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Subject[PATCH 1/7] sched: Fix pick_next_task() vs change pattern race
Commit 67692435c411 ("sched: Rework pick_next_task() slow-path")
inadvertly introduced a race because it changed a previously
unexplored dependency between dropping the rq->lock and
sched_class::put_prev_task().

The comments about dropping rq->lock, in for example
newidle_balance(), only mentions the task being current and ->on_cpu
being set. But when we look at the 'change' pattern (in for example
sched_setnuma()):

queued = task_on_rq_queued(p); /* p->on_rq == TASK_ON_RQ_QUEUED */
running = task_current(rq, p); /* rq->curr == p */

if (queued)
dequeue_task(...);
if (running)
put_prev_task(...);

/* change task properties */

if (queued)
enqueue_task(...);
if (running)
set_next_task(...);

It becomes obvious that if we do this after put_prev_task() has
already been called on @p, things go sideways. This is exactly what
the commit in question allows to happen when it does:

prev->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, prev, rf);
if (!rq->nr_running)
newidle_balance(rq, rf);

The newidle_balance() call will drop rq->lock after we've called
put_prev_task() and that allows the above 'change' pattern to
interleave and mess up the state.

Furthermore, it turns out we lost the RT-pull when we put the last DL
task.

Fix both problems by extracting the balancing from put_prev_task() and
doing a multi-class balance() pass before put_prev_task().

Fixes: 67692435c411 ("sched: Rework pick_next_task() slow-path")
Reported-by: Quentin Perret <qperret@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
---
kernel/sched/core.c | 21 +++++++++++++++------
kernel/sched/deadline.c | 40 ++++++++++++++++++++--------------------
kernel/sched/fair.c | 15 ++++++++++++---
kernel/sched/idle.c | 9 ++++++++-
kernel/sched/rt.c | 37 +++++++++++++++++++------------------
kernel/sched/sched.h | 30 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
kernel/sched/stop_task.c | 18 +++++++++++-------
7 files changed, 112 insertions(+), 58 deletions(-)

--- a/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -3929,13 +3929,22 @@ pick_next_task(struct rq *rq, struct tas
}

restart:
+#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
/*
- * Ensure that we put DL/RT tasks before the pick loop, such that they
- * can PULL higher prio tasks when we lower the RQ 'priority'.
+ * We must do the balancing pass before put_next_task(), such
+ * that when we release the rq->lock the task is in the same
+ * state as before we took rq->lock.
+ *
+ * We can terminate the balance pass as soon as we know there is
+ * a runnable task of @class priority or higher.
*/
- prev->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, prev, rf);
- if (!rq->nr_running)
- newidle_balance(rq, rf);
+ for_class_range(class, prev->sched_class, &idle_sched_class) {
+ if (class->balance(rq, prev, rf))
+ break;
+ }
+#endif
+
+ put_prev_task(rq, prev);

for_each_class(class) {
p = class->pick_next_task(rq, NULL, NULL);
@@ -6201,7 +6210,7 @@ static struct task_struct *__pick_migrat
for_each_class(class) {
next = class->pick_next_task(rq, NULL, NULL);
if (next) {
- next->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, next, NULL);
+ next->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, next);
return next;
}
}
--- a/kernel/sched/deadline.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/deadline.c
@@ -1691,6 +1691,22 @@ static void check_preempt_equal_dl(struc
resched_curr(rq);
}

+static int balance_dl(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, struct rq_flags *rf)
+{
+ if (!on_dl_rq(&p->dl) && need_pull_dl_task(rq, p)) {
+ /*
+ * This is OK, because current is on_cpu, which avoids it being
+ * picked for load-balance and preemption/IRQs are still
+ * disabled avoiding further scheduler activity on it and we've
+ * not yet started the picking loop.
+ */
+ rq_unpin_lock(rq, rf);
+ pull_dl_task(rq);
+ rq_repin_lock(rq, rf);
+ }
+
+ return sched_stop_runnable(rq) || sched_dl_runnable(rq);
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */

/*
@@ -1758,45 +1774,28 @@ static struct task_struct *
pick_next_task_dl(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
{
struct sched_dl_entity *dl_se;
+ struct dl_rq *dl_rq = &rq->dl;
struct task_struct *p;
- struct dl_rq *dl_rq;

WARN_ON_ONCE(prev || rf);

- dl_rq = &rq->dl;
-
- if (unlikely(!dl_rq->dl_nr_running))
+ if (!sched_dl_runnable(rq))
return NULL;

dl_se = pick_next_dl_entity(rq, dl_rq);
BUG_ON(!dl_se);
-
p = dl_task_of(dl_se);
-
set_next_task_dl(rq, p);
-
return p;
}

