32 arc_gen_branch(jump_label_t pc, jump_label_t target)
+{
+ u32 instruction_l, instruction_r;
+ u32 pcl = pc & GENMASK(31, 2);
+ u32 u_offset = target - pcl;
+ u32 s, S, t;
+
+ /*
+ * Offset in 32-bit branch instruction must to fit into s25.
+ * Something is terribly broken if we get such huge offset within one
+ * function.
+ */
+ if ((s32)u_offset < -16777216 || (s32)u_offset > 16777214)
+ arc_jl_fatal("gen branch with offset (%d) not fit in s25",
+ (s32)u_offset);
+
+ /*
+ * All instructions are aligned by 2 bytes so we should never get offset
+ * here which is not 2 bytes aligned.
+ */
+ if (u_offset & 0x1)
+ arc_jl_fatal("gen branch with offset (%d) unaligned to 2 bytes",
+ (s32)u_offset);
+
+ s = (u_offset >> 1) & GENMASK(9, 0);
+ S = (u_offset >> 11) & GENMASK(9, 0);
+ t = (u_offset >> 21) & GENMASK(3, 0);
+
+ /* 00000ssssssssss1 */
+ instruction_l = (s << 1) | 0x1;
+ /* SSSSSSSSSSNRtttt */
+ instruction_r = (S << 6) | t;
+
+ return (instruction_r << 16) | (instruction_l & GENMASK(15, 0));
+}
+
+void arch_jump_label_transform(struct jump_entry *entry,
+ enum jump_label_type type)
+{
+ jump_label_t *instr_addr = (jump_label_t *)entry->code;
+ u32 instr;
+
+ instruction_align_assert(instr_addr, JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE);
+
+ if (type == JUMP_LABEL_JMP)
+ instr = arc_gen_branch(entry->code, entry->target);
+ else
+ instr = arc_gen_nop();
+
+ WRITE_ONCE(*instr_addr, instr);
+ flush_icache_range(entry->code, entry->code + JUMP_LABEL_NOP_SIZE);
+}
+
+void arch_jump_label_transform_static(struct jump_entry *entry,
+ enum jump_label_type type)
+{
+ /*
+ * We use only one NOP type (1x, 4 byte) in arch_static_branch, so
+ * there's no need to patch an identical NOP over the top of it here.
+ * The generic code calls 'arch_jump_label_transform' if the NOP needs
+ * to be replaced by a branch, so 'arch_jump_label_transform_static' is
+ * never called with type other than JUMP_LABEL_NOP.
+ */
+ BUG_ON(type != JUMP_LABEL_NOP);
+}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_ARC_DBG_JUMP_LABEL
+#define SELFTEST_MSG "ARC: instruction generation self-test: "
+
+struct arc_gen_branch_testdata {
+ jump_label_t pc;
+ jump_label_t target_address;
+ u32 expected_instr;
+};
+
+static __init int branch_gen_test(const struct arc_gen_branch_testdata *test)
+{
+ u32 instr_got;
+
+ instr_got = arc_gen_branch(test->pc, test->target_address);
+ if (instr_got == test->expected_instr)
+ return 0;
+
+ pr_err(SELFTEST_MSG "FAIL:\n arc_gen_branch(0x%08x, 0x%08x) != 0x%08x, got 0x%08x\n",
+ test->pc, test->target_address,
+ test->expected_instr, instr_got);
+
+ return -EFAULT;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Offset field in branch instruction is not continuous. Test all
+ * available offset field and sign combinations. Test data is generated
+ * from real working code.
+ */
+static const struct arc_gen_branch_testdata arcgenbr_test_data[] __initconst = {
+ {0x90007548, 0x90007514, 0xffcf07cd}, /* tiny (-52) offs */
+ {0x9000c9c0, 0x9000c782, 0xffcf05c3}, /* tiny (-574) offs */
+ {0x9000cc1c, 0x9000c782, 0xffcf0367}, /* tiny (-1178) offs */
+ {0x9009dce0, 0x9009d106, 0xff8f0427}, /* small (-3034) offs */
+ {0x9000f5de, 0x90007d30, 0xfc0f0755}, /* big (-30892) offs */
+ {0x900a2444, 0x90035f64, 0xc9cf0321}, /* huge (-443616) offs */
+ {0x90007514, 0x9000752c, 0x00000019}, /* tiny (+24) offs */
+ {0x9001a578, 0x9001a77a, 0x00000203}, /* tiny (+514) offs */
+ {0x90031ed8, 0x90032634, 0x0000075d}, /* tiny (+1884) offs */
+ {0x9008c7f2, 0x9008d3f0, 0x00400401}, /* small (+3072) offs */
+ {0x9000bb38, 0x9003b340, 0x17c00009}, /* big (+194568) offs */
+ {0x90008f44, 0x90578d80, 0xb7c2063d} /* huge (+5701180) offs */
+};
+
+static __init int instr_gen_test(void)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(arcgenbr_test_data); i++)
+ if (branch_gen_test(&arcgenbr_test_data[i]))
+ return -EFAULT;
+
+ pr_info(SELFTEST_MSG "OK\n");
+
+ return 0;
+}
+early_initcall(instr_gen_test);
+
+#endif /* CONFIG_ARC_DBG_JUMP_LABEL */
--
2.21.0
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