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Subject[PATCH] zswap: use B-tree for search
Date
From: Vitaly Wool <vitaly.wool@konsulko.com>

The current zswap implementation uses red-black trees to store
entries and to perform lookups. Although this algorithm obviously
has complexity of O(log N) it still takes a while to complete
lookup (or, even more for replacement) of an entry, when the amount
of entries is huge (100K+).

B-trees are known to handle such cases more efficiently (i. e. also
with O(log N) complexity but with way lower coefficient) so trying
zswap with B-trees was worth a shot.

The implementation of B-trees that is currently present in Linux
kernel isn't really doing things in the best possible way (i. e. it
has recursion) but the testing I've run still shows a very
significant performance increase.

The usage pattern of B-tree here is not exactly following the
guidelines but it is due to the fact that pgoff_t may be both 32
and 64 bits long.

Tested on qemu-kvm (-smp 2 -m 1024) with zswap in the following
configuration:
* zpool: z3fold
* max_pool_percent: 100
and the swap size of 1G.

Test command:
$ stress-ng --io 4 --vm 4 --vm-bytes 1000M --timeout 300s --metrics

This, averaged over 20 runs on qemu-kvm (-smp 2 -m 1024) gives the
following io bogo ops:
* original: 73778.8
* btree: 393999

Signed-off-by: Vitaly Wool <vitaly.wool@konsulko.com>
---
mm/Kconfig | 1 +
mm/zswap.c | 147 +++++++++++++++++++++++------------------------------
2 files changed, 65 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)

diff --git a/mm/Kconfig b/mm/Kconfig
index a5dae9a7eb51..b278026de513 100644
--- a/mm/Kconfig
+++ b/mm/Kconfig
@@ -527,6 +527,7 @@ config ZSWAP
depends on FRONTSWAP && CRYPTO=y
select CRYPTO_LZO
select ZPOOL
+ select BTREE
help
A lightweight compressed cache for swap pages. It takes
pages that are in the process of being swapped out and attempts to
diff --git a/mm/zswap.c b/mm/zswap.c
index 46a322316e52..5f46c4f7a6bf 100644
--- a/mm/zswap.c
+++ b/mm/zswap.c
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@
#include <linux/types.h>
#include <linux/atomic.h>
#include <linux/frontswap.h>
-#include <linux/rbtree.h>
+#include <linux/btree.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/crypto.h>
#include <linux/mempool.h>
@@ -134,7 +134,6 @@ struct zswap_pool {
* This structure contains the metadata for tracking a single compressed
* page within zswap.
*
- * rbnode - links the entry into red-black tree for the appropriate swap type
* offset - the swap offset for the entry. Index into the red-black tree.
* refcount - the number of outstanding reference to the entry. This is needed
* to protect against premature freeing of the entry by code
@@ -149,7 +148,6 @@ struct zswap_pool {
* value - value of the same-value filled pages which have same content
*/
struct zswap_entry {
- struct rb_node rbnode;
pgoff_t offset;
int refcount;
unsigned int length;
@@ -166,11 +164,11 @@ struct zswap_header {

/*
* The tree lock in the zswap_tree struct protects a few things:
- * - the rbtree
+ * - the tree
* - the refcount field of each entry in the tree
*/
struct zswap_tree {
- struct rb_root rbroot;
+ struct btree_head head;
spinlock_t lock;
};

@@ -252,7 +250,6 @@ static struct zswap_entry *zswap_entry_cache_alloc(gfp_t gfp)
if (!entry)
return NULL;
entry->refcount = 1;
- RB_CLEAR_NODE(&entry->rbnode);
return entry;
}

@@ -262,58 +259,18 @@ static void zswap_entry_cache_free(struct zswap_entry *entry)
}

/*********************************
-* rbtree functions
+* btree functions
**********************************/
-static struct zswap_entry *zswap_rb_search(struct rb_root *root, pgoff_t offset)
-{
- struct rb_node *node = root->rb_node;
- struct zswap_entry *entry;
+static struct btree_geo *btree_pgofft_geo;