-static void put_prev_task_dl(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, struct rq_flags *rf)
+static void put_prev_task_dl(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p)
{
update_curr_dl(rq);

update_dl_rq_load_avg(rq_clock_pelt(rq), rq, 1);
if (on_dl_rq(&p->dl) && p->nr_cpus_allowed > 1)
enqueue_pushable_dl_task(rq, p);
-
- if (rf && !on_dl_rq(&p->dl) && need_pull_dl_task(rq, p)) {
- /*
- * This is OK, because current is on_cpu, which avoids it being
- * picked for load-balance and preemption/IRQs are still
- * disabled avoiding further scheduler activity on it and we've
- * not yet started the picking loop.
- */
- rq_unpin_lock(rq, rf);
- pull_dl_task(rq);
- rq_repin_lock(rq, rf);
- }
}

/*
@@ -2442,6 +2441,7 @@ const struct sched_class dl_sched_class
.set_next_task = set_next_task_dl,

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ .balance = balance_dl,
.select_task_rq = select_task_rq_dl,
.migrate_task_rq = migrate_task_rq_dl,
.set_cpus_allowed = set_cpus_allowed_dl,
--- a/kernel/sched/fair.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/fair.c
@@ -6423,6 +6423,15 @@ static void task_dead_fair(struct task_s
{
remove_entity_load_avg(&p->se);
}
+
+static int
+balance_fair(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+{
+ if (rq->nr_running)
+ return 1;
+
+ return newidle_balance(rq, rf) != 0;
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */

static unsigned long wakeup_gran(struct sched_entity *se)
@@ -6599,7 +6608,7 @@ pick_next_task_fair(struct rq *rq, struc
int new_tasks;

again:
- if (!cfs_rq->nr_running)
+ if (!sched_fair_runnable(rq))
goto idle;

#ifdef CONFIG_FAIR_GROUP_SCHED
@@ -6737,7 +6746,7 @@ done: __maybe_unused;
/*
* Account for a descheduled task:
*/
-static void put_prev_task_fair(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+static void put_prev_task_fair(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev)
{
struct sched_entity *se = &prev->se;
struct cfs_rq *cfs_rq;
@@ -10597,11 +10606,11 @@ const struct sched_class fair_sched_clas
.check_preempt_curr = check_preempt_wakeup,

.pick_next_task = pick_next_task_fair,
-
.put_prev_task = put_prev_task_fair,
.set_next_task = set_next_task_fair,

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ .balance = balance_fair,
.select_task_rq = select_task_rq_fair,
.migrate_task_rq = migrate_task_rq_fair,

--- a/kernel/sched/idle.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/idle.c
@@ -365,6 +365,12 @@ select_task_rq_idle(struct task_struct *
{
return task_cpu(p); /* IDLE tasks as never migrated */
}
+
+static int
+balance_idle(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+{
+ return WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
+}
#endif

/*
@@ -375,7 +381,7 @@ static void check_preempt_curr_idle(stru
resched_curr(rq);
}

-static void put_prev_task_idle(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+static void put_prev_task_idle(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev)
{
}

@@ -460,6 +466,7 @@ const struct sched_class idle_sched_clas
.set_next_task = set_next_task_idle,

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ .balance = balance_idle,
.select_task_rq = select_task_rq_idle,
.set_cpus_allowed = set_cpus_allowed_common,
#endif
--- a/kernel/sched/rt.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/rt.c
@@ -1469,6 +1469,22 @@ static void check_preempt_equal_prio(str
resched_curr(rq);
}

+static int balance_rt(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, struct rq_flags *rf)
+{
+ if (!on_rt_rq(&p->rt) && need_pull_rt_task(rq, p)) {
+ /*
+ * This is OK, because current is on_cpu, which avoids it being
+ * picked for load-balance and preemption/IRQs are still
+ * disabled avoiding further scheduler activity on it and we've
+ * not yet started the picking loop.
+ */
+ rq_unpin_lock(rq, rf);
+ pull_rt_task(rq);
+ rq_repin_lock(rq, rf);
+ }
+
+ return sched_stop_runnable(rq) || sched_dl_runnable(rq) || sched_rt_runnable(rq);
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */

/*
@@ -1552,21 +1568,18 @@ static struct task_struct *
pick_next_task_rt(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
{
struct task_struct *p;
- struct rt_rq *rt_rq = &rq->rt;

WARN_ON_ONCE(prev || rf);

- if (!rt_rq->rt_queued)
+ if (!sched_rt_runnable(rq))
return NULL;

p = _pick_next_task_rt(rq);
-
set_next_task_rt(rq, p);
-
return p;
}

-static void put_prev_task_rt(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, struct rq_flags *rf)
+static void put_prev_task_rt(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p)
{
update_curr_rt(rq);

