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SubjectRe: [PATCH 1/2] KVM: MMU: Do not treat ZONE_DEVICE pages as being reserved
On Fri, Nov 8, 2019 at 5:43 PM Sean Christopherson
<sean.j.christopherson@intel.com> wrote:
>
> On Thu, Nov 07, 2019 at 07:58:46AM -0800, Sean Christopherson wrote:
> > On Thu, Nov 07, 2019 at 07:36:45AM -0800, Dan Williams wrote:
> > > On Thu, Nov 7, 2019 at 3:12 AM Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com> wrote:
> > > >
> > > > On 07/11/19 06:48, Dan Williams wrote:
> > > > >> How do mmu notifiers get held off by page references and does that
> > > > >> machinery work with ZONE_DEVICE? Why is this not a concern for the
> > > > >> VM_IO and VM_PFNMAP case?
> > > > > Put another way, I see no protection against truncate/invalidate
> > > > > afforded by a page pin. If you need guarantees that the page remains
> > > > > valid in the VMA until KVM can install a mmu notifier that needs to
> > > > > happen under the mmap_sem as far as I can see. Otherwise gup just
> > > > > weakly asserts "this pinned page was valid in this vma at one point in
> > > > > time".
> > > >
> > > > The MMU notifier is installed before gup, so any invalidation will be
> > > > preceded by a call to the MMU notifier. In turn,
> > > > invalidate_range_start/end is called with mmap_sem held so there should
> > > > be no race.
> > > >
> > > > However, as Sean mentioned, early put_page of ZONE_DEVICE pages would be
> > > > racy, because we need to keep the reference between the gup and the last
> > > > time we use the corresponding struct page.
> > >
> > > If KVM is establishing the mmu_notifier before gup then there is
> > > nothing left to do with that ZONE_DEVICE page, so I'm struggling to
> > > see what further qualification of kvm_is_reserved_pfn() buys the
> > > implementation.
> >
> > Insertion into KVM's secondary MMU is mutually exclusive with an invalidate
> > from the mmu_notifier. KVM holds a reference to the to-be-inserted page
> > until the page has been inserted, which ensures that the page is pinned and
> > thus won't be invalidated until after the page is inserted. This prevents
> > an invalidate from racing with insertion. Dropping the reference
> > immediately after gup() would allow the invalidate to run prior to the page
> > being inserted, and so KVM would map the stale PFN into the guest's page
> > tables after it was invalidated in the host.
>
> My previous analysis is wrong, although I did sort of come to the right
> conclusion.
>
> The part that's wrong is that KVM does not rely on pinning a page/pfn when
> installing the pfn into its secondary MMU (guest page tables). Instead,
> KVM keeps track of mmu_notifier invalidate requests and cancels insertion
> if an invalidate occured at any point between the start of hva_to_pfn(),
> i.e. the get_user_pages() call, and acquiring KVM's mmu lock (which must
> also be grabbed by mmu_notifier invalidate). So for any pfn, regardless
> of whether it's backed by a struct page, KVM inserts a pfn if and only if
> it is guaranteed to get an mmu_notifier invalidate for the pfn (and isn't
> already invalidated).
>
> In the page fault flow, KVM doesn't care whether or not the pfn remains
> valid in the associated vma. In other words, Dan's idea of immediately
> doing put_page() on ZONE_DEVICE pages would work for *page faults*...
>
> ...but not for all the other flows where KVM uses gfn_to_pfn(), and thus
> get_user_pages(). When accessing entire pages of guest memory, e.g. for
> nested virtualization, KVM gets the page associated with a gfn, maps it
> with kmap() to get a kernel address and keeps the mapping/page until it's
> done reading/writing the page. Immediately putting ZONE_DEVICE pages
> would result in use-after-free scenarios for these flows.

Thanks for this clarification. I do want to put out though that
ZONE_DEVICE pages go idle, they don't get freed. As long as KVM drops
its usage on invalidate it's perfectly fine for KVM to operate on idle
ZONE_DEVICE pages. The common case is that ZONE_DEVICE pages are
accessed and mapped while idle. Only direct-I/O temporarily marks them
busy to synchronize with invalidate. KVM obviates that need by
coordinating with mmu-notifiers instead.

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