- while (node) {
- entry = rb_entry(node, struct zswap_entry, rbnode);
- if (entry->offset > offset)
- node = node->rb_left;
- else if (entry->offset < offset)
- node = node->rb_right;
- else
- return entry;
- }
- return NULL;
-}
-
-/*
- * In the case that a entry with the same offset is found, a pointer to
- * the existing entry is stored in dupentry and the function returns -EEXIST
- */
-static int zswap_rb_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct zswap_entry *entry,
- struct zswap_entry **dupentry)
+static struct zswap_entry *zswap_search(struct btree_head *head, pgoff_t offset)
{
- struct rb_node **link = &root->rb_node, *parent = NULL;
- struct zswap_entry *myentry;
-
- while (*link) {
- parent = *link;
- myentry = rb_entry(parent, struct zswap_entry, rbnode);
- if (myentry->offset > entry->offset)
- link = &(*link)->rb_left;
- else if (myentry->offset < entry->offset)
- link = &(*link)->rb_right;
- else {
- *dupentry = myentry;
- return -EEXIST;
- }
- }
- rb_link_node(&entry->rbnode, parent, link);
- rb_insert_color(&entry->rbnode, root);
- return 0;
+ return btree_lookup(head, btree_pgofft_geo, &offset);
}

-static void zswap_rb_erase(struct rb_root *root, struct zswap_entry *entry)
+static void zswap_erase(struct btree_head *head, struct zswap_entry *entry)
{
- if (!RB_EMPTY_NODE(&entry->rbnode)) {
- rb_erase(&entry->rbnode, root);
- RB_CLEAR_NODE(&entry->rbnode);
- }
+ btree_remove(head, btree_pgofft_geo, &entry->offset);
}

/*
@@ -342,25 +299,40 @@ static void zswap_entry_get(struct zswap_entry *entry)
/* caller must hold the tree lock
* remove from the tree and free it, if nobody reference the entry
*/
-static void zswap_entry_put(struct zswap_tree *tree,
+static void zswap_entry_put(struct btree_head *head,
struct zswap_entry *entry)
{
int refcount = --entry->refcount;

BUG_ON(refcount < 0);
if (refcount == 0) {
- zswap_rb_erase(&tree->rbroot, entry);
+ zswap_erase(head, entry);
zswap_free_entry(entry);
}
}

+static int zswap_insert_or_replace(struct btree_head *head,
+ struct zswap_entry *entry)
+{
+ struct zswap_entry *old;
+
+ do {
+ old = btree_remove(head, btree_pgofft_geo, &entry->offset);
+ if (old) {
+ zswap_duplicate_entry++;
+ zswap_entry_put(head, old);
+ }
+ } while (old);
+ return btree_insert(head, btree_pgofft_geo, &entry->offset, entry,
+ GFP_ATOMIC);
+}
/* caller must hold the tree lock */
-static struct zswap_entry *zswap_entry_find_get(struct rb_root *root,
+static struct zswap_entry *zswap_entry_find_get(struct btree_head *head,
pgoff_t offset)
{
struct zswap_entry *entry;

- entry = zswap_rb_search(root, offset);
+ entry = zswap_search(head, offset);
if (entry)
zswap_entry_get(entry);

@@ -861,7 +833,7 @@ static int zswap_writeback_entry(struct zpool *pool, unsigned long handle)

/* find and ref zswap entry */
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- entry = zswap_entry_find_get(&tree->rbroot, offset);
+ entry = zswap_entry_find_get(&tree->head, offset);
if (!entry) {
/* entry was invalidated */
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
@@ -910,7 +882,7 @@ static int zswap_writeback_entry(struct zpool *pool, unsigned long handle)

spin_lock(&tree->lock);
/* drop local reference */
- zswap_entry_put(tree, entry);
+ zswap_entry_put(&tree->head, entry);

/*
* There are two possible situations for entry here:
@@ -919,8 +891,8 @@ static int zswap_writeback_entry(struct zpool *pool, unsigned long handle)
* because invalidate happened during writeback
* search the tree and free the entry if find entry
*/
- if (entry == zswap_rb_search(&tree->rbroot, offset))
- zswap_entry_put(tree, entry);
+ if (entry == zswap_search(&tree->head, offset))
+ zswap_entry_put(&tree->head, entry);
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);

goto end;
@@ -934,7 +906,7 @@ static int zswap_writeback_entry(struct zpool *pool, unsigned long handle)
*/
fail:
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- zswap_entry_put(tree, entry);
+ zswap_entry_put(&tree->head, entry);
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);