@@ -1578,18 +1591,6 @@ static void put_prev_task_rt(struct rq *
*/
if (on_rt_rq(&p->rt) && p->nr_cpus_allowed > 1)
enqueue_pushable_task(rq, p);
-
- if (rf && !on_rt_rq(&p->rt) && need_pull_rt_task(rq, p)) {
- /*
- * This is OK, because current is on_cpu, which avoids it being
- * picked for load-balance and preemption/IRQs are still
- * disabled avoiding further scheduler activity on it and we've
- * not yet started the picking loop.
- */
- rq_unpin_lock(rq, rf);
- pull_rt_task(rq);
- rq_repin_lock(rq, rf);
- }
}

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
@@ -2366,8 +2367,8 @@ const struct sched_class rt_sched_class
.set_next_task = set_next_task_rt,

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ .balance = balance_rt,
.select_task_rq = select_task_rq_rt,
-
.set_cpus_allowed = set_cpus_allowed_common,
.rq_online = rq_online_rt,
.rq_offline = rq_offline_rt,
--- a/kernel/sched/sched.h
+++ b/kernel/sched/sched.h
@@ -1727,10 +1727,11 @@ struct sched_class {
struct task_struct * (*pick_next_task)(struct rq *rq,
struct task_struct *prev,
struct rq_flags *rf);
- void (*put_prev_task)(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p, struct rq_flags *rf);
+ void (*put_prev_task)(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p);
void (*set_next_task)(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *p);

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ int (*balance)(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf);
int (*select_task_rq)(struct task_struct *p, int task_cpu, int sd_flag, int flags);
void (*migrate_task_rq)(struct task_struct *p, int new_cpu);

@@ -1773,7 +1774,7 @@ struct sched_class {
static inline void put_prev_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev)
{
WARN_ON_ONCE(rq->curr != prev);
- prev->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, prev, NULL);
+ prev->sched_class->put_prev_task(rq, prev);
}

static inline void set_next_task(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *next)
@@ -1787,8 +1788,12 @@ static inline void set_next_task(struct
#else
#define sched_class_highest (&dl_sched_class)
#endif
+
+#define for_class_range(class, _from, _to) \
+ for (class = (_from); class != (_to); class = class->next)
+
#define for_each_class(class) \
- for (class = sched_class_highest; class; class = class->next)
+ for_class_range(class, sched_class_highest, NULL)

extern const struct sched_class stop_sched_class;
extern const struct sched_class dl_sched_class;
@@ -1796,6 +1801,25 @@ extern const struct sched_class rt_sched
extern const struct sched_class fair_sched_class;
extern const struct sched_class idle_sched_class;

+static inline bool sched_stop_runnable(struct rq *rq)
+{
+ return rq->stop && task_on_rq_queued(rq->stop);
+}
+
+static inline bool sched_dl_runnable(struct rq *rq)
+{
+ return rq->dl.dl_nr_running > 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool sched_rt_runnable(struct rq *rq)
+{
+ return rq->rt.rt_queued > 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool sched_fair_runnable(struct rq *rq)
+{
+ return rq->cfs.nr_running > 0;
+}

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP

--- a/kernel/sched/stop_task.c
+++ b/kernel/sched/stop_task.c
@@ -15,6 +15,12 @@ select_task_rq_stop(struct task_struct *
{
return task_cpu(p); /* stop tasks as never migrate */
}
+
+static int
+balance_stop(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+{
+ return sched_stop_runnable(rq);
+}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */

static void
@@ -31,16 +37,13 @@ static void set_next_task_stop(struct rq
static struct task_struct *
pick_next_task_stop(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
{
- struct task_struct *stop = rq->stop;
-
WARN_ON_ONCE(prev || rf);

- if (!stop || !task_on_rq_queued(stop))
+ if (!sched_stop_runnable(rq))
return NULL;

- set_next_task_stop(rq, stop);
-
- return stop;
+ set_next_task_stop(rq, rq->stop);
+ return rq->stop;
}

static void
@@ -60,7 +63,7 @@ static void yield_task_stop(struct rq *r
BUG(); /* the stop task should never yield, its pointless. */
}

-static void put_prev_task_stop(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev, struct rq_flags *rf)
+static void put_prev_task_stop(struct rq *rq, struct task_struct *prev)
{
struct task_struct *curr = rq->curr;
u64 delta_exec;
@@ -129,6 +132,7 @@ const struct sched_class stop_sched_clas
.set_next_task = set_next_task_stop,

#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
+ .balance = balance_stop,
.select_task_rq = select_task_rq_stop,
.set_cpus_allowed = set_cpus_allowed_common,
#endif

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