end:
@@ -988,7 +960,7 @@ static int zswap_frontswap_store(unsigned type, pgoff_t offset,
struct page *page)
{
struct zswap_tree *tree = zswap_trees[type];
- struct zswap_entry *entry, *dupentry;
+ struct zswap_entry *entry;
struct crypto_comp *tfm;
int ret;
unsigned int hlen, dlen = PAGE_SIZE;
@@ -1096,16 +1068,12 @@ static int zswap_frontswap_store(unsigned type, pgoff_t offset,
insert_entry:
/* map */
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- do {
- ret = zswap_rb_insert(&tree->rbroot, entry, &dupentry);
- if (ret == -EEXIST) {
- zswap_duplicate_entry++;
- /* remove from rbtree */
- zswap_rb_erase(&tree->rbroot, dupentry);
- zswap_entry_put(tree, dupentry);
- }
- } while (ret == -EEXIST);
+ ret = zswap_insert_or_replace(&tree->head, entry);
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
+ if (ret < 0) {
+ zswap_reject_alloc_fail++;
+ goto freepage;
+ }

/* update stats */
atomic_inc(&zswap_stored_pages);
@@ -1138,7 +1106,7 @@ static int zswap_frontswap_load(unsigned type, pgoff_t offset,

/* find */
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- entry = zswap_entry_find_get(&tree->rbroot, offset);
+ entry = zswap_entry_find_get(&tree->head, offset);
if (!entry) {
/* entry was written back */
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
@@ -1168,7 +1136,7 @@ static int zswap_frontswap_load(unsigned type, pgoff_t offset,

freeentry:
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- zswap_entry_put(tree, entry);
+ zswap_entry_put(&tree->head, entry);
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);

return 0;
@@ -1182,36 +1150,41 @@ static void zswap_frontswap_invalidate_page(unsigned type, pgoff_t offset)

/* find */
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- entry = zswap_rb_search(&tree->rbroot, offset);
+ entry = zswap_search(&tree->head, offset);
if (!entry) {
/* entry was written back */
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
return;
}

- /* remove from rbtree */
- zswap_rb_erase(&tree->rbroot, entry);
+ /* remove from tree */
+ zswap_erase(&tree->head, entry);

/* drop the initial reference from entry creation */
- zswap_entry_put(tree, entry);
+ zswap_entry_put(&tree->head, entry);

spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
}

+void do_free_entry(void *elem, unsigned long opaque, unsigned long *key,
+ size_t index, void *func2)
+{
+ struct zswap_entry *entry = elem;
+ zswap_free_entry(entry);
+}
+
/* frees all zswap entries for the given swap type */
static void zswap_frontswap_invalidate_area(unsigned type)
{
struct zswap_tree *tree = zswap_trees[type];
- struct zswap_entry *entry, *n;

if (!tree)
return;

/* walk the tree and free everything */
spin_lock(&tree->lock);
- rbtree_postorder_for_each_entry_safe(entry, n, &tree->rbroot, rbnode)
- zswap_free_entry(entry);
- tree->rbroot = RB_ROOT;
+ btree_visitor(&tree->head, btree_pgofft_geo, 0, do_free_entry, NULL);
+ btree_destroy(&tree->head);
spin_unlock(&tree->lock);
kfree(tree);
zswap_trees[type] = NULL;
@@ -1226,8 +1199,11 @@ static void zswap_frontswap_init(unsigned type)
pr_err("alloc failed, zswap disabled for swap type %d\n", type);
return;
}
-
- tree->rbroot = RB_ROOT;
+ if (btree_init(&tree->head) < 0) {
+ pr_err("couldn't init the tree head\n");
+ kfree(tree);
+ return;
+ }
spin_lock_init(&tree->lock);
zswap_trees[type] = tree;
}
@@ -1302,6 +1278,11 @@ static int __init init_zswap(void)

zswap_init_started = true;

+ if (sizeof(pgoff_t) == 8)
+ btree_pgofft_geo = &btree_geo64;
+ else
+ btree_pgofft_geo = &btree_geo32;
+
if (zswap_entry_cache_create()) {
pr_err("entry cache creation failed\n");
goto cache_fail;
--
2.17.1
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